LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE SEMINAR 2015

LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE SEMINAR 2015

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

1

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

2

First Edition 2015 Copyright School of Language and Linguistics Mohammed Azlan Mis Mohammad Fadzeli Jaafar

All Rights Reserved. No part of this article, illustration, or content may be reproduced in any form or by any means, electronic, photocopying, mechanical, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of UKM Publishers.

National Library of Malaysia

Cataloging Data in Publication

LANGUAGE AND SATERA SEMINAR PROCEEDINGS / EDITOR MOHAMMED AZLAN MIS AND MOHAMMAD FADZELI JAAFAR

Publisher School of Language and Linguistics Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Bangi.

UKM Linguistic Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

UKM Linguistic Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

3

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

Sharifah Raihan Syed Jaafar Analysis of Student Satisfaction Level on the Use of Ukm-Ephonetic.Com Phonetic Application System (page 9)

Asisda Wahyu AP, M.Hum Phonetic Structure of Musi Language, Phonological Studies (page 22)

Reni Nur Eriyani Indonesian Language and Verb Category in Entertainment Television on Indonesian Television (Content Analysis Study) (page 43)

Sintowati Rini Utami Placement of Morphological Material in Indonesian Language Textbooks to Develop Communicative Competence (page 56)

Harishon Radzi & Nurul Jawahir Binti Md Ali Acceptance of Malay in Swamp Dialect: Word Borrowing Research (page 73)

Achmad Hp Feasibility of Using Vocabulary Teaching Materials in Several Textbook of Indonesian in Junior High Schools (page 90)

Fazal Mohamed Mohamed Sultan His Enclitic Function in Malay (page 106)

Sam Mukhtar Chaniago Embedding Process of ‘Yang’ in Indonesian (page 117)

Linguistics Program for Language and Literature Unit, UNJ

4

2015 Language and Literature Seminar

Dendy Sugono Transitivity in Indonesian (page 131)

N. Lia Marliana Game Strategy Based on Constructivism in Semantic Aspects of Vocabulary and Spelling Aspects of Vocabulary (page 148)

Miftahul Khairah A. & Fathiaty Murtadho Representation of Gender Ideology in Compass Short Stories 2011: Critical Discourse Analysis (page 176)

Mohammad Fadzeli Jaafar Continuity of Speech Style in Text Malay Literature (page 193)

Erfi Firmansyah, Preservation of Betawi Culture as a Vehicle for Preservation of Cisalak Cimanggis Betawi Language (page 204)

Novi Anoegrajekti Local Language and Cultural Social Movements in Banyuwangen Songs (page 221)

Endry Boeriswati Platinum Learning Model in Optimizing Brain Performance (page 237)

Dra. Suhertuti, Student Teaching Skills in Micro Teaching Lectures (page 249)

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

5

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

Siti Ansoriyah, The Role of Language and Literature Education as a Humanity Instrument (page 261)

Idris Aman, Mohammad Fadzeli Jaafar & Norsimah Mat Awal The Idea of ​​Negeri Sembilan Linguistic and Dialect Imperialism: What, Why and How (page 276)

Nor Hashimah Jalaluddin proverb ‘Parasites’ and Reason Malay: Analysis of Semantic inquisitive (page 281)

Norsimah Mat Akhir, Andre Wehrli & Idris Safe Use of terms For God In Malaysia and Indonesia: A Review of Sociolinguistics (page 294)

Nur Syafikah Mohammad Situl & Mohammed Azlan Mis Language Selection In Employment In Government Offices (page 303)

Linguistics Program of Language and Literature Unit UNJ

6

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

Linguistics Program for Language and Literature UKM UNJ

7

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

8

Edi Puryanto Female Personality in Human Earth Romance by Pramoedya Ananta Toer: A Literary Psychological Approach (page 315 )

Helvy Tiana Rosa Sastra and Efforts to Hack The Beauty That Is Not Distanced (page 335)

Siti Gomo Attas, M.Hum The Process of Creating Text Gambang Rancag Betawi: Through the Ethnopuitic Malay Approach (page 341)

Gres Grasia Azmin Comparing Minangkabau and Malay Culture ( page 358)

Liliana Muliastuti Educates herself by reading: how to introduce the power of authentic literacy to students (page 369)

Sri Suhita cultural infiltration through language and literature (page 380)

Venus Khasanah Ahmad Tohari’s thoughts about women in a collection of short stories Rusmi wants to go home: an analysis with an approach Expressive (page 392)

Linguistic Program of Language and Literature Unit of UNJ

2015 Language and Literature Seminar 2015

ANALYSIS OF STUDENT SATISFACTION STAGE USE OF PHONETIC APPLICATION SYSTEM ukm-ephonetic.com

Sharifah Raihan Syed Jaafar

Introduction

The popularity and importance of the World Wide Web or simply known as the Web has been growing rapidly since its initial appearance about 25 years ago (Summers et al., 2005). This web is defined as a hypertext document information system that can be accessed via the Internet. Innovation in information technology has contributed to the development of technology-assisted learning. Technology-assisted learning has become a popular mode of modern educational tools nowadays. Technology-assisted learning can only be defined as any learning tool that uses a computer or advanced communication system used as teaching material for a course.

The convenience and flexibility offered by this education system has become a mode of learning choice, especially in today’s fast-paced world. Over the past decade, more and more institutions around the world have used technological aids to integrate into teaching systems (Sheppard et al., 1998). Around the eighties, technology has been utilized in language education by using tools such as films, radio, television, video tapes, interactive videos and at least the use of computers UKM Linguistic Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

9

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

10

(Cunningham, 1998). Today, with the development of modern technology, in addition to the widespread use of websites, blogs, newsgroups and discussion forums (Sheppard et al., 1998), other specialized auxiliary technology tools have been created to enhance teaching effectiveness. Among the teaching aids technology that has been used are the use of telephones in language learning (MALL), computer-assisted training system (Computer-aided Pronunciation Training System – CAPT) and so on (Liu, 2002; Lo, 2010).

The impact of the development of modern technology today has helped us to take steps to create a technology-assisted tool that can help and facilitate students to learn phonetics courses at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. In accordance with the nature of the course, a system called phonetic application system or its special name ukm-ephonetic.com has the function to produce sound for each phonetic symbol. This phonetic application system has been successfully designed to help students correctly articulate all phonemes in the International Phonetic Alphebet (IPA) chart. This system has also started to be used and tested on students of this course at the beginning of the semester of the 2014-2105 study session.

Research objective

This study aims to help students learn and understand the ways of producing and pronouncing language sounds.

Learning the sounds of language will

becomes easier if there are better and modern teaching aids than the traditional teaching and learning system currently conducted in the phonetic course offered at the Linguistics Program, School of Languages ​​and Linguistics, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Thus, a phonetic application system was built for the purpose of learning and teaching the course as a teaching aid. This built-in phonetic application system is able to help students recognize and understand international phonetic symbols more easily and effectively. This can also improve grade achievement among students. Finally, the application of the phonetic system that will be used for the phonetics course is expected to be a useful result of the UKM Linguistic Program of the Department of Language and Literature UNJ

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

to various parties such as students, instructors, the course itself and to the Linguistic Program.

Background research

This study focuses on the teaching and learning system of phonetic courses. This course is a compulsory course for first year students who have registered to pursue a Bachelor’s Degree in Linguistics Program, School of Languages ​​and Linguistics, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. This course is also offered to all students in other faculties in the university as a course of choice regardless of their field background. Therefore, this program has accepted students from other faculties such as Science and Technology (FST), Law (FUU), Education (FPend), Business Management (FPP) and others who have registered to follow this course. Some of them have basic phonetic backgrounds acquired while in high school, but many of them have no foundation. Therefore, the lecturers of this course face the challenge of teaching students who do not have any phonetic basis.

During this phonetic course introduced in the Linguistic Program, it was taught with a more ‘traditional’ method of delivery that is teaching and learning that does not involve any modern teaching aids, takes place in the lecture hall where lecturers are in front to present and provide input while students act as listeners. The teaching and learning system implemented is not assisted by any facilities or teaching aids relevant to this course, such as the use of phonetic laboratories where all complete equipment is provided to facilitate the teaching and learning process or assistance from a phonetic application allows students to easily access the app anytime and anywhere they are. Without the use of these relevant materials / tools used, the teaching and learning process often occurs smoothly. Among them is, the lecturer needs to make a demonstration of how a phonetic symbol is pronounced and explain to students how the phonetic symbol is produced by the speech organs of the UKM Linguistic Program, UNJ Language and Literature Department

11

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

man. Explaining the process of pronouncing a phonetic symbol to students is not something that is impossible to implement in the classroom with oral delivery. However, the weakness of delivery and explanation given to students without any teaching tools or facilities has made it difficult for students to understand the explanation more effectively. Students find it difficult to imagine how the pronunciation process of a phoneme occurs and how the human speech organs are involved in the production of a sound. The difficulty of students imagining the process of sound production produced by human speech organs causes their comprehension rate to also decrease and at the same time affect student motivation.

Taking into account the challenges faced by lecturers and the problems faced by students of this course, then an initiative has been thought to address all the problems and challenges that is by creating a phonetic application system built specifically to facilitate the implementation of this course. With the existence of this phonetic application system, it is hoped that the quality of teaching and learning can be improved and increase the motivation of students as well as their achievement.

Data Collection Research Methodology

All types of phonemes and their symbols are arranged according to their respective articulation districts and phoneme categories owned as found in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) Chart. There are nine types of consonants (such as plosive, nasal, africate, fricative and vibrating etc.) as well as eleven articulatory regions (such as bilabial, labiogigi, teeth, alveolar and post-alveolar). The IPA chart created for this study has been slightly modified from the IPA where the Arabic phoneme has been included in the new IPA chart. Arabic phonemes

have been matched to the Roman alphabet. Other than consonants,

data collection and grouping of Roman and Arabic vowels was also performed. The vowels are grouped based on the position and condition of the tongue during the production of the vowel, whether front, back or middle, and flat or round. UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

12

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

Apart from collecting data to build new IPA charts for consonants and vowels, data collection for other purposes is also done. Since the construction of this phonetic application system takes into account the output obtained by the students as a result of learning this course, then the data for the training slots are collected. There are several forms of training that have been put into the system where students can test their understanding by trying to make the exercises available. The data collected for the purpose of this training varies depending on the type / form of the training. There is data in the form of phonemes (consonants or vowels), pictures, words and so on.

Recording Method

After the data collection and grouping work is done, the recording process is carried out. The data obtained should be recorded in audio form so that it can be easily uploaded into the built application system. To obtain quality recording results, the recording process is carried out in a studio laboratory at the School of Languages ​​and Linguistics. Quality recordings need to be produced so that the audio results are clear and of good quality.

Observations in the Lecture Room

Observations while in the lecture room focus specifically on how students respond to the questions given. In each learning session, students are always asked to respond to each learned. Questions such as consonant type, symbols for each phoneme, place / district of articulation where the phoneme is produced, phonetic transcription and more have been asked to students in two forms, namely either orally and in writing. This strategy can help lecturers to identify students’ understanding of IPA charts and be able to remember all phoneme symbols.

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

13

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

Student Questionnaire and Feedback

Students were asked to provide feedback on course learning implemented with the help of phonetic application system. For this purpose, two forms of feedback questions have been prepared for students to answer: (1) live feedback (live feedback) and (2) questionnaire (questionnaire). Some questions were asked directly to the students in the lecture about the output from the learning they gained. Students give answers spontaneously and all the answers have been recorded by the lecturer as material for later analysis. Besides, Questionnaires are also provided taking into account the probability that there are students who are more comfortable and satisfied if the answers from the questions posed by the lecturers on the use and learning with the help of phonetic application system are given in written form rather than spontaneous / oral. All students need to complete an online questionnaire that has been developed using the Google Forms application and resubmit it online. All questionnaires are anonymous. Students’ answers given through the questionnaire were then analyzed online using the facilities provided by the statistical functions available in Google Forms. All students need to complete an online questionnaire that has been developed using the Google Forms application and resubmit it online. All questionnaires are anonymous. Students’ answers given through the questionnaire were then analyzed online using the facilities provided by the statistical functions available in Google Forms. All students need to complete an online questionnaire that has been developed using the Google Forms application and resubmit it online. All questionnaires are anonymous. Students’ answers given through the questionnaire were then analyzed online using the facilities provided by the statistical functions available in Google Forms.

Construction of ukm-ephonetic.com System

This system was developed within six (6) months starting from October 2014 to April 2014. The system development methodology used is to use Rapid Application Development (RAD). This methodology was chosen and used because of the different system requirements than the normal system. Using this methodology, system prototypes are developed and presented to users throughout the development of the system. User engagement and commitment are essential to the success of this system (Galitz 1997). All consumer needs are taken into account and any changes are implemented immediately (Martin and Eastman 1996). This methodology was also chosen because it can reduce aspects of verification and validation as is commonly applied to large and complex systems (Shneiderman 1998).

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

14

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

During the development of this system, aspects such as Computer Human Interaction

(HCI), Responsive Design and Mobile Web are taken into account as the

main users of this system are lecturers and university students using various types of mobile devices such as computers, laptops, tablets and smartphones. The system developed needs to take into account each of these aspects as well as ensure that the system can function by using various types of devices.

The audio lab facilities at the School of Languages ​​and Linguistics, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia have been fully utilized to include audio elements, which are very important functions. The use of this laboratory is necessary because the laboratory is equipped with audio recording facilities that are protected from noise. The voices of two male and female lecturers were used to include phonetic elements. Female lecturers model the sounds of ordinary phonetic symbols while male lecturers model the sounds of Arabic phonetic symbols. The sound for each of these phonetic symbols is isolated and and incorporated into the system.

System features

a) Programming Language

One of the needs of users is that this system can be accessed anytime and anywhere. Accordingly, this system must be developed with web technology. By using web technology, users who have a connection to the internet can browse and use this system for learning and review purposes (Cox and Marshall, 2007).

PHP programming language is used because systems that use the PHP language can be developed on almost all operating systems such as Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Risc OS and many more. PHP also supports various web server technologies such as Apache and IIS. By using PHP, system developers have the flexibility in their development process whether to use procedural programming or object-oriented programming (OOP). One of the advantages of PHP is the output of the UKM Linguistics Program, Department of Language and Literature UNJ

15

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

16

which is not limited to HTML alone but also covers, images, sounds, videos and flash technology. During the development of this system, PHP programming was developed using Notepad ++ editor because it is free and supports PHP programming language

b) Database The

database used for this system is My SQL. My SQL is a Database Management System (SPPD) database.

By using SPPD,

application developers can define, create, update, manage and maintain databases. SPPD also controls access to data in the database. However, My SQL does not have a user interface such as MS Access, Oracle and so on but some free software has been developed to facilitate the use of My SQL such as PHP MyAdmin, SQLBuddy and SQLyog. During the development of this system, the user interface of the database used was PHP My Admin. Among the My SQL selection factors is that My SQL is very flexible and supports the increase of data from time to time. My SQL can also be used on various operating systems such as Windows, Linux and Mac OS X.

c) Web Server

The web server used in the development of this system is Apache HTTP Server. Apache is the most widely used web server in web applications. Apache supports the use of various operating systems and supports multiple web programming languages ​​as well as supports MY SQL databases.

d) Responsive

Design Responsive design is a key feature when developing this system. This system must be browsable using various browsers as well as different device sizes. As you know, most students use various types of smartphones or the UKM Linguistic Program of the Department of Language and Literature UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

tablets that can be taken anywhere. This device has the convenience of surfing the web if connected to the internet. Since these devices come in different sizes, the design of these systems must be automatically adjustable according to the size of the device. The technology used to develop systems that have such responsive design features is Bootstrap. Bootstrap combines Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), Cascading Style Sheet (CSS) and Java Script (JS) technologies. With the use of Bootstrap technology, the time to design the user interface of this system has been saved.

e) System Functionality

Users are required to register if they want to use this system. The system administrator will review the application for each registration to give users access to use the system. As this system is specially developed for students and lecturers, the task of the system administrator is required to verify that only authorized users are allowed to access this system.

Once the user is confirmed, the user can enter the username and password that have been registered. The first page that will be accessed by the user is the page that has the IPA chart table. Apart from the standard symbols found in the IPA chart, this table has also been improved with the inclusion of Arabic alphabets. The advantage of this IPA chart is that the user can click on each symbol in the table and each symbol will emit a sound. This sound is a sound previously recorded using an audio lab.

Apart from the functions found in the IPA chart, users can also make this system as a teaching aid. Notes on consonants, vowels, diphthongs and phonemic charts have been supplemented with notes provided by the lecturer. In the notes that have been provided there are also interactive notes that can be explored by users for use during learning in the classroom or at any time. UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

17

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

18

Student Satisfaction

Student feedback on the satisfaction of use and learning with the help of phonetic application systems that have been built and practiced in lectures have been analyzed. Students are asked to provide their opinions and comments on the use of phonetic systems as technological aids used in teaching and learning during the semester. Direct feedback and questionnaires received from students were analyzed to determine the extent of student satisfaction. The following is an analysis of the level of student satisfaction as a result of the questionnaires received.

The answers that have been formed in the questionnaire are scalable, that is, there are five levels of agreement where level 5 represents the highest level of agreement and level 1 represents the lowest level of agreement. This can be seen in the example view of the questionnaire formed through Google Forms as below. Students can only choose one level of agreement from the five levels available to answer.

The following is an analysis that has been made based on the feedback of questionnaires received from students related to their satisfaction with the use and learning using phonetic system:

[1] Question: It is easy to find what I want on the website. [2] Question: It is easy to navigate through this web site. [3] Clicking on links takes me to what I expect.

Table 1: Student satisfaction with learning using ukm-ephonetic.com Question

5

4

3

2

1

[1]

62.5%

31.3%

6.3%

0%

0%

UKM Linguistic Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

19

[2]

50 %

50%

0%

0%

0%

[3]

43.8%

43.8%

12.5%

0%

0%

As discussed earlier, student feedback on the use and learning using the phonetic system was obtained through two methods, namely the method of direct feedback from students and also through questionnaires. Above, the analysis of the feedback obtained through the questionnaire has been shown. Here, the student feedback received directly from them in the lecture room is also discussed. Below are some of the comments made by students about what they think about the use and learning of phonetic courses with the help of the built application system:

Table 2: Student comments received through direct feedback method Positive

Comments Negative Comments

[1] easy to understand

[1] explanations are limited

[2] the system is more fun

[2] internet access can interfere with learning

[3] can learn alone

[3] can also be less productive

[4] more productive [5] easy to review

The answers from the student questionnaires and comments above (Table 2) show their satisfaction (see Table 1). Students claim that this course becomes more enjoyable when the learning and teaching process is accompanied by a phonetic application system. This system has helped them easily understand the sounds found in the IPA charts which are a big part of the syllabus. In addition, this system-assisted learning further facilitates the process of reviewing lessons for examinations. Since what they need is in the system, learning and revision can be done alone or without help from the lecturer at the last minute. However,

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

20

them. Although the phonetic application system has been supplemented with an explanation of the production of phoneme sounds, some students think they still need more explanation from the lecturer because for them the information on the system is still insufficient. However, some students do not experience this problem. Students also commented that when learning is done with the help of the system, they tend to be less productive because most of the course syllabus is in the system. In other words, they claim they are easily lazy and do not refer to other additional reading materials.

Conclusion

The phonetic application system or ukm-phonetic.com which was built with the specific purpose of assisting the teaching and learning process of phonetic courses offered at the Linguistic Program, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia has been successfully developed and tested for students. The lack of modern teaching aids has created difficulties in the teaching and learning process of this course as it was introduced. Difficulties arise for lecturers because they face the challenge of understanding in detail to students how the process of producing a sound is produced. Difficulties on the part of students occur when the knowledge imparted can not be clearly imagined All these problems have been tried to be addressed by developing a modern teaching technology tool ukmephonetik.com for students taking phonetics courses. The inaugural teaching and learning was practiced and positive feedback was received from the students. Overall, students are very satisfied with the teaching and learning methods that apply the ukm-ephonetik.com system

given the benefits derived

from it.

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

Rujukan Cox, M.J. and Marshall, G. 2007. ‘Effects of ICT: Do we know what we should know?’, Education and Information Technologies, Vol. 12, no. 2, June, 59-70 Cunningham, D. 1998. 25 years of technology in language teaching: A personal experience. Babel: Journal of the Australian Federation of Modern Language Teachers’ Associations, 33(1), 4-7, 35. Galitz, Wilbert O. 1997. The Essential Guide to User Interface Design: An introduction to GUI design principles and techniques. New York: Wiley Computer Publishing, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Martin, Alexander, and David Eastman. 1996. The User Interface Design Book for the Applications Programmer. Chichester, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Sheppard, S. D., Reamon, D., Friedlander, L., Kerns, C., Leifer, L., Marincovich, M., & Toye, G. 1998. Assessment of technology-assisted learning in higher education: it requires new thinking by universities and colleges. In Frontiers in Education Conference, 1998. FIE’98. 28th Annual (Vol. 1, pp. 141-145). IEEE. Shneiderman, Ben. 1998. Designing the User Interface: Strategies for HumanComputer Interaction. 3d ed. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. Summers, J. J., Waigandt, A., & Whittaker, T. A. 2005. A comparison of student achievement and satisfaction in an online versus a traditional face-to-face statistics class. Innovative Higher Education, 29(3), 233-250.

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

21

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

MUSIC LANGUAGE PHONETIC STRUCTURE, PHONOLOGICAL

STUDIES1 Asisda Wahyu AP, M.HUM.2

Introduction

Musi language is one of the regional languages ​​which contributes to the vocabulary of Indonesian. Musi language is the language used by residents or people in the Musi Banyuasin Regency City area. Some local people refer to the Musi language as the Sekayu language. Based on the frequency, the term Sekayu language is used less when compared to the frequency of use of the term Musi. The area where the Musi language is spoken is located around Muara Kelingi District, Bingin Teluk District, and Muara Beliti District. The number of native speakers of Musi language is 70% of the total population of Musi Banyuasin Regency, which is 361,798 people. Apart from Musi Banyuasin Regency, native speakers of the Musi language also come from other regions and account for about 10% of native speakers, namely 36,179 people. Thus, the total native speakers of Musi are 397,977 people. The neighboring languages ​​of the Musi language are also quite numerous. This is because the Musi area is directly adjacent to other areas. In the north the Musi language is bordered by Jambi Malay, in the south by the language of Lembak, in the west by 1 2

Presented at the Seminar Between the Nation, the National University of Malaysia and the Jakarta State University. Lecturer at the Department of Indonesian Language and Literature, Jakarta State University.

Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ

22

Seminar on Language and Literature 2015

with language South, and in the north bordering the Malay Palembang and language Ogan. In the Musi community and family, the Musi language is used as the language of association. If in the association there are people who do not or do not understand the Musi language, then Indonesian or Palembang language will be used. The Musi language is also used in customs, social gatherings. Other activities such as speeches, lectures, speeches, and government activities will use the Indonesian language. Pride in the Musi language is influenced by the level of education. Local people or people who have not yet received formal education are very proud to use the Musi language in whatever activities they do. The case is different with the Musi community who have known formal education, Moreover, formal education is obtained from outside the island of Sumatra, which are big cities such as Jakarta, Bandung, Jogjakarta, and others. They will be more proud if in the activities they do, they use other regional languages ​​or Indonesian. Dialectical variations in the Musi language are generally subtle and very small so as not to interfere with fluency in communication between native speakers of this language. Meanwhile, in the written language of the Musi language, there is a letter or ulu writing. Surat or Ulu Writing is also known in the Ogan language of the Pegagan dialect. Ulu writing is a syllabic writing using certain signs to mark the vowels. They will be more proud if in the activities they do, they use other regional languages ​​or Indonesian. Dialectical variations in the Musi language are generally subtle and very small so as not to interfere with fluency in communication between native speakers of this language. Meanwhile, in the written language of the Musi language, there is a letter or ulu writing. Surat or Ulu Writing is also known in the Ogan language of the Pegagan dialect. Ulu writing is a syllabic writing using certain signs to mark the vowels. They will be more proud if in the activities they do, they use other regional languages ​​or Indonesian. Dialectical variations in the Musi language are generally subtle and very small so as not to interfere with fluency in communication between native speakers of this language. Meanwhile, in the written language of the Musi language, there is a letter or ulu writing. Surat or Ulu Writing is also known in the Ogan language of the Pegagan dialect. Ulu writing is a syllabic writing using certain signs to mark the vowels. Meanwhile, in the written language of the Musi language, there is a letter or ulu writing. Surat or Ulu Writing is also known in the Ogan language of the Pegagan dialect. Ulu writing is a syllabic writing using certain signs to mark the vowels. Meanwhile, in the written language of the Musi language, there is a letter or ulu writing. Surat or Ulu Writing is also known in the Ogan language of the Pegagan dialect. Ulu writing is a syllabic writing using certain signs to mark the vowels.

Research

Methods The research methods in this paper use qualitative descriptive methods. The description of the Musi language includes its phonetic and phonemic structure. This is done so that you can objectively see the form of this Musi language.

Phonetic Discussion a. Vokoid

UKM Linguistic Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

23

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

24

Vocoid is a sound for which the passage in the mouth is not obstructed so that air currents can flow from the lungs to the lips and outward without being obstructed, without having to go through a narrow opening, without being moved from the center line in the groove, and without causing supra tools. a glotal shifts; for example speaking, but not always (Samsuri, 1976). In the Musi language, there are 16 vocoids, namely: [i :; i; e:; e; é:; é; a:; a; e:; e; u:; u; o:; o; O:; O] Below will be presented a matrix regarding the characteristics of the BM vocoids to make it easier to see the differences between all the vocoids mentioned above. The plus sign (+) indicates the sound has the characteristic mentioned on the left, and the minus sign (-) indicates the opposite. MATRIX 1 Characteristics of Vocoid BM i:

i

and:

bundar

tak bundar

+

+ +

panjang

+

– +

pendek –

+ –

+

and is –

is

the

e:

+ +

+

+

+

to:

+ +

I: –

u

o:

o

O:

O

+

+

+

+

+

+

+ +

+ –

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

front

+

+ +

+ +

+

middle

+

+

+

+ –

– –

back

+

+

+

+

+

+

quite high

+ +

+

+

high

+ + –

+

+

am –

+ +

+

+

rather low

+

+

Low

+ +

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Furthermore, to show the pronunciation of each vokoid according to low height relative tongue and the part of the tongue that is lifted will be given a Vocoid BM chart as below.

Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

25

Vocoid BM Front i:

long

Middle

Back u:

high short long / a little high short / a little high medium long / a little low short / slightly low medium length short

ie: e é: é

e: e

uo: o O: O

a: a

b. Vocoid Distribution The table below shows the positions that can be occupied by the Musi vocoid. Vocoid Position BM Vokoid i: ie: e

Initial Position

Middle

End

i: jaw

ki: teq-

a: ti:

‘green’

‘we’

‘heart’

induq

binjit

‘mother’

‘tote’

e: teq-

ce: req-

se: de:

‘duck’

‘teko’

‘sedih’

po: seŋ

‘pusing’ é:

é: kar

‘kelereng’ é a: a

tu: mé: ‘tuma’

éŋkOl kO

: n éŋ

‘ engkol ‘

‘kuning’

a: jaq-

ma : ra:

ta: pa:

‘ajak’

‘marah’

‘ikan tapa’

ambeq

rambot-

‘ambil’

‘rambut’

Program Linguistik UKM Jabatan Bahasa dan Sastra UNJ

Seminar Bahasa dan Sastera 2015

e: e

26

e: péq-

be : ra: pé:

‘park’

‘how’

entaq-

u: maq-

bu: lu:

sa: mi: lu:

‘ibu’

‘bulu’

sembilu ‘ untuŋ

buntiŋ

‘laba’

‘hamil’

o: ron

bo: lo:

bo: lo:

‘urung’

‘bambu’

‘bambu’

ontoŋ

boncol

‘profit’

bump ‘ O: gOl

lO: lO:

Ki: lO:

‘behave’

‘stupid’

‘downstream’

Ombaq-

Te: lOq-

‘waves’

‘eggs’

‘press’ u: uo: o O : O

In connection with the table above some conclusions can be drawn as follows. (a) Vokoid [i:; e:; é:; a:; u:; o:; O:] can occupy all positions in the open syllable, while the long vowel [e:] can only occupy the initial and middle positions. (b) Vokoid [i; e; é; a; u; o; O] is found in the starting and middle positions. (c) Vokoid [e] is only in the initial position. (d) Vokoid [e] is only present in the middle position. b. Diphthong A sound that is a combination of two vocoids, one of which is syllabic or syllable core, while the other is a non-syllabic sliding sound. It can occur in each vokoid when its pronunciation begins or is accompanied by a glide.

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

27

As far as is known based on the data obtained, in BM there are only two types of diphthongs, namely [ay] and [aw]. The first diphthong is called the forward diphthong and the second diphthong is called the back diphthong. 1) Advanced Diphthong In BM there is a kind of advanced diphthong, namely [ay], formed by uttering the syllabic vowel [a] accompanied by the sound of sliding through the sound [i]. It is called advanced diphthong because this syllabic vocal movement gives the final sliding sound that leads up and forward. 2) Backward Diphthong Backward diphthong in BM is [aw] because the formation of this diphthong is done by uttering the slabic vokoid [a] and accompanied by a slide towards [u], the non-syllabic vokoid gives the final sliding sound leading up and back. 3) Diphthong Position Diphthong position can be seen from the table below in its distribution in the base word. Diphthong Ay

Awal ay ‘kata seru’ –

Aw

aw ‘suara menjerit’ –

Position Tengah Akhir ga: layan ke: bay ‘mix gulai’ ‘wanita yang telah kawin’ be: la: gay ‘berlari’ a: gay ‘hari’ pe: tay ‘petai’ li: maw ‘jeruk’ ki: daw ‘kiri’ i: maw ‘harimau’ gu: ŋaw ‘did not sleep overnight’

UKM Linguistic Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

28

The conclusions that can be drawn are:  Diphthong [ay] can occupy all three positions, namely the beginning, middle, and end.  Diphthong [aw] can only occupy the initial and final positions. c. Kontoid Kontoid referred to here as has been said by Samsuri, is, “the sound for which the air flow is completely blocked by the closure of the larinks or passage in the mouth, or forced through a narrow opening, or moved from the center line and in its path through the lateral opening. , or causes one of the supraglotal devices to vibrate ”(Samsuri 1976). Kontoid BM can occupy three positions, namely: initial, middle, and final positions. The full context of the Musi language is in the phonemic section. Phonemic a. Vowel Phonemes of Musi Language has eight vowel phonemes, namely / i; e; e; è; a; u; o; O /. Here is a chart of the vowel phonemes:

Front

High Slightly High

Middle

Back

I

u

e

oe

Moderate Slightly Low

è

O a

Low

2) Vocal Distribution

Position Vocal Phonemes of Musi Vocoid / i /

Alophones

Position Early

Middle

End

[i:]

ijaw ‘green’

kiteq ‘we’

ati ‘hati ‘

[i]

induq’ mother ‘

binjit’ jinjing ‘

Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Unit of the UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

/ e /

/ é / / a / / u / / o / / O /

29

[e:]

eteq ‘duck’

cereq ‘teapot’

sede ‘sad’

[e]

po Sen ‘headache’

[e:]

epéq ‘park’

how ‘how’

[e]

Edem ‘already’

[e:]

acres ‘marbles’

Hume ‘tick’

[é]

éŋkOl ‘engkol’

naméq ‘kenapa’

[a:]

ajaq ‘ajak’

mara ‘marah’

tapa ‘ikan tapa’

[a]

ambiq ‘ambil’

rambot- ‘rambut’

[u:]

umaq ‘ibu’

feathers ‘feathers’

semilu ‘ sembilu’

[u]

unde ‘carry’

tail ‘tail’

[o:]

oroŋ ‘undo’

belo ‘bambu’

baso ‘wash’

[o]

ontoŋ ‘Laba’ boncol ‘

benjol’

[O:]

OgOl ‘behaves’

lOlO’ stupid ‘

kilO’ to downstream ‘

[O]

Obak’ wave ‘

belOlO’ down ‘

Looking at the position of the vowel phonemes in the root word, namely at the beginning, middle, and end, the characteristics of these vowel phonemes are obtained: a) vowel / i /; / e /; / è /; / a /; / u /; / o /; and / O / can occupy the three positions above; b) only the vowel / e / which does not occupy a position at the end of the word, but only at the beginning and middle of the word. 4) Vowel Series

The vowel sequence referred to here is two vowels that are located side by side in a word. If a word BM has a series of vowels, the word division to determine the syllables is to separate the vowel series. For example, in the word / ciom / ‘kiss’ there are two vowels, namely / i / and / o / which are a series of vowels in the word. Therefore, the word separation to determine the likes of the word rather than the word falls between the vowels / i / and / o / so that it becomes / ci-om /. Vocal Line Patterns of BM and Its Position in Words

Linguistics Program of Language and Literature UKM Program UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

Vocal Line Patterns

30

Early

Middle Position BM BI su-èq no

BM i-èq –

BI yes –

he

ua ao

pi-oq ci-om se-bagian bu-a-yè da-on –

i-è u-è io

a-è

au aO

aO

ya nama ular

a-Op

Akhir

buaya daun –

BM di-è du-è tu-è be-ŋian ta-o pa-è

sa-è

ta-u

aO

tofu thighs clean grass tofu (food) yes

pot kiss part

BI he two old bride

3. Diphthong The Musi language has only two diphthongs, namely advanced diphthongs [ay] and [aw]. These two diphthongs are not considered as phonemes themselves because the syllabic sound in the diphthong is a sound [a] not [y] or [w]. 4. Consonant phonemes in Musi language has 20 consonant phonemes, namely / p; b; t; d; k; g; q; h; ǥ; s; c; j; r; m; n; ñ; η; l; w; y /. The following is a chart of the consonant phonemes of the Musi language along with the areas where they are spoken and how they are pronounced: a. Consonant Description A consonant description is a description of the form of a consonant, such as the consonant / p / is described as a bilabial, inhibitory, and sound phoneme. For more details, here is a table regarding consonant descriptions in the Musi language.

Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Position UKM UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

Speech area Method of Pronunciation Inhibited TB

31

Bilabial

Dental

pb

td

Alveola r

Alveopalat al

Velar

Glotal

kg

q

B h ǥ

Shear TB B Hissing TB

S

B Africate TB

cj

B Shakes TB B Nasal TB

r

m

B Lateral TB B Semi vocal TB

n

ñ

l

w

B

Linguistics Program of Language and Literature Department, UNJ

y

η

2015 Language and Literature Seminar

32

b. Distribution of Position Consonants for Consonant Phonemes in Musi Language Vocoid

Allophones of

Initial Position

Middle

End

[p]

peŋayO ‘paddle’

kOpiq ‘sister-in-law’

[p]

lapse ‘chasing’

/ b /

basket ‘Basket’

racing ‘fan’

terbab ‘terkam’

/ t /

[t]

tOmaq ‘many ‘

kiteq’ kita ‘

[t-]

rambot’ rambut ‘

/ d /

daq’ tidak ‘

kudO’ kuda ‘

/ k /

[k]

kalu’ kalau ‘

ikaq’ ini ‘

[k-]

deck- ‘floor’

/ g /

gisoq ‘tomorrow’

dageŋ ‘meat’

/ q /

[q]

peqel ‘perangai’

[q-]

deweq ‘sendiri’

/ h /

haram ‘haram’

mahér ‘mahir’

buah ‘buah’

/ g /

ugaŋ ‘ people ‘

/ s /

sedém’ finished ‘

besOq’ big ‘

tiqOs’ rat’

/ c /

ciom ‘kiss’

keciq’ small ‘

/ j /

jantoŋ’ heart ‘

tojo’ seven ‘

/ r /

hair ‘hair’

araŋ ‘charcoal’

anar ‘new’

/ m /

molot ‘mouth’

lime ‘five’

ciom ‘kiss’

/ n /

nulaq’ nausea ‘

bené’ seed ‘

dénén’ cold ‘

/ ñ /

ñañi’ sing

kañaŋ ‘basket’

/ ŋ /

ŋa- ‘you’

beŋian ‘bride’

keñaŋ ‘full’

/ l /

lali ‘forget’

sepolo ‘ten’

immune ‘immune’

/ w /

waruŋ ‘warung’

liwat ‘pass’

/ y /

yaŋ’ that is’

ayO ‘ water ‘

/ p /

In connection with the initial, middle, and back position of the consonant phoneme in the root word of the Musi language, several characteristics were obtained, namely: Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Unit of UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

33

a) Consonant phonemes / p; b; t; k; h; s; r; m; n; η; l; and w / can occupy all positions. b) The consonant phoneme / d; g; c; j; ñ; y / only occurs in the initial and middle positions. c) The consonant phoneme / q / is only found in the middle and final positions. d) The consonant phoneme / ǥ / can only take a middle position.

c. Consonant Series A consonant sequence can be interpreted as two consonants that are located in a row in a word. And the syllable division of a word that contains a consonant sequence is between the two consonants in the word. The following is a table of patterns and examples of the middle position of the consonant series in the Musi language.

A series of consonants in the word BM

Example of words in Musi

qm

maq-ma-né géq-ma-né pan-jaŋ ran-jaŋ kam-biŋ ram-bot ber-sé ker-si tan-duq man-di

nj mb rs nd

5 Segmental Phoneme Variations

What is meant by segmental phoneme variation here is that a phoneme is a syllabic or not in a syllable. A phoneme can become a syllabic if it is the top or core of a syllable. In BM, vowel phonemes are almost always syllabic phonemes in a syllable, and consonant phonemes in BM have never been Linguistics Program for Language and Literature Department, UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

34

is the peak or essence of a syllable. For example, in the word / e-ges / ‘iris’ the phoneme / e / is a syllabic and is an independent syllable, and the phoneme / e / in the second syllable of the word is the peak of the syllable / ges /, and not a phoneme. / g / or / s / which is the syllabic phoneme. So that the word / e-ges / cannot be written like / eg-es / or / ege-s /. Furthermore, below can be seen the BM syllabic vowels which can stand alone and the positions that can be placed in the root word.

Vocals syllabic Vocals syllabic / i /

Awal BM / i-kaq /

Vocals syllabic / e /

/ i-tu /

BI

BM

BI

/ da-i /

from

That

/ i-kan /

ikan

/ ges /

Iris

/ e-ret /

hemat

Itik

/ é-kar /

kelereng

/ du-é /

dua

/ tu-e /

tua

/ di-é /

dia

/ ę-peq / / ę-maw /

Syllabic vowels / u /

End

/ ę-dem / Syllabic vowels / a /

BM –

Syllabic vowels / ę /

BI This

/ e-teq / Syllabic vowels / é /

Middle

lay

already

Bau

/ a-pé /

/ a-bu /

/ a-kO /

/ u-lO /

ular

/ u -jan /

rain

/ u-maq /

ibu

UKM Linguistic Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

Syllabic vowels / o /

/ o-roƞ / Syllabic

vowels / O /

35

cancel

/ pa-o /

/ o-ros /

buah pao

urus

/ ta-o /

tahu

/ O-la /

kerjakan

/ aO /

ya

/ O-bak /

penjara

/ ni-O /

kelapa

O-gOl / bertingkah

/ lu-O /

asian

6. Syllable Structure Syllable

structure is a sequence of segmental phonemes in which at least one vowel consists and may be followed by other vowels or consonants. In the Musi language there are basic words which mostly consist of two and three syllables. The syllable structure of the Musi Language can be divided into four types, namely:

a) Syllable structure in monosyllabic words Example of

Patterns

é (exclamation words)

V

Ot (yes)

VK

ku (me), ŋa (you)

KV

daq (no) , and (limb), tan (hold)

KVK

b) Syllable structure in a two-syllable word Example of a

pattern

aO (yes)

VV

di.é (dia), du, é (two), ta.u (tofu)

KV.V

i.tu (it), a, kO (root), u.IO (snake)

V.KV

a.yO ( water), da.on (leaves)

KV.VK

ci.om (kiss), i.kaq (this). i. fish (fish)

V.KVK

u.jan (rain), si.kOq (one), ti.kOs (rat) ka.mi (us), sa.pi (cow), to.jo (seven)

KV .KVK KV.KV

Linguistic Program UKM Language and Literature Position UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

36

ram.bot (hair), bin.taŋ (star)

KVK.KVK

taŋ.gé (stairs), ber.se (clean)

KVK. KV

c) Syllable structure of a three-syllable word Example of a

pattern

be.la.ray (running), be.ka.te (saying), be.la.ge (fighting) me.nan.tu (son-in-law), me. ren.do (crochet)

KV.KV.KV KV.KVK.KV

boŋ.kos.an (package)

KVK.KVK.KV

maq.ma.né (how)

KVK.KV.KV

be.de.naŋ (swimming), be.ja.lan (walk)

KV.KV.KVK

men.tu.e (laws)

KVK.KV.V

em.pe.du (bile)

VK.KV.KV

bu.a.yé (crocodile)

KV.V.KV

ba.gi .an (part), be.ŋi.an (bride)

KV.KV.VK

d) the structure of syllables in monosyllabic words four ex

Pattern

se.ba.gi.an (partially)

KV.KV.KV.VK

ter. pe.lé.sét (slip)

KVK.KV.KV.KVK

ma.téq.a.gay (sun)

KV.KVK.V.KV

C. Suprasegmental phoneme

Suprasegmental phonemes (secondary phonemes) consist of four types, namely (1) pause or juncture, (2) length or length (3) tone or pitch, and (4) pressure or stress. In Musi, pitch, stress and length are found in the suprasegmental phoneme of the Musi language. However, since these three do not change the meaning of a word in Musi, they are not phonemes in Musi and will not be discussed. In musi, a pause or juncture is a suprasegmental phoneme and can change the meaning of a word. The Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of the UKM UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

what is meant by pause is a change or transition from a segmental phoneme to another segmental phoneme in a word or utterance that is longer than the word. The pauses in the musi language are divided into four, namely: (1) open or added pauses (2) single-partition breaks (3) double-partition breaks (4) double-crossovers.

1. Open Pause. Open pause or added pause is a transition between segmental phonemes which is indicated by a suspension of the first phoneme and a kind of beginning with a second phoneme. This open pause is often called a plus pause because to indicate an open pause or plus a plus sign, / + /, is placed between the two phonemes involved. Example: a) / nana / / na + na / b) / mosquito nets / / kelam + bu / c) / boŋkosan / / boŋkos + san /

‘pus’ speech when giving something’ ‘mosquito net’ ‘dark, Bu (the Abu)’ ‘package’ ‘wrap, San (si Hasan)’

2.Single partition pause A single partition pause is a terminal pause which is a sudden + sudden disconnection which follows a horizontal tone. These pauses are denoted by the plumb line / | /. Single bulkhead breaks usually appear at the beginning or end of the caption. Example: a) / rudi | anaq paq so tu | pacaq play guitar # / ‘Rudi, Pak Ahmad’s son, is good at playing guitar’. b) / guava | geq beline getankaq | manes nia # / ‘Guava fruit, which he bought yesterday, is sweet nian’.

3. Double Boundary Pause This is a twerminal pause consisting of a gradual break that follows the rise of the pitch. Occurs when mentioning several syllables in succession, for example,

37

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

38

names of days, numbers, and places. This pause occurs after each word in the sequence, except after the last word in the sequence is used the symbol for a double cross pause to signify the end of the sentence. The symbol used to represent a double partition is two perpendicular / || /. Example: a) / sikOq || due || three || four || lime || six # / ‘one, two. three, four, five, six ‘b) / senen || selaO || rebo || kemis || jemat || saptu || Sunday # / ‘Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday, Sunday’

4. Double Cross Pause Is a Pause marked by removing the sound that follows the descending tone. Double cross pauses are generally present at the end of all utterances in the vernacular. The symbol for a double cross pause is a pair of lines sloping downwards that intersect a pair of horizontal parallel lines. Example: a) / daq + pacaq # / ‘can’t’ b) / san + duduq + to sikaq # / ‘hasan, sit here’

D. Spelling Spelling used by the musi language community when communicating with each other through writing now this is an improved spelling. In the musi language there is a traditional spelling called the letter ulu. However, because this ulu writing is no longer developing in society, the community of musi language users use EYD in correspondence. Table of Musi Language Words Letters ieeeau

Graphemic Itam Eges Ambiq UlO

Example of Phonetic Words Phonetic Itam i: tam Eges e: ges kO: nēŋ berapē be: ra: pē ambiq ambiqulO u: lO

Linguistic Program UKM Language and Literature Position UNJ

Meaning in BI black ‘iris’ yellow ‘how’ download ‘snake’

Seminar Languages and Literature in 2015

o O ay aw pbtdkgqhscjrmn ń ŋ LWY

Baso Obak a ai Aw Pontong Kebut tige Daq Kalu Galēq galēqmahal u ang Sape ciOm Tojo Rabe matēq buntOq Anar nga anaesthetized stalls Come

39

Baso Obak a v Imau pontong kebut tigē daq kalu galēq galēq ma: hal u aŋ sa: pē: ciom tojo rabē mateq buntOq anār ŋa lali waruŋ ayO

ba: so O: baka: ay: imaw pontoŋke: butti: gē: daqka: lu: ga: lēqga: lēqmahal u: aŋ sapē ci: om to: jo ra: bē: ma: teq buntOq a: nār ŋa; la: li wa: ruŋ a: yO:

wash ‘prison’ day ‘tiger’ firewood ‘fan’ three ‘no’ if ‘all’ all ‘ma: thing people’ who ‘kiss’ seven ‘touch’ dead ’round’ then ‘you’ forgot ‘warung’ air ‘.

Conclusion

Musi language as a regional language, of course has its own characteristics and uniqueness both in terms of sound and phoneme structures in a word. Indonesian, as the national language we have studied so far, also certainly has characteristics that Musi language may not have. Hence in conclusion, We will try to describe some phonological comparisons between Musi and Indonesian.

Consonant Vowel Musi Language

Indonesian

has eight phonemes: there are eight phonemes: / i; e; e; è; a; u; o; O / i; e; ԑ; ǝ; a; u; o; O / / there are twenty phonemes: there are twenty two phonemes: / p; b; t; d; k; g; q; h; / b; p; d; t; g; k; j; c; v SMEs Linguistics Program Language and Literature Position UNJ

Seminar Languages and Literature in 2015

Diphthong

Cluster Vocal allophone

allophone The consonants

40

ǥ; s; c; j; r; m; n; ñ; η; l; w; y / there are two diphthongs: [ai]  [ay] [au]  [aw]

; f; q; z; s; h; r; l; m; n; ñ; η; w; y / there are three diphthongs: [ai]  [ay] [au]  [aw] [oi]  [ oy] none [pr] [kl] [tr] [kr] [pl] [gl] all vowels have two vowel phonemes whose allophones do not have allophones: / a / and / ǝ / only four consonant phonemes that have no consonants which has allophone: / l; s; r; w; y; c; j allophone: / p; t; k; q; // and the entire nasal.

Comparison of the Consonant Series in Musi qm nj mb rs nd

maq-ma-né géq-ma-né pan-jaŋ ran-jaŋ kam-biŋ ram-bot ber-sé ker-si-duq man-in

Indonesian pan- the one-to-one-man-to-be-

rash -but-ram-but-clean cur-duk-man-in Comparison of Syllable Syllable Structures in Musi Language Example é (interjection) Ot (ya) ku (me), ŋa (you) daq (no), and (branches), tan (hold)

Pola V VK KV KVK

Bahasa Indonesia Contoh Oh Ya Dan

Program Linguistic UKM Jabatan Bahasa dan Sastra UNJ

Pola VK KV KVK

Seminar Bahasa dan Sastera 2015

41

Bersuku Dua Bahasa Musi Contoh aO (ya) di.é (dia), du, é (dua ), ta.u (tahu) i.tu (itu), a, kO (akar), u.IO (ular) a.yO (air), da.on (daun) ci.om (cium), i. kaq (ini). i.kan (ikan) u.jan (hujan), si.kOq (seekor), ti.kOs (tikus) ka.mi (kami), sa.pi (sapi), to.jo (tujuh) ram.bot ( rambut), bin.taŋ (bintang) taŋ.gé (tangga), ber.se (bersih)

Bahasa Indonesia Contoh

Pola VV KV.V

di.a, du.a,

Pola VV KV.V

V.KV

i.tu, i.ni,

V.KV

KV.VK V.KVK

da.un, tu.an, ka.in i.kan, e.mas

KV.VK V.KVK

KV.KVK

pe.rak, ti.kus, KV.KVK ta.kut, he.wan

KV.KV

ka.mi, ki.ta, ka.mu,

KV.KV

KVK.KVK

ram.but, bun.tung,

KVK.KVK

KVK.KV

ran.cu, kar.tu,

KVK.KV

1. Tribal Musi Language Examples of

Indonesian

Patterns be.la.ray (running), be.ka.te KV.KV.KV (speaking), be.la .ge (fight) me.nan.tu (son-in-law), KV.KVK.KV me.ren.do (crochet) boŋ.kos.an (package) maq.ma.né (how) be.de.naŋ (swim ), be.ja.lan (walk) men.tu.e (in-laws) em.pe.du (bile) bu.a.yé (crocodile) ba.gi.an (part), be.ŋi.an (bride) )

Contoh

Pola

be.la.gu, me.na.ta, KV.KV.KV ke.pa.la me.nan.tu, me.ren. KV.KVK.KV and

KVK.KVK.KV KVK.KV.KV KV.KV.KVK

ber.ka.ta, ser.da.du, pe.si.sir,

KVK.KVK.KV KVK.KV.KV KV.KV.KVK

KVK.KV.V VK.KV.KV KV.V.KV KV. KV.VK

mer.tu.a em.pe.du bu.a.ya ba.gi.an, ka.lia.an,

KVK.KV.KV VK.KV.KV KV.V.KV KV.KV.VK

Program Linguistik UKM Jabatan Bahasa dan Sastra UNJ

Seminar Bahasa dan Sastera 2015

42

Bersuku Empat Bahasa Musi Contoh se.ba.gi.an (sebagian) ter.pe.lé.sét (terpeleset) ma.téq.a.gay (matahari)

Pola KV.KV.KV.VK KVK.KV.KV.KV K KV.KVK.V.KV

Bahasa Indonesia Contoh se.ba.gi.an Ter.pe.le.set –

Pola KV.KV.KV.VK KVK. KV.KV. KVK KV.KVK.VK V

Abercrombie Reference, D.1971. Element of General Phonetics.Alterton-Chicago-New York: Aldine Aminuddin, A., et al. 1984. Indonesian Language Phonology: A Descriptive Study. Jakarta: Center for Language Development and Development. Djokokentjono.1978. “Some Standard Pronunciation Problems” Language Teaching and Literature IV no.5 Fray, DB1979. The Physics of Speech.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Halim, Amran. 1974.Intonation: In Relation to Syntax In Indonesian. Jakarta: Djambat. Jones, Daniel. 1958. The Pronunciation of English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Kridalaksana, Harimurti. 2008. Linguistic Dictionary (fourth ed.). Jakarta: Gramedia. Ladefoged, P. 1962. Element of Acoustic Phonetic. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Laksman, Myrna. 1996. “Development of the Indonesian Sound System” in Soenjono Dardjowidjojo (ed). Our National Language. Bandung: ITB Publisher, 1996: 125-138. Lass, Roger. 1991. Phonology trans. Warsono et al) Semarang: IKIP Semarang Press. Lauder, Multamia RMT1996. “The Treasure of Indonesian Phonemes: Judging by Frequency and Phonotactics” in Soenjono Dardjowidjojo (ed). Our National Language. Bandung: ITB Publisher, 1996: 139-157. Marsono.1986.Fonetik.Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press. Muslich, Masnur. 2008. Indonesian Language Phonology. Jakarta: Earth Literacy. Samsuri. 1987. Language analysis. Jakarta: Erlangga. Stokhof, WAL1980. “Indonesian Language Sound System” Journal of the Language Council. Volume 24 no 1: 38-54. Phonetic.Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press. Muslich, Masnur. 2008. Indonesian Language Phonology. Jakarta: Earth Literacy. Samsuri. 1987. Language analysis. Jakarta: Erlangga. Stokhof, WAL1980. “Indonesian Language Sound System” Journal of the Language Council. Volume 24 no 1: 38-54. Phonetic.Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press. Muslich, Masnur. 2008. Indonesian Language Phonology. Jakarta: Earth Literacy. Samsuri. 1987. Language analysis. Jakarta: Erlangga. Stokhof, WAL1980. “Indonesian Language Sound System” Journal of the Language Council. Volume 24 no 1: 38-54.

Linguistics Program for Language and Literature Unit UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

43

INDONESIAN LANGUAGES AND VERBA CATEGORIES ON ENTERTAINMENT

SHOWS ON INDONESIAN TELEVISION (CONTENT ANALYSIS STUDY) 3 Reni Nur Eriyani4

Introduction

Nowadays people can easily get information through electronic media and print media, mainly associated with the entertainment function. Electronic media currently dominates people’s lives. Various broadcasts in electronic media have contributed to the development of language.

One of the most popular shows favored by viewers is entertainment that is entertaining. One of the entertaining shows is “Stand Up Comedy”. From the many impressions on the program, one program was chosen randomly. Finally, a Stan Up Comedy show was chosen with the title Pain Tuh Here.

The focus of observation in this paper is on the verb category. This is because the verb category is one of the most frequent word categories and must appear in sentence formation. The theory used is the view of the verb category according to Abdul Chaer. Chaer categorizes verbs into twelve types.

3 4

Presented at the Seminar Between the Nation, the National University of Malaysia and the Jakarta State University. Lecturer at the Department of Indonesian Language and Literature, Jakarta State University.

Linguistic Program of Language and Literature Department of UNJ

2015 Language and Literature Seminar 2015

Analysis is carried out by listening, writing sentences, researching, studying, categorizing, and re-checking the use of verbs based on lexical meanings. The lexical meaning is the basic meaning of a word according to the dictionary. This basic meaning is attached to the root word of a word. Although basically only categories with lexical meaning will be analyzed, it does not rule out the existence of grammatical meanings being analyzed, if according to the theory that is used later it is considered correct.

Verb analysis

Based on the concept put forward by Chaer (1995) there are twelve categories of verbs. So the forms of the verb category in stand-up comedy entitled “Sakinya Tuh Di Sini” are as follows:

1.

Type I is a verb that semantically expresses an action, action, or action. Example:

(1) Still enthusiastic, good. This is the metro, how dare you invite me again.

The sentence above contains the verb category. The verb is indicated by the word ngundang or inviting in the standard language. The word ngundang belongs to the category of type I verbs. The word ngundang is a verb that expresses an action or action, namely calling to come; welcome to attend. The doer of this verb is a living noun form. (2)… and since entering TV also my family has become good.

The sentence above contains the verb category. The verb is indicated by the word enter. The word in belongs to the category of type I verbs. The word in is a verb which expresses an action or action, namely the act of participating in television. The doer of this verb is a living noun form.

Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ

44

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

(3) Especially my grandmother, my grandmother used to mess around with me, like to get angry at me. The sentence above contains the verb category. The verb is marked by the word nyuruhnyuruh or in the standard language to tell and get angry or in the standard language to scold. The words nyuruh-nyuruh and angry are included in the category of type I verbs. The word nyuruhnyuruh is a verb that states an action or action, namely an act of ordering to (do something) and the verb angry or angry or in the standard language scolding is an act of disliking something. The doer of this verb is a living noun form.

(4) Anggi, wash the dishes!

The sentence above contains the verb category. The verb is indicated by the word wash. The word wash is included in the category of type I verbs. The word wash is a verb that expresses an action or action, namely the act of cleaning something with water. The doer of this verb is a living noun form.

(5) But since I entered TV everything has changed.

The sentence above contains the verb category. The verb is indicated by the word enter. The word in belongs to the category of type I verbs. The word in is a verb which expresses an action or action, namely the act of participating in television. The doer of this verb is a living noun form.

(6) Are you mopping?

The sentence above contains the verb category. The verb is indicated by the word mop. The word ngepel belongs to the category of type I verbs. The word ngepel is a verb that expresses an action or action, namely the act of cleaning the floor with a mop. The doer of this verb is a living noun form.

Linguistics Program of UKM Language and Literature Position UNJ

45

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

(7) and ever since I entered TV it has been in houses, in the cave house it has been talking about me.

The sentence above contains the verb category. The verb is indicated by the word enter and talk. The words enter and talk are included in the category of type I verbs. The word in is a verb that states an action or action, namely the act of participating in television and the word talk is also a verb that states an action or action, namely the act of speaking in a group of people to discuss something. The doer of this verb is a living noun form.

(8) I’ve only been on TV three times, but I still lost to the pot and her family who can talk.

The sentence above contains the verb category. The verb is marked by the words enter and speak. The words enter and speak are included in the category of type I verbs. The word in is a verb that states an action or action, namely the act of participating in television and the word spoken is also a verb that states an action or action, namely the act of speaking using the mouth. The doer of this verb is a living noun form.

(9) suspected of selling idols.

The sentence above contains the verb category. The verb is marked by the word suspect and sell. The word suspected is in the category of type I verbs. The word suspected is a verb that states an action or action, namely to suspect; think; suspect and the word sell is also a verb that states an action or action, namely offering merchandise. The doer of this verb is a living noun form.

(10)

yes, so I am not excited to live life.

Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ

46

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

The sentence above contains the verb category. The verb is characterized by the word live. Verbs belong to the category of type I verbs. Verbs are verbs that express an action or action, that is, they can carry out activities as usual. The doer of this verb is a living noun form.

(11)

yeah, the guy is bad. Ugly guys get match with beautiful girls. waah,

I’m already excited, right, weey have hope for me.

The sentence above contains the verb category. The verb is indicated by the word create. The word Buat is categorized as type I verb. The word for it is a verb which states an action or action, that is, it can carry out activities as usual. The doer of this verb is a living noun form.

(12)

hehehe, I want to ask you guys.

The sentence above contains the verb category. The verb is indicated by the presence of the word question. The question word belongs to the category of type I verbs. The question word is a verb that expresses an action or action, namely asking for information (explanation, etc.); asking to be told (about something). The doer of this verb is a living noun form.

(13)

I’ll send it. huh! don’t be like that

The sentence above contains the verb category. The verb is indicated by the word samperin. The word samperin belongs to the category of type I verbs. The word samperin is a verb that expresses an action or action, namely mengamper; come over; approaching. The doer of this verb is a living noun form.

(14)

ugly people … ugly people … and crazy people can only shake my head and then rub my

shoulders, he casually says, be patient.

Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ

47

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

48

The sentence above contains the verb category. The verb is marked by the word rub and say. These two words belong to the category of type I verbs. The word rub and the word say are verbs that express an action or action. The word rub is the act of caressing temporarily and the word saying is saying something. The doer of this verb is a living noun form.

2.

Type II is a verb that expresses an action or experience. Example: (16)… and the more annoying one is he follows me. bad, bad.

The sentence above contains the verb category. The verb is marked by the presence of the word ngeselin or in the standard language annoying. The word ngeselin belongs to the category of type II verbs. The word ngeselin is a verb that expresses an action or experience, that is, an action that arouses a feeling of resentment; tedious to a state or condition. The doer of this verb is a living noun form.

(17) oh yes, please introduce yourself introduction first. My name is Anggi. Many people say that the name of this cave doesn’t suit me.

The sentence above contains the verb category. The verb is indicated by the word say. The word says is a type II verb category. The word said

is a verb that expresses an

action or experience, that is, the act of looking at another person with the mouth. The doer of this verb is a living noun form. (18)… then I’m still confused, I’m sad with ftv films because since I saw ftv, the players are handsome.

The sentence above contains the verb category. The verb is indicated by the word clay. Clay words fall into the category of type II verbs. The word clay is a verb that states the action or

Linguistic Program of the Language and Literature Department of the UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

experience, which is using the eyes to see what is shown on television. The doer of this verb is a living noun form.

(19) yes, so I am not excited to live life.

The sentence above contains the verb category. The verb is marked by the words so, create and undergo. These three words are categorized as type II verbs. The word so, make and undergo is a verb that expresses an action or experience, the word so is an action to make the heart happy, the word for it is to express the designation, the word to live is to take or go through life. The doer of this verb is a living noun form.

(20) every clay cave. well, the players are handsome,

The sentence above contains the verb category. The verb is indicated by the word clay. Clay words fall into the category of type II verbs. The word clay is a verb that expresses an action or experience, that is, using the eyes to see what is shown on television. The doer of this verb is a living noun form.

(21) yes. Ama who is handsome is so beautiful. I’m annoyed. Once in a while it’s ugly and beautiful Did I see ftv yesterday? what mystical love is it

The sentence above contains the verb category. The verb is indicated by the word clay. Clay words fall into the category of type II verbs. The word clay is a verb that expresses an action or experience, that is, using the eyes to see what is shown on television. The doer of this verb is a living noun form.

(22) It is like you go up to the sixth floor using an elevator where you go down.

The sentence above contains the verb category. The verb is indicated by the word liken. The word liken belongs to the category of type II verbs. The word liken is a verb that

Linguistics Program UKM Language and Literature Position UNJ

49

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

states an action or experience, namely a parable of a situation. The doer of this verb is a living noun form.

(23) No, yesterday I saw that there was a crazy person, a crazy person who was being bullied by a child, usually a kid, right, crazy person… crazy person…. I feel sorry.

The sentence above contains the verb category. The verb is characterized by the words clay and feel. These two words fall into the category of type II verbs. The words clay and feeling are verbs which express action or experience, clay verbs are the act of using the eyes to view a television show while the verb feel is an act of having rasa. The doer of this verb is a living noun form.

(24) heh! then the children looked at me.

The sentence above contains the verb category. The verb is indicated by the presence of the word liatin. Clay words fall into the category of type II verbs. The word clay is a verb that expresses action or experience, that is, using the eye to look at a subject. The doer of this verb is a living noun form.

3.

Type III is a verb that expresses action and possession (benafactive). Example:

(25) Yes, and the pot is still delicious if you are an artist, someone will still sell it. is I?

The sentence above contains the verb category. The verb is marked by the words sell and buy. Sell ​​and buy words are categorized as type III verbs. The word for sale is a verb that states and ownership (benafactive), which is promoting something to others to get money according to the agreement and the word buy is also a verb that states and ownership (benafactive), namely obtaining something through exchange (payment) with

the Linguistic Program of Language and Position SMEs UNJ

50 Literature

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

money; gain something by sacrifice. The doer of this verb is a living noun form.

(26) I was sold? burnt shop?

The sentence above contains the verb category. The verb is marked by the words sold and burned. Words sold and burned are categorized as type III verbs. The word for sale is a verb that states and ownership (benafactive), which is promoting something to others to get money according to the agreement and the word burnt is also a verb that states and ownership (benafactive), which is not attracting attention. The doer of this verb is a living noun form.

4.

Type IV is a verb that expresses action and location (place). Example:

(27) No, because yesterday someone mentioned to me. Bang, don’t show up on TV tomorrow.

The sentence above contains the verb category. The verb is indicated by the presence of the word nongol. The word nongol is included in the category of type IV verbs. The word nongol is a verb that expresses action and location (place), that is, an action appears, comes. The doer of this verb is a living noun form.

5.

Type V is a verb that describes a process. Example:

(28) i: this is what we haven’t found yet.

The sentence above contains the verb category. Verbs in sentences are indicated by the word met. The word met is included in the category of type V verbs. The word is a verb that is used in

the Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Unit of UNJ

51

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

states the process, namely actions or attitudes to obtain information. The doer of this verb is a living noun form.

(29) But since I entered TV everything has changed.

The sentence above contains the verb category. Verbs in sentences are indicated by the presence of changing words. Changed words are categorized as type V verbs. The word is a verb that expresses the process, namely the action or attitude of being different (different) from the original. The doer of this verb is a living noun form.

(30) The tone has changed huh!

The sentence above contains the verb category. Verbs in sentences are indicated by the presence of changing words. Changed words are categorized as type V verbs. The word is a verb that expresses the process, namely the attitude of being different (different) from the same. The doer of this verb is a living noun form.

6.

Type VI is a verb which denotes the experience-process. Example: not found

7.

Type VII is a verb that expresses the process of ownership. Example:

(31) I’m looking for it, right? In fact, the name Anggi has meaning in every letter. Anggi. A: strange face.

The sentence above contains the verb category. The verb in a sentence is indicated by the word search for. Search words fall into the category of type VII verbs. The word is a verb which states the process of ownership, namely activities carried out to try to get (find, obtain) something that is expected with effort. The doer of this verb is a living noun form. Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ

52

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

(32) I’ve only been on TV three times, but I still lost to the pot and her family who can talk. The sentence above contains the verb category. The verb in a sentence is indicated by the word lose. The word loses is a type VII verb category. The word is a verb which states that activity does not win, does not equal its match. The doer of this verb is a living noun form.

8.

Type VIII is a verb which denotes process-location. Example:

(33) is like going up to the sixth floor using an elevator where you go up and down.

The sentence above contains the verb category. Verbs in sentences are characterized by the words going up and down. These two words belong to the category VIII type verbs. The word ascending implies an action of moving upwards or to a higher place, the word going down is a verb which denotes a location-process that is the existence of something new. The doer of this verb is a living noun form.

9.

Type IX is a verb which states a state. Example:

(34) I think it’s already limp.

The sentence above contains the verb category. Verbs in sentences are indicated by the presence of the word kirain or in the standard language to think. This word belongs to the category of type IX verbs, namely those which state the condition. The word kirain or in the standard language thinks is to make roughly; presume; guessed. The doer of this verb is a living noun form.

10. Type X is a verb that expresses a state of experience. Example: Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Unit of UNJ

53

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

(35) My children saw lo sawan.

The sentence above contains the verb category. The verb in a sentence is indicated by the word ngeliat or in the standard language to see. This word belongs to the category of type X verbs which represent a state of experience. The word ngeliat or in the standard language to see is to use the eye to see; (show), watch, know, see, predict, see something. The doer of this verb is a living noun form. (36)… it made the rich people of the cave feel heartbroken.

The sentence above contains the verb category. Verbs in sentences are characterized by the words make and feel. This word belongs to the category of type X verbs which represent a state of experience. The word to make is to make, to produce, to cause a situation and the word to feel is to have taste. The doer of this verb is a living noun form.

(37) However, I have seen that the players are ugly but the enemy is Ultraman.

The sentence above contains the verb category. The verb in a sentence is indicated by the word ngeliat or in the standard language to see. This word belongs to the category of type X verbs which represent a state of experience. The word ngeliat or in the standard language to see is to use the eye to see; (showing), watching, knowing, seeing, something in this case television shows. The doer of this verb is a living noun form.

11. Type XI is a verb that expresses the state of ownership. Example:

(38) yes, and the pot is still delicious if you are an artist, someone will still sell it. is I?

Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ

54

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

The sentence above contains the verb category. Verb dala, a sentence is marked by the word exist. The word there belongs to the category XI type verbs. The word is a verb that expresses a state of ownership, that is, someone seems interested. The doer of this verb is a living noun form.

12. Type XII is a verb that expresses a locative state. Example: not found.

Conclusion

Based on the data, analysis, and discussion that has been described, it can be concluded that the categories of verbs used by comedians from the most to the least are types I, II, V, X, III, VII, IV, VIII, IX, XI , VI, and XII. Type VI and XII are not used by comedians. The use of type XII which is not used by comedians also proves the assumption that this type is very rarely used.

Type I is a verb that semantically expresses action, action, or action. Type II is a verb that denotes action and experience. This means that in the Stand Up Comedy program entitled The Pain of Tuh Di Sini, comedians tell a lot about their actions and experiences.

Reference

Chaer, Abdul. 2009. Introduction to Indonesian Semantics. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta. Pateda, Mansoer. 2001. Lexical Semantics. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uT1iXMEAd0E http://kbbi.web.id/ Linguistics Program of Language and Literature Unit of Language and Literature UKM UNJ

55

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

56

PLACEMENT OF MORPHOLOGICAL MATERIALS IN INDONESIAN LANGUAGE STUDY BOOKS TO DEVELOP COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCIES5

Sintowati Rini Utami

1. Grammar Components: Morphology 1.1 The Nature of Morphology Morphology is a branch of linguistics that talks about morphemes and their arrangement in word formation. Morphology is the study of word formation. (The word morphology it self comes from The Greek Word Morphe, Which mean ‘Form’). morphology is concerned with the structure of words, just as syntax is concerned with the structure of sentences. (Morphology is the science of word formation. The word morphology itself comes from the Greek word ‘morpho’ which means form). morphology is related to the structure of words, such as syntax with regard to sentence structure) (Nida, 1949: 1). In Harimurti’s Linguistic Dictionary (1982: 111),

This paper is presented in the International Joint Seminar at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 14 May 2015. 5

UKM Linguistics Program UNJ

Language and Literature Department UNJ Language and Literature Seminar 2015

57

Hierarchically, the units in morphology are morphemes and words; morpheme as the smallest unit and word as the largest unit. So it can be concluded that morphology is a branch of grammar / grammar that examines the structure of words. As stated by Crystal (1997), morphology is “ the branch of grammar studies the structure of words. ” More clearly Ramlan (1968: 19) states that morphology is a part of linguistics that talks about or studies the ins and outs of word forms. as well as the effect of word form changes on word groups and word meanings or in other words it can be said that morphology studies the ins and outs of word form and the function of word form changes, both grammatical and semantic functions. Thus the morphological level talks about morphemes, word formation, and word classifications. The largest unit in morphology is the word. The formation of Indonesian words through various morphological processes, such as: (a) affixing (in the affixation process), (b) repetition (in the reduplication process), (c) merging (in the process of composition), (d) shortening (in the acronimization process) ), (e) and changing status (in

conversion status )

(Chaer,

2011: 25).

Meanwhile,

Harimurti

(2010: 12),

describes the morphological processes that occur from input (namely lexeme), and one of these processes (morphological processes), and output (in the form of words). In Indonesian morphology, the scope of word formation relates to morphemes, various morphological processes, morphophonemics, word classes, and words in their syntactic behavior. 1.2 Morphosyntaxis Etymologically, the word morphosyntax is related to “morpho-syntax”. Linguistically defined as ‘The system of the internal structure of words’. Morphologically, it is defined as… and the way in which words are put together to form phrases and sentences. So, ‘more formal term of grammar in linguistics sense’. The morphological level is often combined with the syntactic level to become, which is called, the grammatical level, or grammar so that words, apart from being studied in morphology, are also studied in syntax. In morphology, the word is the largest unit, while in syntax it is the smallest unit. (Chaer, 2011: 36). The statement was made by the Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

in line with the concept put forward by Van Valin Jr. (2004: 2) “Syntax and morphology make up what is traditionally referred to as ‘grammar’; an alternative term for it is morphosyntax, which explicity recognizes the important relationship between syntax and morphology. ” Morphosintaxis is a language structure that includes morphology and syntax as one organization (the two fields are not separated) (Kridalaksana, 2011: 160) (Van Valin Jr., 2004: 2). This connection is due to morphological problems that need to be discussed together with syntactic problems. For example, the language unit called word, in morphological studies, is the largest unit, while in syntactic studies it is the smallest unit in the formation of a sentence or other syntactic unit. So, The language unit referred to as the word becomes an object in the study of morphology and syntax (Chaer, 2011: 4). Morphology talks about the internal structure of words while syntax talks about words in relation to other words, or other elements as utterances. At the morphological level, the word is the largest unit (the smallest unit of morpheme), but at the syntactic level, the word is the smallest unit, which hierarchically becomes a component forming a larger syntactic unit, namely phrases. So here, the word is only discussed as the smallest unit in syntax. As the smallest unit in syntax, a word has a role as a syntactic filler function, as a syntactic category marker, and as a coupler in unifying units or parts of syntactic units (http://aldilah-bagas-d.blog.ugm.ac. id / 2012/06/12 / linguistics /) 1.3 Classes of Words in Sentences As markers of syntactic categories, words with certain classes have a role to fill syntactic functions. Word classes are word sets that behave more or less syntactically. Subclass words are parts of a word set that behave syntactically the same. Syntax behavior includes: (a) Positions of possible or apparent grammatical units in larger units;

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

58

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

59

(b) The possibility of a grammatical unit accompanied or unaccompanied by another unit in construction; (c) Possibility of substituting other grammatical units with other units; (d) Syntactic functions such as subject, predicate, and so on; (e) Syntax paradigms such as active-passive, declarative-imperative, and so on; (f) Inflection. According to Katamba (1993) inflection is the formation of words that are related to the affixation process (addition of affixes) based on syntactic rules. Or, as a grammatical formation of a word which is a tangible form of morphosynchronous features through the addition of affixation (Arronoff and Fudeman, 2005). Furthermore, Kridalaksana (160: 2011) defines inflection as a description of the rules governing the combination of morphemes in larger units, about inflectional affixes in conjugation and declination. In determining the class of words in Indonesian, this syntactic behavior is used as a basic characteristic and is supported by the morphological paradigm, especially those relating to (a), (b), and (c). 1.4 Position of words in morphology and syntax. Discussing the function of words in sentences, among others, is related to the transitivity problem of verb word classes. From a syntactic perspective, verb transitivity is determined by two factors: (Alwi, 2003: 90) (a) There is a noun standing behind the verb which functions as an object in the active sentence. example: 4 Position of Words in Morphology and Syntax. Discussing the function of words in sentences, among others, relates to the transitivity problem of verb word classes. From a syntactic perspective, verb transitivity is determined by two factors: (Alwi, 2003: 90) (a) There is a noun standing behind the verb which functions as an object in the active sentence. example: 4 Position of Words in Morphology and Syntax. Discussing the function of words in sentences, among others, relates to the transitivity problem of verb word classes. From a syntactic perspective, verb transitivity is determined by two factors: (Alwi, 2003: 90) (a) There is a noun standing behind the verb which functions as an object in the active sentence. example:

We clean the classroom s

p

o

(b) Most likely that object serves as the subject in the passive voice. example:

Classrooms are cleaned our s

Ketransitivan verb taktaransitif / intransitive

p with respect

to the

o verb

(a) Transitive verbs are affixed Characteristically

Program SME Linguistics and Literature Languages Department UNJ

which

is

transitive

and

Seminar Languages and Literature 2015

60

verbs are prefixed meng-, subject to basic verbs, not from other bases such as nouns or adjectives. Has the meaning of ‘doing the action which is stated by the root word’. Example: divide

to

divide

off

release

sliced

slicing

assault

stormed

verbs suffixed -kan or may berklofiks right clicking. With basic words in the form of original verbs, verbs with prefixes, nouns, adjectives, task words or prepositional phrases. Examples:

work

doing

powerless

to empower

schools

to send

forget

forget

to advance

suggests

(b) The verb prefix affixed Characteristically Taktransitif meng- can also form taktransitif, derived in from nouns or adjectives, bound basis (Alwi, 2003: 134)

Examples:

land

landed

cigarettes

smoking

yellow

yellowing

swollen

swollen

area

extends

moan

moan

inpatient

stay

My sister moan S

P

Pel

She was staying at the hotel program Linguistics SME Job Language and Literature UNJ

Seminar Languages and Literature 2015

61

S

P

Ket

tourists abroad flock to Bali S

P

Ket

Andi keep insisting S

P

(C) Verbal prepositional is a verb taktransitif or transitive verbs are always followed by a preposition, such as in the following sentence: (Alwi, 2003: 95) Example verb intransitive followed by the preposition We do not yet know it s

p

mop

interested in belonging to the Examples of transitive verbs followed by the preposition know will / about = know speak about = talk

2. Communicative Competence In acquiring language skills, a person will naturally show his language skills, namely showing his knowledge of the language and his ability to display the performance of his language in real use of language using that language. Or in other words, someone has shown their communicative competence in language. Canale and Swain’s explain that communicative competence is the interaction between grammatical / grammatical competence (knowledge of grammar rules) and sociolinguistic competence (knowledge of the rules of language use). This separates communicative competence from communicative performance which refers to the use of actual language in real communication situations. That is, that is

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

62

referred to knowledge includes sociolinguistic competence (Murcia-Freemen, 1999: 38). Furthermore, Canale and Swain’s communicative competence (knowledge model) consists of knowledge of grammar, vocabulary, morphology, syntax, semantics, and phonology (grammatical competence); knowledge of the sociocultural rules of language use and the rules of discourse (sociolinguistic knowledge); knowledge of how to solve problems that occur when communicating (strategic competence). The authors of the teaching materials in textbooks have a number of considerations. In developing grammar teaching materials they also take into account (a) the age and level of students who will use grammar materials, (b) the extent to which the methodology used can meet the expectations of both students and teachers, (c) the extent to which each context and co-text used to present grammar areas will be of interest to students (Tomlinson, 2007: 329). So the selection of teaching materials for teaching grammar in language textbooks must take into account: the age of the student, the teaching methodology, the context and context.

that

describes where grammar is used, natural grammar in spoken and written discourse. The use of grammar that shows realistic use, provides a language experience in its use, can stimulate language use, or can help students find their own language. The use of grammar includes language rules at the morphological level (subsentetial), the level of syntax (sentential), and the level of discourse (suprasentential) which contains descriptions that must be mastered by students regarding language skills (not containing grammar rules), and facilitating students. learn language skills with authentic exercises and tests, stimulate interaction and encourage students to apply their developing skills to words outside of the classroom. However, not only communicative competence

refers to both the knowledge and

skills in using the language when interacting in actual communication. In competence, a new category is added, namely discourse which is defined as the ability to produce ‘text’ which uses cohesion in form and integration in meaning. In the Canale and Swain model, it is illustrated how knowledge of grammar is placed in communicative competence. Linguistics Program of UKM Language and Literature Position UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

63

Communicative competence

Actual communication

Knowledge and skill

Instances of language use

Grammatical Sociolinguistic competence competence

Strategic competence

Discourse competence

As Murcia-Freeman also explains, the organization of competence is both grammar and discourse. As one of the three dimensions that language has, grammar gives us the form or structure of language. Meanwhile, other dimensions are semantics, which give meaning to the structure of language, and pragmatics. So, developing communicative competence includes placing grammar. Model

competence

communicative

at the

top

set the

position of

competence

grammatical / grammatical as part of communicative competence. This explains that grammatical competence occupies an important position as the main component of communicative competence (Douglas Brown, 2001: 362). In Indonesian language learning that leads to communication skills, the development of Indonesian language skills is directed at communicative competence. This means that the grammatical competency component is the main component. And, if the teaching of Indonesian is aimed at communication purposes, it means that the direction of development is communication skills using good and correct language. To speak properly and correctly means to consider the use of

its morphological components

needed when interacting in actual language communication. Brown describes the scope and sequence of language teaching aimed at developing communication skills. In this diagram illustrates how aspects of governance become an important component in developing language skills (Brown, 2001: 103).

Linguistics Program UKM Language and Literature Position UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

64

Scop and Sequence TOPICS

Meeting people

GRAMMAR

COMMUNICATION SKILL

Subject pronouns

Listening and Speaking

Reading and Writing

Greeting and introducing people

Reading abreviation

Murcia (1991) explains that grammar is an important variable. Teachers should think about whether teaching grammaring as a skill or teaching grammar as knowledge (Murcia, 1999: 6). However, as a major component in communicative competence, teachers must teach grammar aspects to develop grammatical competence. So, in learning Indonesian in the classroom the teacher must help students to use the morphological components, appropriately, meaningfully, and in accordance with the language context needed in real communication. The grammar formulation in the language developed in the teaching materials includes three levels of morphology

(subsentesial), the

level of

syntax

(sentential),

and

the

level of

discourse

(suprasentential) (Murcia-Freemen, 1999: 2-3). Communicative competence is built through mastery of how a word is formed and functioned in a sentence (sentential). Thus learning morphological components does not only understand how words are formed, but also understands their morphosyntax. Morphosyntaxis describes how the position of words in a sentence and the patterns of their use in the form of a sentence (subsentential). Furthermore, the development of communicative competence can be developed by displaying the form of words in an appropriate discourse (suprasentential). Above all, the development of morphology teaching materials must remain based on language as a system (Nurhadi, 1992: 267). So, the morphology teaching material means that it must consider and include the rules of language, namely: morpheme, morphological processes, morphophonemic, word class, and morphosyntaxis. Morphology teaching materials must contain descriptions that must be mastered by students regarding their language skills. So, no

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

65

contains grammar rules. According to Widdowson

Grammar teaching materials should

aimed at understanding students on their function, not fixated on the rules. “Learners need to realize the functions of the device (ie grammar) as away of mediating between words and contexts, as a powerful resource for the purposeful achievement of meaning. A communicative approach, properly conceived, does not involve the rejection of grammar. On the contrary, it involves a recognition of its central mediating role, the use and learning of language ”Widdowson, HG, 1990: 97-8). Language morphology teaching materials that are considered to be developed in language skills learning can convince students of the need for a device function in the form of grammar which mediates between words and context as a strong resource to achieve meaningful language goals. 3.

developed through the achievement of basic competencies.

The basic competencies in the Education Unit Level Curriculum (KTSP) are

based on four

language skills, while the basic competencies in the 2013 Curriculum are text based. In both KTSP and K 2013, the grammar aspect is still used as a means to develop students’ communicative competence and language skills. The following is an example of developing morphological material in textbooks and an overview of the communicative competences developed. MATERIALS MORFOLOGI

communicative competence

Materials 1 (page 129)

K. Grammatical

K.Sosiolinguistik

K.Wa cana

K. Strategic

V

V

_

V

2. Word Formation According to Arifin and Tasai, in Indonesian, there are two ways of forming words, namely from

the Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ

Remarks

1. The grammar of the morphology material does not clearly describe how words are formed and functioned, so there is no opportunity to describe the position of

the 2015

66 Language and Literature Seminar

and from outside Indonesian. In Indonesian, new vocabulary is formed based on existing words, while from outside, new words are formed through absorption elements.

basic words and composition forms in sentences, and patterns of use in sentences, and do not display the form of words in an appropriate discourse. The grammar formulas have not provided sentential, subsentential, and suprasentential descriptions.

From the Indonesian language, new words are formed, for example:

Closed

day Unlucky day

closed year

Anniversary of book

closed

Holidays

2. communicative competence is built by placing morphological grammatical competence. Morphology is taught by introducing basic forms and compositional forms in passing. The rules for using basic forms are touched upon to develop sociolinguistic competences. However, the material selection cannot be used for text creation (discourse competence). Even so, there is a little picture to overcome if there are communication problems due to the use of these basic or compound forms (strategic competence).

end of age

From outside the Indonesian language, words are formed through absorption, for example: Television currency

credit bank In using words, especially in official situations, you need to pay attention to the following things: a.

Avoid words that are commonly used in the spoken language or the local language. Example: hanging out. These words can be used if they have become public property. For example: straightforward, excited, manageable, relaxed, selfless.

b.

Words that contain taste values ​​should be used carefully and carefully so that they match the place and atmosphere of the conversation. Example: blind, deaf, speech impaired.

Avoid words that are not commonly used, unless they are already used by the public. Example: it is said, bayu, laskar, puspa. Page 131 3.

Error

V the formation of

_

_

and

the Linguistic Program of the UKM Language and Literature Position UNJ

V

1. The grammar of the morphological material describes how words are formed

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

word selection The following section shows the formation of words, which are often found, both in spoken and written language. a.

Men prefix date

Prefix in the headline in the newspaper is allowed. However, in the text of the news the prefix must be explicit. Example: the government proposes an increase in fuel prices (wrong) the government proposes an increase in fuel prices. (correct) b. Prefix ber- Words beginning with ber- often remove the prefix ber-. Though the prefix ber- must be explicitly explained. Example: see you again. (wrong) until we meet again. (correct) c. The deceleration of the sound / c / The root word preceded by the sound / c / often fades when the prefix me-. whereas, indeed the sound / c / does not fade when it gets the prefix me-. Example: Anita is cleaning her motorcycle. (wrong) Anita was washing her motorcycle. (correct) d. Basic word ingestion. We often find the use of words such as sneezing, drowsiness, writing, pinching, refusing, bribing, and searching. In standard Indonesian, we have to use words, pickpocket, sleep, write, pinch, refuse, bribe and seek. e. Sounds / s /, / k /, / p /, and / t / which do not melt. Basic words whose initial sound is / s /, / k /,

Linguistics Program for Language and Literature Department, UNJ

67

(affixation) and morphophonemic events but how the word form is functioned in the sentence is not all described so that the position of the affixed words is not visible and the patterns of their use in the sentence, and does not display the form of the word in an appropriate discourse The grammar formulation only gives sentential descriptions. 2. communicative competence is built by placing morphological grammatical competence. Morphology is taught by introducing basic forms, affixation processes, and morphophonemic events. The rules for the use of forms are wrongly described but cannot be used to develop sociolinguistic competences. Also, the material selection cannot be used for text creation (discourse competence).

Language and Literature Seminars 2015

68

/ p /, and / t / often do not melt if they get the prefix of me or pe-. whereas according to the standard rule the sounds had to melt into nasal sounds. Example: One

True

Persuplai

supplies

erode

eroding

Obey

obey

f. Wrong prefix to- In everyday reality, the word that should start with to- is most often the beginning. In general, the error is influenced by the regional language. Example: my groceries were taken away by a buyer who had just left. (Wrong) My groceries were carried away by a buyer who had just left. (true) g. Use of the suffix –ir Example: I am able to coordinate the activity. (wrong) I was able to coordinate the activity. (true) Soekarno-Hatta proclaims the independence of the Republic of Indonesia (wrong) Soekarno-Hatta proclaims the independence of the Republic of Indonesia (true) Page 24. E. Understand the prefix

V process

V

_

morphophonemic

In the synopsis of the novel “Kemarau”, you will certainly find some words that begin with, such as despair, hope, try, play, and

the Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Unit of UNJ

_

1. The grammar of the morphological material does not clearly describe how words are formed and functioned , so that there is no opportunity to describe the position of affixed words along with their morphophonemics and patterns –

the 2015 Language and Literature Seminar and

so on. Did you know, the prefix ber- also undergoes phoneme or morphophonemic changes? Morphophonemic is a phoneme change that occurs as a result of a meeting of a morpheme with other morphemes. The prefix undergoes the following morphophonemic. 1.

The prefix changes to be- when it meets a root starting with the phoneme / r /.

Example: twigs → twig Fir tree with many branches and small leaves. 2.

The prefix changes to be- when it is added to a word whose first syllable ends with / er /.

Example: work + work → work Father has worked in the fields since the sun has not appeared 3.

The prefix changes to bel- when it is added to a certain basis. Example:

teach- + teach → learn younger sibling learns Indonesian in the terrace 4.

The prefix does not change its shape when combined with a basis outside of rules 1 to 3. example:

hopes + hopes → hopes She hopes that the farmers in her village will follow their actions which he did

Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ

69

uses patterns in sentences, and does not display affixed word forms in an appropriate discourse. The grammar formulas have not provided sentential, subsentential, and suprasentential descriptions. 2. communicative competence is built by placing morphological grammatical competence. Morphology is taught by introducing affixed word forms along with their morphophonemics. Morphophonemic rules are described scientifically so that they do not provide an opportunity to develop sociolinguistic competences and cannot be used for text creation (discourse competence). In addition, there is no opportunity to overcome (strategic competence) in the event of communication problems due to morphophonemic events in the formation of affixed words.

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

70

5. Conclusion The development of communicative competence through teaching morphological components in Indonesian language textbooks is generally placed on the development of grammatical competencies.

The development

of

communicative competence

has not

put

competence

sociolinguistics, discourse competence, and strategic competence effectively. Knowledge of the ins and outs of Indonesian word formation is not accompanied by sociocultural rules of language use and rules of discourse to be able to produce text, nor does it describe much about how to solve problems that occur when communicating using these word forms. Thus it is not enough to improve ‘communicative competence’ and ‘communicative performance’ in students’ language performance. Grammatical competence, through morphological component material, which is placed in Indonesian language textbooks generally contains the subject of word formation, namely: morphemes (basics and affixes), morphological processes, morphophonemic, word classes, morphosyntaxis. However, the contents of the grammatical formulas contained in the word formation material are generally only at the sentential level. Explanations are more likely to be fixated on the rules, the rules for how words are formed with the various rules of formation. Little is explained morphosyntactically to achieve the subsentential level. Meanwhile, how to present word forms with their various morphological processes in a suitable (suprasentantial) discourse has not been covered.

Achmad Reference, HP Syntax Indonesian. Jakarta: Manasco Offset. 2002. Alwi, Hasan, et al. Indonesian Language Standard Grammar. Jakarta: Language Center. Ministry of Education and Culture. 2003. Arronoff, Mark and Fudeman. 2005.What is Morphology ?. Australia: Blackwell Publishing. Brown, Douglas. Teaching by Principles: an Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy. Second Edition. Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. 2001. Chaer, Abdul. Indonesian Morphology (Process Approach). Jakarta: Rineka Cipta 2011 Linguistics Program for Language and Literature Department, UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

—————-. Language Studies: Internal Structure, Usage and Learning. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta. 2007. —————. Bibliography Study. Language: Indonesian / Malay. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta. 2010. Ministry of National Education. KTSP Curriculum for Indonesian Language Subjects for Junior High Schools (SMP) / Madrasah Tsanawiyah (MTs) 2007. Depdiknas. 2007 Freeman, David E. and Freeman, Yvonne S. Beetween Words, Access to Second Language Acquisition. Porstmouth, NH: Heineman Halliday, MAK (Revised by Christian MIM Matthiessen). An Intoduction to Functional Grammar. (Third Edition). London: Oxford University Press Inc. ison-Wesley Pulishing Company, Inc. 2004. Nasr, RT (1978). The Essential of Linguistics. England: Longman Oka, IGN and Suparno. 1994. General Linguistics. Jakarta: Dirjendikti Depdikbud. Parker, Frank & Riley, Kathryn. 2010. Fifth Edition Linguistics for Non-Linguistic A Premiier With Exercise Ramlan, M. 2001. Morphology: A Descriptive Action. (Yogyakarta: CV Haryono) Katamba, Francis. Morphology. London: The Macmillan Press Ltd. 1993 Kridalaksana, Harimurti. Word Class in Indonesian. Jakarta: Gramedia. 2008. Ministry of National Education. 2013 Curriculum Development, Ministry of National Education, November 2012. Murcia, Marianne Celce and Freeman, Diane Larsen. The Grammar Book (second edition). USA: Heinley & heinley Publisher. 1999. Nurhadi. Analysis of the Pedagogical aspects of the Grammar of Indonesian Language Education. S2 thesis. Malang: Faculty of Postgraduate Program, IKIP Malang. 1992. Pike, Kenneth L and Pike, Evelyn G. Grammatical Analysis. Summer Institute of Linguistics. Publication in Linguistics. Number 53. 1977. Priyatni, Endah Tri et al. Indonesian Secondary School. Ministry of National Education: Bookkeeping Center. 2008. Ramlan. Morphology: A Descriptive Review. Yagyakarta: UP Karyono.1983. Soenardji. Linguistic Joints for the Interest of Language Teaching. Depdikbud: PPLPTK. 1989. Soeparno. Fundamentals of General Linguistics. Yogyakarta: Tiara discourse. 2002. Tomlinson, Brian (ed). Developing Materials for Language Teaching. London: Continuum. 2007. Tompkins, Gail E. Language Arts: Patterns of Practice. Seventh Edition. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc. 2009.

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

71

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

Utami, Sintowati Rini. “Competence of Indonesian Language and Literature Teachers: Sentence Structure”. Journal of Analysis Vol.7 No.1. Center for Language and Cultural Development, FBS UNJ. 2008. Van Valin Jr., Robert D. An Introduction to Syntax. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2004 Verhaar, JW M. Principles of General Linguistics. Gadjah Mada University Press. 2010. Widdowson, HG Aspect of Language Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1990. Wilkins, DA. Linguistics in Language Teaching. The English Language Book Society and Edward Arnold (Publishers) Ltd. 1983. Altiria, Seradona. Study on the Relationship between Morphology and Syntax and Semantics. (Http://www.academia.edu/6242951/Haitan_Morfologi_dengan_Sintaksis_dan_Semantik) accessed on 4 March 2015. Bagas, Aldilah. 2012. Linguistics. (http://aldilah-bagas-d.blog.ugm.ac.

Program Linguistics SME Department of Language and Literature UNJ

72

Festival of Arts 2015

ACCEPTANCE OF ENGLISH IN DIALECT RAWA: RESEARCH BORROWING WORDS

Harishon Radzi Nurul Jawahir Binti Md Ali

Introduction The Malay Stock is rich in ethnic diversity as Java, Banjar, Bugis, Minang, Mathura, Minang, Acheh and more. In this diverse ethnic group, there is one ethnic group from the same cluster, namely Rao or better known as Rawa.

Rawa ethnic history begins in Rao Mapat-Tunggul, in Pasaman district, West Sumatra, Indonesia (Jari Basurek 2009: 27). In the northern part, it is a place of residence for the Mandailing tribe. Rao Mapat-Tunggul is mentioned as one of the seven dialects spoken in West Sumatra.

Rawa ethnic migration to Malaya centuries has made them one of the public entities, known in Malaysia and has its own dialect. The migration of the Swamp to Malaya said to have occurred around the 5th century AD. Factors of free trade during the Malacca Sultanate in the 15th century AD has encouraged more people to travel Rawa, trade and domiciled in Malaya.

The vigorous activity of gold mining in the 17th century AD and tin mining in the 18th century AD has driven most of the miners tribes through the swamp to Malaya Straits Settlements, namely Singapore, Malacca and Penang.

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

73

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

mass exodus of ethnic Rao to Malaya occur during the Padri War (1816-1833) in Indonesia during the Dutch occupation of Indonesia. Most of them consist of palaces, scholars, scholars, commanders and so on. The following is the process of Rawa ethnic migration by state in Malaysia:

1. Negeri Sembilan Migration to Seri Menanti around 1773 and through Sungai Ujong (Seremban) around 1848. 2. Pahang Migration through Sungai Hulu Pahang (Bera, Hulu Pahang, Kuala Lipis, Raub, Bentong) around 1857-1863. Among them are Tengku Khairul Alam and Pakeh Khalifah Saka. 3. Selangor Migration through Sungai Klang (Hulu Langat, Hulu Selangor) and Sungai Selangor (Kalumpang, Ampang, Kuala Lumpur, Gombak) around 1867-1873. The pioneer has yet to be identified. 4. Perak Migration through Sungai Perak, Sungai Bidor and Sungai Bernam (Teluk Intan, Kuala Kangsar, Larut, Kinta, Gopeng, Temoh, Tapah, Kampar) around 1875-1876. Among them is Datuk Sakti Putih. 5. Kelantan The Swamp tribe also migrated to Kelantan via the Pahang River, especially in the Pasir Mas colony by Sutan Amir Kaharuddin Budiman. Finally, the Rawa group has developed into an ethnic group in Malaysia. They appear as one of the ethnic groups who live with their own unique language and culture.

Dialect Swamp

The Swamp at one time was known as the Malay majority is in the state of Perak. In addition, they speak a distinctive dialect among them. However, the declining number of them in Perak makes the history, background and dialect they speak less known not only in Malaysia but also in the state of Perak itself. In addition, there are very few documented studies on the language spoken by the Rawa community.

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

74

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

Thus, the author is interested in doing research on this language. The authors wish to study loan words in the dialect of the Malay language Swamp. The Rawa community is a group that can be considered a minority compared to other bumiputeras. Therefore, the existence of this ethnicity is not so felt. In fact, they also use the Malay language to communicate with other people. In order to continue the survival of their community, the spoken language is also bound to change in terms of the addition of new words from the dominant language. As an ethnic minority that is located amid the majority Malay community, borrowing the word is very important for their survival.

Apart from the problems as above, a study on the Rawa dialect is necessary to further explain about this minority dialect. The Rawa dialect is only briefly mentioned by Raja Mukhtaruddin Raja Mohd Dain (1986), Asmah Haji Omar (2008) and Collins, JT (1995).

The study that really focuses on this dialect is only a study conducted by Harun Mat Piah (1969), Mohd. Tajuddin Noordin (1975) and Norzaitun Akma Baharuddin (2009). The writing that touches on the Perak dialect, the rest only reveals the Rawa dialect as one of the dialects that exist without explanation.

In these three studies of the Rawa dialect, Harun Mat Piah and (1969) and Mohd. Tajuddin Noordin (1975) has focused on the same aspect, namely phonology. Norzaitun Akma Baharuddin (2009) focuses on morphological aspects. Thus, this study can be used as a consolidation to the existing gaps. In this paper, the authors wish to express, on issues and problems that are quite dialect Swamp current and up to date, namely changes in the dialect itself by borrowing words from languages other than English dominant character.

Loan Word

According to Nik Safiah Karim and Wan Malini Ahmad (2006: 58), a foreign vocabulary is a vocabulary borrowed or taken from another language with or without linguistic adaptation. It can be said that all the languages ​​in the world also borrow vocabulary from foreign languages ​​to enrich their vocabulary, he said. Borrowing can take place directly, adaptation or through the translation of a foreign word or concept.

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

75

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

Direct borrowing and adjustment is done when the term or word does not exist in a language. Examples of English borrowings into English directly is the word model and gender. Examples of adaptive word borrowing are like the bottle from the word bottle and the word evolution from the word evolution. Borrowing a word or concept by translation is done by giving the meaning of a new word or new foreign concept. For example, the word translated as honey moon honey moon and the term translated as laptops laptop in Malay.

According to Weinrich (in. Nik Safiah Karim & Wan Malini Ahmad 2006), there are several factors that cause the borrowing of a language. Among them is the need to name new things, places and concepts in a language. Apart from the factors that demand the need to explain something, language borrowing can also occur due to the higher frequency of use of foreign words compared to the mother tongue or first language. This makes foreign words easier to remember and easier to understand due to their widespread use. Eventually, the word will be borrowed into the original language.

Not only that, according to him, word borrowing can also happen to overcome the problem of synonyms. The term marriage and the prayers of the Arabic language is used as a more appropriate term to describe a general concept such as marriage and worship in the Malay language is a religious obligation. The fourth factor that causes language borrowing according to Weinrich is to express a word more accurately, then the loan word is taken from another language. For example, a bad word already exists in the Malay language. However, terrible words are borrowed from Arabic to express something more accurate than bad.

Questionnaire Method

This study was conducted in Gopeng Perak. A total of 40 respondents were selected to answer this questionnaire. There are 40 respondents involved, namely a total of 20 male respondents and 20 female respondents.

The questionnaire in this study consists of five questions and all the questions are in the form of objectives, that is, have a choice of answers A, B, C and so on as well as a question in the form of a double yes or no. UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

76

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

77 The

author will first explain the purpose of the questionnaire and give a clear picture to the respondents about the requirements of more specific questions.

The analysis of the questionnaire was done by the author quantitatively, that is, by obtaining the number and percentage of each answer given by the respondent in the form. The respondents involved in contributing to the data of this questionnaire were a total of 40 people.

This questionnaire has a choice of answers, which is objective in nature. Therefore, each answer selected by the respondents needs to be analyzed and the percentage value will be calculated to get a summary and answers to the author’s questions. Each of these percentages will then be interpreted.

Analysis Analysis Question One Question 1: From which source you always borrow the words of the Malay language to be used in the dialect of the Swamp? A. Television B. Radio C. Newspapers D. Magazines E. Family F. Friends G. Education H. Internet

Table 1: Findings from question one No.

Answer Options

ABCDEFGH

Television Radio Newspaper Family Magazine Friends Internet Education

Total (people) 0 0 4 0 27 16 2 1

UKM Linguistic Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

Percentage (%) 0 0 8 0 54 32 4 2

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

Figure 1: Percentage of answer to question one

Question of the questionnaire was filed with the objective to determine the sources used by respondents to borrow the words of the Malay language to be used in the dialect of Rawa.

From the table and pie chart above, the family is the highest source of borrowed resources both Malay and most were friends, followed by newspapers, education and fewest resources is the internet. Answer choices A. Television, B. Radio and D. Magazines were not selected by 40 respondents.

Answer choices E. Family and F. Friends with a percentage of 54% and 32% are the two most common answers and have a percentage of more than half of the total answers. All respondents chose one of these answers in the questionnaire. Rationally, family and friends are a very important group in social activities. These social activities also involve language treatment together. Use and borrowing Malay word among family and friends were able to spread more quickly through socialization. Then, the two groups were selected by respondents as their primary source of borrowing terms in the dialect of the Malay language to Rawa.

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

78

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

79

Sources of borrowing Malay newspapers preferred answer is C. by 8%, 4% of Education G. and H. Internet by 2%. The authors classify three response options as a secondary source of the respondents in terms borrowed language. This small percentage probably reflects the lack of influence of the press, education and the internet in influencing language borrowing.

Answer choices A. Television, B. Radio and D. Magazines do not contribute any percentage to this question. Some respondents are of the view that television, radio and magazines have no influence on their language activities.

Respondents agreed that they socialize and live in a community whether with family or friends with groups that come from various backgrounds, including those who are not of Rawa descent. Gopeng town is also inhabited by the Malays who came from various places, especially residents of other areas of Perak factor demands of work, marriage, travel and so on. Thus, language activities in social activities have a huge impact on the use of the language they use.

Analysis Question Two Question 2: Specify other language than English, you are more likely to borrow the words of any language? A. English B. Silver Dialect C. Indonesian D. Chinese Table 2: Findings from question two No. ABCD

Choice of Answers English Dialect Silver Bahasa Indonesia Chinese

Total (people) 5 23 11 1

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

Percentage (%) 12.5 57.5 27.5 2.5

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

Figure 2: Percentage of answer two questions

These two questions focus on getting an idea of ​​the influence of other languages ​​on the Rawa dialect. English, Perak dialects, Indonesian and Chinese were selected as the answer choices. English is chosen by the author because it is the second dominant language in Malaysia. Perak dialect itself was chosen based on the background factor of the place of this study itself which is located in the state of Perak. Bahasa Indonesia was chosen because the Rawa dialect is from Sumatra, Indonesia. The Chinese language is taken as the answer option due to the Gopeng town factor which has a very large Chinese population.

From the table and pie chart above, the Perak dialect contributed to the highest percentage of 57.50% followed by Indonesian, English and Chinese. The highest percentage is indeed expected by the writer as Gopeng itself is located in the state of Perak. Although the majority of the residents are descendants of Rawa but there are also resident in Gopeng Perak Malay. The Rawa community there is also able to speak the Perak dialect well. Thus, Perak dialect is a language that is closest to them other than Malay.

Answer option C. Bahasa Indonesia carries a percentage of 27.5%. The influence of the Indonesian language is undeniable because this language is the language of the country of origin inhabited by the Rawa ethnic group. Answer choice A. ranked third in percentage, which is 12.5%. In UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

80

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

81

a pilot study conducted by the author, there are terms and words Swamp borrowed from English, namely ‘paper’ which means paper as well as newspapers from the original English word ‘paper’. Answer D. Chinese contributes to the lowest percentage of 2.5%. This is probably because Chinese is a language that is not understood by Rawa speakers and this language comes from a very different group of people in terms of ethnicity and origin. The author argues that a high percentage of silver and Indonesian dialects may be caused by both language has kesalingfahaman (mutual intelligibility) because these languages ​​and dialects Rawa himself came from the same stock, the Malays. Question Analysis Three Question 3: How well your acceptance into the dialect of the Malay language Swamp? A. Very good B. Good C. Not good D. Very bad Table 3: Findings from question three No.

Answer Choice

Total (people)

ABCD

Very good Good Not very good

8 24 6 2

UKM Linguistic Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

Percentage (%) 20 60 15 5

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

Figure 3: Percentage of answers to three

questions done to get a sense of acceptance speakers Rawa towards Rawa Malay dialect. This acceptance is classified into four answer choices, namely A. Very Good, B. Good, C. Poor and D. Very Bad.

The percentage of answers according to the highest percentage is B. Good 60%, A. Very good 20%, C. Poor 15% and the lowest percentage D. Very bad 5%. The answer to this question is not expected by the author because the author thinks that the native speakers of a minority language will reject the influence of a more dominant language to preserve the continuity of its language. However, the findings from this question prove that the author’s initial assumptions are wrong.

According to some respondents, they were very receptive to the Malay language because they think that Malay is the national language that unites people in this country. Thus, the influence of the Malay language was well received by most respondents. Some respondents stated view that the Malay language is acceptable because the Malay language is needed to communicate with other people who are not descendants of Rawa. They argued that the Malay language as the medium container or relations with other groups in society who do not understand the dialect Swamp. Most of these answers were selected by respondents from the youth.

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

82

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

83

Answers C and D is, bad and very bad was chosen on rational fear of extinction dialect Swamp when the influence of the Malay language too broadly. In addition, respondents chose this answer also argues that the use of the Malay language that is too broadly can result in enfeeblement Swamp society especially the young generation. Almost all the respondents who chose C and D as the answer are also the Rawa community in their 50s and 60s. Analysis Question Four Question 4: Do borrowing words from Malay dialect will lead to the extinction of the Swamp? Table 4: Findings from question four Answer Choice

Total (people)

Yes No

14 26

Percentage (%) 35 65

Figure 4: Percentage of answer question four

Question four is a continuation of the three questions, which is to seek the views of respondents either going extinct dialect Rawa due to the influence of the Malay language. There are two answer choices for this question, namely yes or no. Answer yes, which accounted for 35% determined by a number of respondents fearing the influence of the Malay language that is too large can result from a group of speakers Rawa Rawa familiar with Malay dialect and then forgot to swamp as their native language. In addition, this concern also arises when some of the Rawa community tends to

UKM Linguistic Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

84

use the Malay language at home to lead children and young people can not learn the dialect of Rawa childhood.

The answer is not the highest answer choice but more than half of the total answer. This answer carries a percentage of 65% while the answer yes contributes to 35%. As the author describes as a percentage consistent with good and excellent high in the previous question were asked about their acceptance of the influence of the Malay language. That is, their acceptance of the Malay language was good and in line with their view that the influence of the Malay language will not lead to wide extinction Swamp dialect.

In addition, some respondents stated that the Rawa dialect is their language that is already ingrained. Thus, they have a strong identity and are confident that the Rawa dialect is able to survive to continue to remain as a native language and also as the identity of the Rawa community. There are also respondents who commented that the Rawa dialect has a wide distribution, namely many speakers everywhere as in other areas in Perak, Penang, Pahang, Negeri Sembilan, Selangor and the Rawa ethnic state itself in Rao, Sumatra.

Analysis Question Five Question 5: Why did you borrow vocabulary from the dialect of the Malay language in the Swamp? A. To modernize the Rawa dialect B. The need for new terms C. Social factors D. Other factors Table 5: Findings from question five

No. ABCD

Answer Options To modernize the Rawa dialect Needs for new terms Social factors Other factors

Total (people) 6 3 27 4

UKM Linguistic Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

Percentage (%) 15 7.5 67.5 10

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

Figure 5: Percentage of question answers five

questions, five of the last questions posed to respondents know the true reason to borrow the words of Malay dialect used in Rawa. the author provides four answer choices, namely A. To modernize the Rawa dialect, B. The need for new terms, C. Social factors and D. Other factors.

Answer C. Social factors have the highest percentage of 67.5% and exceed half of the total answers. The authors have stated previously in the analysis of questions about the source of Malay respondents to borrow a phrase has to do with social aspects and analysis of three questions about the Malay language as an instrument of communication with other people who do not speak the dialect of Rawa. Social factors have the highest number because language is very related and inseparable from social and societal activities. Respondents stated that the term Malay borrowed or used to meet social requirements, particularly when interacting with people who do not speak the dialect of Rawa.

Answer A. To modernize the Rawa dialect it ranks second highest with a percentage of 15%. This answer is widely chosen by young respondents. They argued that the dialect Swamp need some Malay term for the dialect Swamp is more modern and more prestigious. Additionally, there are terms that have nothing in common Rawa directly with the dialect or language. Thus, the term Malay borrowed and adapted for phonological dialect swamp to make it more modern and diverse. The example given is the term ‘ninek’ which originally means ‘grandfather’ now using the Malay word ‘grandpa’. Similarly, the word ‘kangkung’ is borrowed into ‘kangkuong’ although there is a term ‘skewer’ to refer to the vegetable.

85

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

‘bojeyo’, the word ‘hate’ became ‘bonci’ which is called ‘jojok’ in the Rawa dialect and the word ‘hair’ which was originally called ‘obuak’ became ‘rambuet’.

Answer choice D. Another factor ranks third, which is 10%. This answer was chosen by respondents aged in their 20s. Personally, one of the respondents chose this answer on the grounds that he felt more and more prestigious when using languages other than English. Swamp identity tries to hide to make it look more modern and not look as obvious as a village.

Answer choice B. The need for a new term is the least answered by the respondent, which has a percentage of 7.5%. Some respondents do not dismiss this as a reason for why they use the Malay language but noted that the dialect Swamp actually has its own terms even borrow the words of the Malay language as an example the word grandfather, kale, many, hate and hair as above.

Conclusion

The questionnaire that has been prepared by this author consists of five objective questions, namely the choice of answers. In this section, the author will highlight only the most and most dominant answers because each question in this questionnaire has a similar pattern consistently. The intended pattern is that there is one answer for each question from beginning to end which obtains a percentage of more than 50%, which is more than half of the total findings.

Thus, the answers that are present regularly and significantly will be evaluated and formulated because the significant percentage in each question has an impact and is a sign to the language practice of the Rawa community in Gopeng.

Source Malay Loan Words in Dialect Swamp Through the analysis conducted by the authors in the last chapter, family and friends are very influential group in practice and speech acts respondents. If the percentage of these two groups is mixed, the percentage obtained is 86%.

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

86

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

The two groups are believed to be the primary source of borrowed vocabulary into the dialect of the Malay language as the vibrancy Swamp interaction and communication that takes place in the social aspect is often hovering between the two entities, namely family and friends. Languages ​​Do Borrowed Besides Malay findings of the analysis of this question proves that dialect Silver has a very significant influence on the dialect Swamp other than Malay. The percentage of respondents who chose the Perak dialect was 57.5%.

The location of this study itself located in Gopeng, Perak shows a synonym between the minority dialect (Rawa dialect) spoken with the superordinate dialect (Perak dialect), which has a wider use with a larger number of speakers. Therefore, it is not surprising when the Indonesian language is not the first choice even though there is a language kinship between the two due to strong social factors – the influence of the language of the local community, namely the Perak dialect.

Admission to the Malay dialect, in Swamp

Disclosure of the minds of the respondents exhibited by the findings on this question. Good and very good answers have a very large percentage and if combined percentages, these two positive receipts are worth 80%.

Respondents receive good effect Malay language because they also love the Malay language as a symbol of the Malays and the Malay language become an important tool for them to communicate with speakers that do not understand the dialect Swamp.

To view Malay as the impetus of Extinction Dialect Swamp

As the findings of the responses received in the previous question (relating to the acceptance of Malay), also received a positive answer to the fourth question. Some 65% of the 40 respondents deny and reject the fact that the borrowing Malay dialect Rawa will be the catalyst and driving to extinction dialect Swamp.

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

87

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

The respondents who chose this answer agreed that the Rawa dialect is powerful and able to withstand the current of modernization. They are convinced that there are still many Rawa natives who have a strong identity to preserve their language and culture. In addition, this confidence also arises on the basis of the widespread distribution of this dialect in Malaysia in addition to the large number of speakers in their home state in Rao, Sumatra, Indonesia.

In conclusion, the presence of the influence of Malay dialect Swamp undeniable. Through the findings of the questionnaires, the use of Malay dialect borrowed in Rawa always closely linked to the social aspect. Not only that, the acceptance of Malay dialect Rawa also generally well tolerated.

References Amat Juhari Moain. 1993. Language enrichment through the process of borrowing and absorption. Journal of Dewan Bahasa 35 (8): 717-724. Asmah Haji Omar | 2008. Ed. 2nd. Traceability Malay. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa Pustaka. Brennan, H. 1992. lexical borrowing in Malay. Journal of Dewan Bahasa 34 (6): 552-555. Chambers, JK & Trudgill, P. 1990. Dialectology. Terj. Annuar Ayub | Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. Collins, JT 1995. Bibliography on the island of Sumatra, the Malay dialect. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. Gusdi Sastra. 2006. Language development borrowing. Journal of the Language Board. 50 (1): 26-30. Harun Mat Piah | 1969. Rawa dialect sound system spoken in Gopeng Perak district. Scientific Training. University of Malaya. Jari Basurek (pnyt.). 2009. Sekondakhati: forging ties among Malay Rao (Rawa) archipelago. Jitra: Altacom (M) Sdn. Bhd. Kamal Bahari Ahmad. 2009. Rao – Synopsis. http://raocyberinfo.blogspot.com/2009/04/rao-sinopsis.html [19 April 2010]. Dictionary. 2008. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. Linguistic Dictionary. 1997. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. Mukim Teja Statistics Report, Mukim Teja Penghulu Office, 31600 Gopeng, Perak Darul Ridzuan. UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

88

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

Mariyam Salim & Faridah A. Rahman. 1988. Malay loan words. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. Mohd. Isa Abd. Razak. 2009. Language loans that enrich the language. Journal of the Language Board. 53 (7): 20-23. Mohd. Tajuddin Noordin | 1975. A brief overview of the phonology of the Rawa dialect. February Language Board: 139-143. Nik Safiah Karim & Wan Malini Ahmad. 2006. Text Malay STPM. Shah Alam: Publisher Fajar Bakti Sdn. Bhd. Nik Safiah Karim, Farid M. Onn, Hashim Haji Musa & Abdul Hamid Mahmood. 2008. Grammar Board Third Edition. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. Norzaitun Akma Baharudin. 2009. Adjustment in Rawa dialect: a morphological analysis. Bachelor Thesis, School of Languages ​​and Linguistics, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Raja Mukhtaruddin Raja Mohd Dain. 1986. Silver dialect. Ipoh:

Linguistics Program of UNJ Language and Literature Department

89

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

90

FEASIBILITY OF USE OF VOCABULARY TEACHING MATERIALS IN SOME INDONESIAN TEACHING BOOKS IN THE FIRST MIDDLE SCHOOL6 Achmad HP.7

1. In terms of determining language teaching materials (vocabulary and sentences) Palmer (1968) , 38-39) provides some notes 1.1

Teaching materials should be arranged based on direct orientation so that students learn the language (initial preparation)

1.2

Teaching materials should be arranged in order to be able to create habitual language habits (forming)

1.3

Teaching materials arranged should avoid language habits incorrect (accuracy)

1.4

Teaching materials prepared should pay attention to gradation

1.5

Teaching materials that are compiled should pay attention to the proposition, that is, every aspect of teaching materials gets the same emphasis (proportion)

1.6

Teaching materials arranged should move from concrete to abstract (concreteness)

6

Presented at the Seminar Antara Bangsa University Kebangsaan Malaysia and Jakarta State University.

7

Lecturers of the Postgraduate Study Program, Jakarta State University.

Linguistics Program of UKM Language and Literature Position UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

1.7

Teaching materials that are compiled should always foster students’ interest in learning all the time (interest)

1.8

Teaching materials that are compiled should pay attention to the order of the process (order of progression)

1.9

Teaching materials arranged should enable the use of various methods (methods / techniques) in teaching language (multiple line of approach)

Starting from Palmer’s thinking above, various teaching material books, including textbooks provided by the government, can be examined for their eligibility for students who use these books. In addition to the thought of the feasibility of teaching materials as expressed by Palmer above, Jack C. Richard emphasized the importance of vocabulary and grammar teaching materials in textbooks. Jack C. Richard proposed two criteria for the preparation of vocabulary and sentence teaching materials in textbooks, namely (1) selections and (2) gradations. This is important because it is in the language learning program. There are constraints or limitations. Not all language elements in total can be presented in textbooks that will be digested by students. Teaching materials must be selected and arranged in stages according to ability, interests, talents of students who learn. The approach to the two aspects of vocabulary and sentence selection is used as the basis for the preparation of teaching materials or language textbooks.

2. Vocabulary selection is often a problem for language teaching researchers. Likewise, the author of the book requires a basic consideration in choosing vocabulary. Mcc Arthy suggested the need to select vocabulary teaching materials by taking into account two things, namely (1) frequency and (2) range.

2.1 Frequency, is meant as how or how often the vocabulary or term appears or is used in a text, and in which environment it is chosen. Studies such as obtaining information about why the number of certain words may be easy or difficult when used in the context of language learning. The high frequency words indicate that they are mostly used by students of the Linguistic Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ

91

The 2015 Language and Literature Seminar is

usually used as a starting point for language learning, especially vocabulary. From this, information on difficult, medium, and difficult categories can be obtained. 2.2 Range Vocabulary selection in addition to the problem of frequency is a problem of range. Words may have a high frequency in one text, but they may not have the same aspect in other texts so that they will have a large or small range. The smaller the vocabulary range the easier the texts are to understand.

3. In terms of sentence selection, one of the indicators is gradation. This shows that in terms of the application of sentences in teaching materials, one must pay attention to the complexity of the sentence structure. Jack Richard suggested, gradation or gradation is done in a pre-requisite stage. Sentence teaching materials should be arranged from a simple structure to a more complex structure. Sentence teaching materials are presented or arranged starting with simple sentence structures (simplex), compound sentences (equivalent) and complex sentences (not equivalent), and can be continued with combined sentences.

4. From the learning aspect, vocabulary selection, apart from frequency and range aspects, several criteria are needed, including teachability and familarity.

Lessons are given a lot of importance in word selection. Of course, the lesson is that it is easy to teach the vocabulary in terms of frequency and range. The similarity in vocabulary is one of the criteria for selecting teaching materials. For first-language children there is precisely. If only the vocabulary of the Indonesian language that you want to teach is similar to the vocabulary that has been mastered, especially the vocabulary of the first language. 5. In addition to the gradation aspect in sentence selection, there are several other aspects related to learning, including simplicity, learnability, and frequency. The aspect of simplicity (simplicity) is important to be linked in

the Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Unit of the UNJ

92

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

93

investigating sentence teaching materials focuses on simple sentence structures (simple structures) and according to communication needs develops into more complex structures. As with

vocabulary selection, sentence selection in teaching materials is necessary

pay attention to the aspect of frequency. It is not easy because determining sentence units, or analyzing sentence structure is not easy. However, according to Richard, this can be used by computer programs. It can be noted that the distribution of language structures can be tested. From this section a list or list of sentence structures can be drawn up that can be selected for language instruction at a particular level. The learnability aspect, considering grammar items (sentences) must be able or worthy of learning by certain level students. Level or high-level students will be dealing with more complex grammar items (complex). 6. There are several approaches in compiling sentence teaching materials based on the gradations. According to Lado, there are several approaches, including (1) language distance (linguistic distance),

6.1 With the intended linguistic distance, the structure of the language (sentence) which is similar to the sentence structure of the students’ language will take precedence. This means that the two sentence structures of the language with the sentence structures mastered by the previous child are close, so that they are easily understood by students. We recommend that if there are differences in the structure of the two languages, this is called a distance, and it makes it difficult for students to understand the teaching material being studied. 6.2 The principle of internal difficulty (intetrincis difficulty) explains that a simple structure will be presented first, preceding a complex sentence structure, given that internally there are difficulties in determining

or

understand the structure itself. And this is a common understanding. 6.3 Communication needs mean that some structures are needed earlier or earlier than other structures. Entry-level communication needs require simple sentence structure. In the learning process of children, there are known one-word, two-word, or telegraphic sentences.

Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Position UKM UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

Overall, from various aspects, factors, or criteria in the selection and gradation of presentation of grammar teaching material (sentences), there are two choices in arranging the gradation of sentence structure into teaching materials, namely linear and cyclic or spiral. Linear gradations describe grammar items (sentences) arranged in a syntagmatic (horizontal) sequential sequence from simple structures, to more complex structures. Meanwhile, cyclial or spiral gradations are items of simple sentence structure, which are reintroduced with a deeper and wider emphasis. However, in general, the two options are not separate, but are related and even integrated.

7. Currently textbooks for SD, SMP, and SMA have been provided by the government. The question is, is the textbook worthy of learning or understanding by students? To assess the appropriateness of a textbook, there are several criteria that can be used, for example conformity to the curriculum, conformity with the level of children’s cognitive development, conformity with children’s emotional aspects, and suitability with children’s social development, aspects of textbook packaging, layout, and media included, and the last is the linguistic aspect of the book. From the linguistic aspect, it can be focused again on the use of vocabulary and sentence usage. Of the several textbooks for junior high schools published by the central curriculum or bookkeeping Balitbang Dikbud, which were observed, among others, the Mathematics Book for grade VII semester I, Books of Natural Science (IPA) class VII semester I, Indonesian Language Book class VII semester I, Social Science Book semester I, are generally quite adequate. From the aspect of the curriculum, these books are already in accordance with the curriculum, both teaching materials and classes and semesters. In terms of learning media, these books have been equipped with nonverbal aspects, such as pictures, graphics, maps, etc., learning media and so on. Has a maximum function, namely to clarify the verbal information presented in the book. From the order of presentation and assignments in the book, it has shown the development of the Linguistic Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ. generally quite adequate. From the aspect of the curriculum, these books are already in accordance with the curriculum, both teaching materials and classes and semesters. In terms of learning media, these books have been equipped with nonverbal aspects, such as pictures, graphics, maps, etc., learning media and so on. Has a maximum function, namely to clarify the verbal information presented in the book. From the order of presentation and assignments in the book, it has shown the development of the Linguistic Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ. generally quite adequate. From the aspect of the curriculum, these books are already in accordance with the curriculum, both teaching materials and classes and semesters. In terms of learning media, these books have been equipped with nonverbal aspects, such as pictures, graphics, maps, etc., learning media and so on. Has a maximum function, namely to clarify the verbal information presented in the book. From the order of presentation and assignments in the book, it has shown the development of the Linguistic Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ. learning media and so on. Has a maximum function, namely to clarify the verbal information presented in the book. From the order of presentation and assignments in the book, it has shown the development of the Linguistic Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ. learning media and so on. Has a maximum function, namely to clarify the verbal information presented in the book. From the order of presentation and assignments in the book, it has shown the development of the Linguistic Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ.

94

The Language and Literature Seminar 2015

thinks at the beginning of junior high school age, around 12, 13, 14 years old, which according to Saggne is resistant to concrete operational thinking. In terms of layout and packaging, these textbooks are quite good.

7.1 From the linguistic aspect, especially the use of vocabulary, from the aspect of the appearance or frequency of the textbooks above, from one book to another varies for social studies books, based on quotation tests of several paragraphs, information about vocabulary complexity, which is meant by vocabulary complexity, is obtained. is vocabulary affixed with both one word and two words or more than two words. From the first paragraph quotation test, it consists of 4 (four) sentences. The number of words in a sentence is 60 words. With the token type method, the results obtained are 24 words (40%) in the form of basic words, 20 (32%) of the vocabulary in the form of a root word, one affix, while 16 vocabulary words (18%) are in the form of words with two or more. The second paragraph consists of 4 (four) sentences. The number of words in a sentence is 72 words.

) in the form of basic words. 20 vocabulary

(

) equals one, two. 18 vocabulary

(

) has more than one verb.

From the two paragraphs of the social studies book, it can be concluded that the vocabulary with the basic form is relatively easy for students to understand because it has the highest appearance. Meanwhile, vocabulary that has one affix is ​​classified as having a moderate level of understanding, while the vocabulary that has more than two affixes that have the least percentage of occurrence process tends to be difficult for students to understand. For Natural Science (IPA) textbooks based on a multiple paragraph sampling test, information on the complexity of vocabulary is obtained. What is meant by vocabulary complexity is vocabulary with one affix or two affixes or more than two affixes. From the description of the complexity, with the token type method, it can be seen that

the Linguistic Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ

95

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

96

which constructs of vocabulary has a lot of occurrence, is occurring, and rarely occurs. From the quotation test of several paragraphs, the first paragraph consists of 4 (four) sentences. The total word count is 58 words. With the type token method, the profile of the appearance of word complexity in the sentences of the paragraph is obtained. The result is 26 vocabularies () with the form of basic words, 18 vocabularies () with one affix, and 14 vocabularies () with more than two additions. The second paragraph consists of 4 (four) sentences. The total word count is 70 words. Through the token type method, the profile of the vocabulary complexity appears. Basic word form vocabulary…. 36 vocabularies (), meanwhile, the vocabulary with one affix construction is 20 (), while the vocabulary with a construction of more than two additions amounts to 14 words. A sampling test of the two paragraphs of the science book can be concluded that vocabulary with basic forms has the highest rate of occurrence, while vocabulary with one affix is ​​moderate, while vocabulary with more than one affix is ​​classified as low. This means that the vocabulary with the basic form of words is easy for students to understand, while the vocabulary with one affix is ​​moderate, while the vocabulary with more than two affixes is classified as difficult for students to understand. For mathematics textbooks, based on a few paragraph quotation tests, information is obtained about the complexity of the vocabulary presented in the textbook. The complexity referred to is seen from its morphological construction, namely basic words, one affix and more than one affix. From the description of the complexity, it is possible to know the morphological construction of which the most or the least appears, or which the appearance is moderate. From the test of quoting a few paragraphs, the first paragraph consists of 4 (four) sentences. The number of words in the whole sentence is 68. With the token type obtained the result of 40 basic form words () with one (), and 10 words with more than two words.

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

18

words

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

The second paragraph consists of 3 sentences. The number of words in the whole sentence is 66. After studying with the response token type, the result is 30 vocabulary () basic words, 20 vocabulary () with one addition, and the remaining 16 words () with more than two. From the quotation test of the two paragraphs of the mathematics lesson it can be concluded that the vocabulary of the base word has a high degree of appearance, the word form with one suffix has a medium appearance, and the word form with more than one suffix has a low appearance. For Bahasa Indonesia textbooks, from the two paragraphs used as the quotation test of the first paragraph consists of 6 sentences, the number of words in the whole sentence in the first paragraph is 98 vocabulary. Vocabulary with the base word form dominates the appearance of words in this first paragraph by 76 vocabulary (), while the vocabulary has a reward of 20 words (), meanwhile a word with a reward of more than two as many as 8 words (). The second paragraph also consists of 6 sentences, but the total vocabulary of this second paragraph is 110 vocabulary. Vocabulary of basic word forms appears as many as 80 words (), while vocabulary with one affix appears as many as 20 words (), and 10 words with more than two () Excerpts of two paragraphs of Indonesian textbooks show that overall vocabulary complexity will be high basic word form, so that the Indonesian textbook in terms of vocabulary is easily understood by the students. While first-class vocabulary will appear in insignificant amounts, as well as the emergence of more than two adjectives, with an amount that is not too large. Thus, from the multi-paragraph quotation test from social studies, science, mathematics textbooks for junior high school, from the aspect of vocabulary related to the level of difficulty for students’ understanding, vocabulary in the form of basic words tends to have a high frequency of occurrence, so it is classified as easy to understand. Meanwhile, vocabulary with one affix, moderate level was understood by students, and vocabulary with two affixes or more tended to be difficult for students to understand.

7.2 In

addition to the complexity of vocabulary, the complexity of the sentence structure presented in social studies, science, mathematics, and Indonesian textbooks can be assessed by the level of difficulty of understanding by students. Linguistics Program of Language and Literature Department, UNJ

97

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

98

If the aspect of vocabulary is seen from the appearance and richness of vocabulary, then for the level of difficulty of the sentence is seen from two categories namely (1) The length of the sentence is known by the number of words in each sentence, and (2) review of the appearance of the clause in each sentence For sentence length from the results of the analysis can be made 3 categories there is a pattern (1) Sentence length less than 10 words (2) Sentence length from 11-15 words (3) Sentence length from 16 and above Next based on the three categories of sentence complexity above, each book can be studied the level of appearance of the sentence. For IPS textbooks there is a two-paragraph quotation test with a total of 8 sentences. Based on the number of words in each sentence, you can get the results of the complete category answer:

Category Sentence

1

(1)

(2)

(3)

-10

11-15

16>

√ √

2

3 4

√ √

5

6 √

7

8 Total

2

3

3

Of the 8 sentences mentioned above 2 sentences in category (1) category (2) there are 3 sentence and category 3 there are 3 sentences

Linguistics Program of Language and Literature Unit of UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

99

It can be interpreted that sentences in social studies books tend to be difficult for students to understand. For the complexity of the sentence structure, 3 categories can be made, namely: (1) Category one clause (2) Category two clauses (3) Category 3 clauses Based on the three categories mentioned above, the sentences of two paragraphs on the social studies textbook sampling result are obtained. as follows:

Sentence Category

(1)

(2)

(3)

1 2

3

√ √

4

5

6

7 √

8 Total

2

3

3

Of the 8 sentences above, there are two categories of sentences (1), in category (2) there are 3, and in category (3) there are three. This means that the sentences of the social studies textbooks are shown that the structures are complex and in terms of understanding the sentences are classified as difficult to understand.

For science textbooks, there is a two paragraph quotation test with a total of 8 sentences. Based on the three categories mentioned above, the following information was obtained:

Linguistic Program of Language and Literature Unit of UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

100

Sentence Categories

(1)

(2)

(3)

1

2 √

3

4 √

5 6

7

8

Total

3

2

3

Of the 8 sentences, sentences are categorized (1) there are 3, category (2) is 2, and category (3) is 3 sentences. This means that based on the number of words in each sentence, from 8 sentences, category (1) with the number of words up to 10 words is 3 sentences, category (2) with the number of sentences 11-15 words, there are 2 sentences, while category (3) 16 and above, totaling 3 sentences. It can be said, from the aspect of the sentences in the science book, it is difficult to use. The study based on the complexity of the sentence from the aspect of the number of clauses, two paragraphs of the science book quotation test obtained the following results:

Sentence Category

(1)

(2)

1 2

3

√ √

4 5

(3)

Linguistics Program of Language and Literature Unit for Language and Literature UNJ

Seminar on Language and Literature 2015

101

6

7 8

Total

2

3

3

From 8 quotation test sentences from the science book, category data is obtained (1), namely category one clause totaling 2, category (2), namely sentences with two clauses totaling 3, and category (3), namely sentences with three clauses more than 3. This means that from a study of the number of clauses forming sentences, science books tend to be difficult to understand. For the Mathematics book of 8 quotation test sentences, based on the number of words in the sentence, the following analysis results are obtained.

Sentence Categories

(1)

√ √

3

4 √

5 6

(3)

1 2

(2)

7 √

8 Total

2

3

3

From the quotation test of 8 sentences in the Mathematics book, it turns out that categories (2) and (3) appear more than the categories (1). This means that in terms of the number of words in a sentence, Mathematics books are dominated by sentences with a total (11-15 words) and 16 words and above. This means that from the aspect of the sentence the number of words tends to be difficult for students to understand. Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

102

For the sentence category in terms of the number of clauses, 8 sentences from the Mathematics book quotation, these results were obtained. Sentence Category

(1)

(2)

(3)

1

2 √

3 4

5

6

7

8

Total

2

4

2

From the quotation test of 8 sentences in the Mathematics textbook, information is obtained, there are 4 categories (2) and 2 category (3). This means that including mathematics textbooks tend to be difficult for students to understand. For Indonesian textbooks, from the 8 sentence quotation test, from the aspect of the number of words in the sentence, after being analyzed the results are as follows:

Sentence Category

1

(1)

√ √ √

4 5

(3)

2 3

(2)

√ √

6

Linguistic Program of Language and Literature Unit of Language and Literature Unit of UNJ

Seminar on Language and Literature 2015

103

7 √

8 Total

3

3

2

From quoting 8 sentences from the book in teaching Indonesian, there are categories (1) with 3 sentences, category (2) with 3 sentences, while category (3) with 2 sentences. This means that the number of words in the Indonesian textbook sentence is classified as being understood by students. From the aspect of the number of clauses and sentences in the 8 quotation test sentences, the analysis results are as follows:

Sentence Category

(1)

(2)

(3)

1

2 √

3

4

5 √

6

7 √

8 Total

3

3

2

From the quotation test of 8 sentences in Indonesian textbooks, and based on a study based on the number of words in the sentence category (1) appears 3 sentences, categories (2) there are 3 sentences, from category (3) appear 2 sentences. This can be interpreted based on the number of words in the sentence. Sentences in Indonesian textbooks tend to be understood at a moderate level. From the analysis of sentence complexity based on the number of clauses in a sentence, the following information is obtained. Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

104

Sentence Category

(1)

(2)

(3)

1 2

3

4

5 6 √

7 8

Total

3

3

2

From the results of the study, it was found that category (1) was 3 sentences, category (2) was 2 sentences, and category (3) was 1 sentence. This means that of the 8 sentences from the Indonesian textbook sampling test, the level tends to be understood. From the results of the study of vocabulary complexity and sentence complexity, sometimes several social studies, science, mathematics, and Indonesian textbooks can be conveyed. 1. The presentation of teaching materials will be very wise if you pay attention to Palmer’s suggestion 2. Especially for the presentation of vocabulary and sentence teaching materials, it is better to pay attention to Jack Richard’s suggestions, namely: (1) The principle of selection and grading for vocabulary (2) The principle of grading for sentence arrangement (3) ) There are various formulas available to test vocabulary appropriateness in textbooks, for example: Flash and Gorgon, Gray Index, etc.

Program Linguistik UKM Jabatan Bahasa dan Sastra UNJ

Seminar Bahasa dan Sastera 2015

Rujukan

Barbara Seidlhofer and Deltra Christiane. Pronounciation, ED, HG Widdowson, Language Teaching, Oxford University Press, New York. 2009. Cook Guy, Descourse, Ed. HG. Widdowson, Language Teaching, Oxford University Press. New York, 2009. Mcc Arthy Michael, Vocabulary, Ed. HG. Widdowson, Language Teaching, Oxford University Press. New York, 2009. Tony Lynch and Anne Anderson, Listening, Ed. HG. Widdowson, Language Teaching, Oxford University Press. New York, 2009 Tribble Christoper, Writing, Language Teaching, Oxford University, New York, 2009.

Grammar, Ed. HG. Widdowson, Language Teaching, Oxford University Press. New York, 2009. Richards Jack C., Curriculum Development in Language Teaching, Cambridge University Press. 2001.

Program SME Linguistics Language and Literature Department UNJ

105

Seminar Language and Literature in 2015

FUNCTION IN HIS ENGLISH enclitic

Fazal Mohamed Mohamed Sultan

Introduction According to Spencer (1991: 350) klitik elements that share some elements with a raw form and require the hose to be independent. Klitik public discussion will be the basis for further elaboration on klitik in Malay. First of all test section questions will be used to confirm the presence klitik in Malay.

(1)

Who hit Ali? * nya / * ku / * mu / * kau. He / I / you / you are

testing paragraph questions (1) shows that the shape of her, me, you and yours in the Malay language can not be self-reliant rather pronouns that are similar to the shape in short like him, me, you, and you can figure free. This test shows that it, me, you and yours are klitik in Malay.

The existence of forms klitik in the Malay language can be classified into two different forms, namely forms have in common with its raw form and shape that has no resemblance to its raw form as in (2):

Program Linguistics SME Department of Language and Literature UNJ

106

Festival and Literature 2015

107

(2) Shape Whole

Form Klitik Me

I’m Looking

thy

thou

-You

He

Himself

Klitik-klitik in the Malay language has a different position on the hose. The four klitik forms that exist in languages other than English, such as ‘I’; ‘you’; ‘mu’ and ‘nya’ can be described as in the verses below: (3)

ab

I took the bag. Azman took the bag.

(4)

ab

Kaupukul Zaini. Tajul persuaded you.

(5)

ab

Muambil beg. Azman take your begmu.

(6)

ab

* nyamemukul Azman. Azman brought it.

First, the clitic form of ‘ku-‘ which rests on its host i.e. take to be taken in verse (3a). Second, the ‘you-‘ that leans on its host, that is, beats you up in verse (4a). Third, the ‘mu-‘ that rests on its host that is take becomes muambil in verse (5a). All the klitikklitik i.e. ‘ku’, ‘kau’ and ‘mu’ who were present leaning against the host were known as proklitik. Meanwhile, the clitic form present leaning at the end of the host is known as enclitic. The first example is ‘-ku’ which rests on its host i.e. the bag becomes begku in verse (3b). Second, ‘-you’ who leans on his host, that is, persuades to persuade you in verse (4b). Third, the ‘-mu’ that leans on its host i.e. the bag becomes the begmu in verse (5b). Seen here, ‘me’, ‘you’, and ‘you’ can represent two different positions namely either as proclitic or enclitic. However, the clitical form ‘-nya’ is quite different from the clitical form discussed above because the clitical form ‘-nya’ cannot be present before a host such as * nyamemukul in sentence (6a) UKM Linguistic Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

but this clitic can lean on the end of the host only which is to bring it as in sentence (6b). Therefore, klitik ‘it’ in the Malay language can only be classified as enclitic.

Zwicky (1977) has classified clitic into special clitic and simple clitic. If you look at the form of the clitic, me, you and you in examples (3) to (6), the clitic can be classified as simple clitic. These clitic are known as simple clitic because they can be in the same linear sequence as the whole form. The only difference is the ‘encyclopedia’. The enclitic ‘-nya’ may be present in the sentence which cannot be replaced by its whole form as in the example below: (7)

ab

The sweetness of the candy. * Sweet he sweets.

(8)

ab The

slow pace of this bus ride. * Slow he travels this bass.

The presence of the enclitic ‘-nya’ which ‘leans’ to the sweet adjective in verse (7a) and to the slow adjective word in verse (8a) cannot be replaced by its whole form i.e. he. This situation causes verse (7b) and verse (8b) to be grammatical. The nature of enclitic in this sentence causes this enclitic can be classified as a special clitic. Kridalaksana (1972) states that linguists have begun to realize that enclitic ‘-nya’ is a fairly widely used form of language. The presence of its ‘enclitic’ on the host varies as in nouns for example: his house, his car and his pen; verbs for example: eat it, run it and sing it; prepositional words for example: for him, to him and to him and adjectives for example: blue, its yellowness and rage cause these enclitics to have different functions. Enclitic ‘it’ in the Malay language has been identified as pronouns and emphatic (Asmah 1975), the owner (Ramli 1993; Soedaryanto 1983), reflexive pronoun (pronoun) (Manuel & Solakhiah 1997) and transformer of speech ( Abdullah 1993a; Asraf 1995; Lutfi 1971). Accordingly, this article will discuss the ‘encyclical’ functions’ present in verbs, prepositions, nouns and adjectives.

The enclitic ‘-nya’ serves as the object Preliminary discussion on clitic has mentioned that each clitic has a general trait that is always leaning against its host either following or preceding the host. The process of clitic dependence is known as cliticization. In Malay, shape ‘her’ that have been identified as enclitic SMEs Linguistics Program Language and Literature Department UNJ

108

Seminar Language and Literature 2015

109

leaning on following the host. Enclitic ‘it’ has had various deployment in Malay but in this part of the spread to be discussed is the function enclitic ‘his’ leaning follow the hose consisting of a transitive verb, verb and preposition dwitransitif transitive. The enclitic ‘-nya’ can rely on verbs consisting of transitive verbs and bitransitive verbs such as transitive verbs hitting in sentence (9), dwitransitive verbs giving in sentence (10) and transitive prepositional words to as in sentence (11 ): (9) (10) (11)

Zaini hit him. Zaini gave it to Muhibbah. Zaini handed the book to him.

The presence of the enclitic ‘-nya’ in the three groups of words in sentences (9), (10) and (11) will not allow the presence of a complementary type of FN at the position of its object: (9)

a. * Zaini hit Farid.

(10)

a. * Zaini gave him flowers to Muhibbah.

(11)

a. * Zaini gave him the book Muhibbah.

We know that transitive verbs, bitransitive verbs and transitive prepositional words require the FN type complement to meet the lexical input at the position of the object. On the other hand, sentences (9), (10) and (11) remain grammatical even without the presence of the FN type complement at the object positions of transitive verbs, bitransitive verbs and transitive prepositional words. Thus, one conclusion that can be reached from the grammatical sentences is that the presence of its ‘enclitic’ meets the need for lexical input that replaces the FN type complement at the position of the object. This claim can be tested using question sentences. If the FN of the object can be questioned then the enclitic can also be questioned.

(9)

(10)

(11)

b.

b.

b.

i.

Who did Zaini hit?

ii. iii.

Zaini hit Farid. Zaini hit him.

i.

What did Zaini give to Muhibbah?

ii. iii.

Zaini gave the flower to Muhibbah. Zaini gave it to Muhibbah

i.

Who did Zaini give the flower to?

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

ii. iii.

110

Zaini gave the flower to Muhibbah. Zaini gave the flower to him.

The question sentence who is in (9bi), what is in (10bi) and who is in (11bi) asks FN at the position of the object. The question sentence can be answered by either the FN of the object or its ‘encyclic’. This indicates that the enclitic and FN of the object have the same function when both can answer the question sentences in (9bi), (10bi) and (11bi).

The discussion in this section has shown a complementary state between the enclitic ‘-nya’ and FN at the object positions of transitive verbs, bitransitive verbs and transitive prepositional words. This complementary nature automatically states that its ‘enclitic’ is present replacing the FN of the object that follows the transitive verb, the bitransitive verb and the transitive prepositional word. Therefore, it is appropriate to state that the enclitic ‘-nya’ serves as an object when it is cliticized on transitive verbs, bitritransitive verbs and transitive prepositional words. The enclitic ‘-nya’ that serves as an object will be known as the enclitic of the object.

His ‘enclitic’ serves as the owner

The above discussion has shown that FN belong always present following the masculine taxable property in the Malay language. Enclitic ‘his’ shall follow hose leaning functioning as a noun taxable property within the FN Malay as in paragraph (12)

(12)

[FNBasikalnya] damaged.

On the other hand, the presence of this enclitic does not allow the presence of genetic FN to follow it again: (13)

* [His / Ahmad’s bicycle] has been damaged.

His ‘encyclical’ and genitive FN either consist of Ahmad’s special nouns or personal pronouns he cannot present once in the same phrase. The presence of the enclitic ‘-nya’ and its whole form i.e. FN genetif Ahmad / he makes verse (13) not grammatical. Ketidakgramatisan section (13) also illustrates that the Malay language is not a language like Spanish klitik multiplier because of the presence enclitic ‘his’ does not allow the presence of FN has the same functionality in a single paragraph. So the formula can be attributed among FN enclitic genitive with ‘his’ is both complementary and play the same function in the Malay language as the FN owner (Abdullah Mohd Hassan & Aenon 1994, Asmah 1993, Ramli 1989, Soedaryanto 1983 ). UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

Another piece of evidence that shows that its ‘enclitic’ serves as the owner is that the process of classification does not change the order of the words that precede and follow its whole form: (14) (15)

Ahmad’s big bicycle. The bike is big.

Paragraph (15) showed that the presence of enclitic ‘his’ does not change the order of the Malay language section. Ahmad’s intact form allows large adjectives to follow. The encyclopedia ‘-nya’ also allows adjectives to follow. Therefore, this section concludes that the encyclopedia ‘-nya’ which relies on following the owned noun serves as the owner. This enclitic will be known as genetic enclitic. This call coincides with its intact form known as genetic FN.

Adjectives serve as affirmations The common clitic nature is that clitic requires a host to obtain interpretation. So ‘-nya’ as enclitic also needs a host. The host that will be discussed next is an adjective that serves as a predicate as in verses (16), (17) and (18):

(16)

He is very high.

(17)

Ahmad is too smart.

(18) The

shop is very small.

The above discussion has made it clear that all three adjectives can be preceded in sentences. This section will discuss the enclitic presence of ‘-nya’ on adjectives that serve as predicates as below: (19)

He is tall.

(20)

Ahmad

(21) The

shop is small.

The enclitic presence of ‘-nya’ in the adjectives of verses (19), (20) and (21) shows two significant changes when compared to (16), (17) and (18). The first change is the omission of the amplifier word and the second change is the adjective word preceded. UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

111

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

Amplifier words should be dropped with the presence of enclitic ‘-nya’ because both can not be present at the same time as described in: (19)

a. * he is very tall.

(20)

a. * Ahmad is too smart.

(21)

a. * the shop is so small.

The omission of the word amplifier and the presence of its ‘enclitic’ are the main indications that the two complement each other. This is because both cannot be present at the same time. The complementary nature between the amplifier word and its ‘enclitic’ allows a conclusion to be reached that both have the same function. The word amplifier serves as an emphasis on the adjective word in the sentence. Thus, complementary enclitic can also be claimed to function as an affirmative when cliticized on adjectives that serve as predicates. Even Hashim (1993: 58) has also stated that his ‘encyclical’ in this position serves as an affirmative. Therefore, the next section will discuss in more depth the construction of adjective prepositions. This construction will explain that the preposition by an adjective word that serves as a predicate is Focus Preposition. Adjective Focus Focus (A) The above discussion has explained that adjectives can be moved to the front position of the sentence from its original position. The discussion has made it clear that adjectives that serve as predicates can be preceded. This section will discuss that the type of forwarding exhibited by this adjective word is Focused Deployment. Therefore, this section will introduce the three criteria required to identify Pendepanan focus in Malay by an adjective. Adjective prepositions in sentences are considered the construction of Focus Prepositions if the adjectives that are presented can meet these three criteria. The first and second criteria are adapted from the Sanchez criteria (1994: 483). The first criterion is that the focused element must be able to describe specific pronouns, special nouns and general nouns. In Malay pronouns like he, you, me; the special names of Amirul, Lutfi, Fatin and the specific general nouns (in the presence of the determinant) of the shop, this car, the cow may be preceded by adjectives as in verses (22) and (23):

(22)

a.

She’s smart. UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

112

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

(23)

b.

Farhan is angry with Fatin.

ab

Small the shop. The sweetness of the candy is at the base.

The adjective clever in verse (22a) describes his pronoun and the adjective angry in verse (22b) describes Farhan’s special name. The small and sweet adjectives in (23) can also describe their specific general nouns such as the shop and the candy. Adjectives preceded by (22) and (23) have complied with these first criteria. The second criterion, is that the focused element cannot describe quantifier words and general nouns without determinants. Quantifiers in Malay word is like all, few and many. The focused element cannot describe the word quantifier as in verses (24) and (25): (24)

* a. * b.

Everyone is smart. Some people are angry with Fatin.

(25)

* a. * b.

Small shop. Sweet candy at the base.

The adjectives preceded comply with the second criterion because these adjectives cannot describe the quantifier words in (24). The same is true with general nouns that are uncertain without the presence of determinants in (25). The third criterion is to adapt the recommendations of Ramli (1989) and Lubna (1992: 115). They state that an element in front of it is an element that is focused if the element accepts the presence of an affirmative word such as lah and kah:

(26)

ab

Pandailah dia. Farhan is angry with Fatin.

(27)

ab

Kecillah the shop. Sweeten the candy at the base.

(28)

ab

Pandaikah dia? Is Farhan angry with Fatin?

(29)

ab

Is the shop small? Is the candy sweet at the base?

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

113

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

All adjectives in sentences (26), (27), (28) and (29) comply with the third criterion because they can accept the presence of affirmative words and form grammatical sentences. Therefore, the affixes ‘lah’ and ‘-kah’ can be used as a test to identify the structure of Focus Setting. The Division has proposed three specific criteria for the Malay language so that within next element can be identified as Pendepanan Focus. This discussion has used adjectives as a test to identify the criteria that meet the Focus Setting. Adjective word preposition has passed all three criteria to be known as Focus Preposition. Adjective Focus Focus Construction (A) + Encllitic (KL) The above discussion has debated that adjectives that serve as predicates can be anticipated. The discussion in that section can prove that the adjectives put forward have met all three criteria of Focus Setting. Therefore, this study can claim that the initial position of the adjective word in a sentence is a construction of focus forward. We have also learned that adjectives that are politicized with the enclitic ‘-nya’ can also be preceded. Therefore, this section will claim that the adjective and encyclic word ‘-nya’ is the construction of Focus Focus. Next, this section will discuss its ‘its’ encyclical function as an affirmative in the construction of Focus Setting. A form that has the same function and position will complement each other in a sentence. The presence of two forms that have the same function and position in a sentence is not grammatical. Such properties can be used as a test to determine the function of other forms. For example, the adjectives ‘-kah’ and ‘-lah’ have the same position and the same function, that is, as an affirmative in a sentence. Therefore, the attempt to create both in verse (30a) at the same time causes the sentence to be grammatically incorrect as below: (30)

* Marry him.

The same is true of the enclitic presence of ‘-nya’ in adjectives. The enclitic ‘-nya’ does not allow the word amplifier which serves as an affirmative to be present together: (31) * Think of him. (32) * Think of him. This non-grammatical sentence proves that the enclitic ‘-nya’ also serves as an affirmative such as the adjectives ‘-lah’ and ‘-kah’.

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

114

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

The conclusion is that the preposition of the adjective and the preposition of the adjective word + its ‘enclitic’ remain the construction of the Focus Preposition. Conclusion This article has conducted a syntactic study on its ‘form’. This study has analyzed its ‘form’ as a form of clitic known as enclitic. The form ‘-nya’ has been identified as enclitic because of its always present nature following a particular host to get an interpretation. The hosts noted in this article consist of verbs, prepositions, nouns and adjectives. A common trait of clitic is that this form has an intact form. His ‘enclitic’ has an intact form that has been identified as his FN. Next, discussion in this article has been divided into functions enclitic ‘his’ in Malay. A descriptive analysis of its ‘encyclic’ function has led this article to claim that its ‘encyclic’ enclitic on verbs and prepositional words serves as objects; the enclitic ‘-nya’ which is glycitized on the noun serves as the owner and the enclitic ‘-nya’ which is glycitized on the adjective serves as the affirmative. Studies on enclitic ‘it’ has provided a major contribution to the universal grammar and also in the Malay language. This study contributes to comparative analysis as this analysis can A descriptive analysis of its ‘encyclic’ function has led this article to claim that its ‘encyclic’ enclitic on verbs and prepositional words serves as objects; the enclitic ‘-nya’ which is glycitized on the noun serves as the owner and the enclitic ‘-nya’ which is glycitized on the adjective serves as the affirmative. Studies on enclitic ‘it’ has provided a major contribution to the universal grammar and also in the Malay language. This study contributes to comparative analysis as this analysis can A descriptive analysis of its ‘encyclic’ function has led this article to claim that its ‘encyclic’ enclitic on verbs and prepositional words serves as objects; the enclitic ‘-nya’ which is glycitized on the noun serves as the owner and the enclitic ‘-nya’ which is glycitized on the adjective serves as the affirmative. Studies on enclitic ‘it’ has provided a major contribution to the universal grammar and also in the Malay language. This study contributes to comparative analysis as this analysis can Studies on enclitic ‘it’ has provided a major contribution to the universal grammar and also in the Malay language. This study contributes to comparative analysis as this analysis can Studies on enclitic ‘it’ has provided a major contribution to the universal grammar and also in the Malay language. This study contributes to comparative analysis as this analysis can

provides space for a more detailed study of syntactic analysis by

comparing other clitical forms within the Austronesian language clump. These findings enrich the use of ‘its’ enclitic among users of this language. This in turn can be applied in Malay grammar so that the use of forms klitik in French grammar can be practiced with more precision.

REFERENCES Abdullah Hassan. 1993a. Malay grammar. Language Lamp 5 (1): 37-39. Abdullah Hassan & Ainon Mohd. 1994. Grammar dynamics. Kuala Lumpur: Utusan Publication & Distributors Sdn. Bhd. Asmah Haji Omar | 1975. Essays on Malaysian linguistics. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. Asmah Haji Omar. 1993. Grammar Malay art. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. Asraf Hj. Abdul Wahab | 1995. Word formation (5): Proclitic and enclitic. Language Lamp 7 (9): 46-47. UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

115

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

Hashim Musa | 1993. Construction and function of the word in Malay. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. Kridalaksana, H. 1972. His as an anaphora marker. Language Board 16 (4): 146–155. Lubna Shariffa Alsagoff. 1992. Topic in Malay: The other subject. Ph.D. thesis Stanford University, USA. Lutfi Abas | 1971. Descriptive linguistics and grammar of the Malay language. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. Mashudi Kader & Solakhiah Januri. 1997. The pronouns he, himself, himself, himself and himself. 3rd Linguistic National Seminar Working Paper. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, 18-19 November. Ramli Md. Salleh. 1989. Fronted constituents in Malay: bases structures and move alpha in a configurational Non-Indo-European language. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. Ramli Md. Salleh. 1993. Verbal transition interactions and case theory. Dlm.

Linguistics Program of UKM Language and Literature Position UNJ

116

2015 Language and Literature Seminar 2015

PROCESS OF SAVING ‘YANG’ IN INDONESIAN 8

Sam Mukhtar Chaniago9

Introduction

The discussion about the embedding process in Indonesian is still lacking, as evidenced by the lack of reference books or essays from experts on this matter. In this case the author only gets a few experts who specifically discuss this issue, including Samsuri and Harimurti Kridalaksana. The difficulties in combining sentences experienced by high school students are still felt, as is their recognition of basic Indonesian sentence patterns. Try to pay attention to our students’ essays, so you will get ambiguous sentence structures, ‘njimet’ sentences and other things related to difficulties in combining sentences. It must be admitted that in general discourse it can be said that a few basic sentences are used. In fact, what is more widely used are derivative sentences or derivations of basic sentences. This derivative sentence is a sentence that has undergone the process of adding, eliminating, merging, changing forms, substituting, permutating, and supersegmentalizing. In one derivative sentence this process may occur.

8 9

Presented at the Seminar Between the Nations of the Malaysian National University and the Jakarta State University. Lecturer at the Department of Indonesian Language and Literature, Jakarta State University.

Linguistics Program of UKM Language and Literature Position UNJ

117

2015 Language and Literature Seminar

118

In this paper the author will only discuss one process, namely the process of combining sentences by embedding particles. What is meant in this case is the placement or embedding of a basic sentence into another basic sentence by using the embedding. In addition, it will also discuss its application in teaching Indonesian in schools. Why is this necessary to discuss? The author considers this very useful for our students in the direction of using Indonesian properly and correctly, especially its application in various written languages. The author hopes that this paper can give meaning to our students’ language improvement.

Basic Sentence Patterns

Before we discuss further the embedding process, we should first discuss the basic Indonesian core sentence patterns. According to Samsuri, what is meant by the basic pattern of the Indonesian core sentence is a sentence that has a Nomen Phrase (FN) as the subject (S), and another phrase as a Predicate (P). So we can say that the core sentence archetype consists of FN + P. The predicate (P) can be translated into other FN (Nomen Phrases), FV (Verbum Phrases), FA (Adjective Phrases), Fnu (Numeral Phrases), and FP (Prepositional Phrases). Examine the examples given by Samsuri below.

(1) The child is a junior high school student

(FN 1 + FN2)

(2) The doctor is examining the patient (FN + FV) (3) Pak is very diligent

(FN + FA)

(4) There are only two

siblings (FN + FA)

(5) His parents are in Jakarta

(FN + FP)

Meanwhile, there are experts who argue that this pattern does not completely cover the basic patterns of Indonesian sentences. To this pattern it is necessary to add another basic pattern as suggested by Parera. (6) Kuda Lari

(GN + GVin) Linguistics Program of Language and Literature Unit of UNJ

2015 Language and Literature Seminar 2015

119

(7) Father bought shoes for younger siblings

(GN1 + GVt + GN2 + GN2)

(8) His nephew became a doctor

(GN1 + GVkon + GN2)

(9) The tiger becomes fierce

(GN + GVkon + GA)

(10)

(GN + GVin + GA)

They burst out laughing

Parera named the place containing the word class Gatra (G). In his discussion of the basic pattern of Indonesian sentences, he uses the terms Gatra Nomen (GN), Gatra Verbum (GV), Gatra Ajective (GA), and so on. By paying attention to the data found by Parera, the writer can say that sentences (6) to (10) are an extension of the sentence pattern (2) conveyed by Samsuri. The phrase Verbum (FV) in pattern (2) can be further translated into Intransitive Verbum (Vin), Transitive Verbum (Vt), Connector Verbum (Vkon). Thus, sentence (2) above can be reduced to (6) to (10). Therefore, the basic sentence patterns (6) to (10) are not included in the next discussion. So, the basic sentence basic pattern that we use is the basic sentence pattern proposed by Samsuri, namely (a) FN1 + FN2 (b) FN + FV (Vin, Vt,

The Embedding Process

According to Samsuri, what is meant by embedding is the placement of a sentence (base) into another (basic) sentence, which of course causes a structural change in one or two of those sentences. Meanwhile, Harimurti Kridalaksana in the Linguistic dictionary suggests several terms for this embedding, namely the parenthetical clause, inserted clause, embedded clause, constituent sentence, and parenthesis. Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Position UKM UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

For this term, Harimurti Kridalaksana gives its definition as follows: a sentence or clause that is inserted into another sentence and gives modification to one of the parts without changing its basic structure. If we look at it in passing, it seems that there is a difference between the meaning given by Samsuri and the meaning of Harimurti. On the one hand, Samsuri argued that the embedding would cause a structural change, while Harimurti stated that it would not change the basic structure. Actually there is no difference in principle between the two opinions. Even if there are any, these differences lie in their respective starting points. Okay to clarify, have a look at the examples they provide. Here is an example given by Samsuri:

(11)

The boy was climbing a tamarind tree

(12)

the child was underweight

(13)

Children who are skinny to climb the tamarind tree

According Samsuri embedding basic sentence (12) into the basic sentence (11) will cause a change in the basic sentence (11) into a sentence (13). The sentence structure (11) was originally FN + FV, changed to FN + K + FV. This change occurs because of the embedding of the basic sentence (12). Samsuri considered this changed because he saw in a transformational way that sentence (13) is a derivative sentence or a dervation of sentence (11).

Next, let us consider an example given by Harimurti Kridalaksana: (14)

The one who came yesterday

(15)

My younger brother already has a job

(16)

My younger brother who came yesterday already has a job,

Menurt Harimurti Kridalaksana, embedding clauses (14) into sentences (15), will not change the basic structure of sentences (15); The clause (14) element is just an extension of my younger brother’s subject so that the basic structure of the sentence (16) remains like the basic structure of the sentence (15). After we pay attention to the description above, we will get the fact that the two opinions are Linguistic Program of Language and Literature Unit of UNJ

120

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

indeed it is not contradictory, in fact it will support each other by combining the two opinions. Because our discussion tends to generative grammar theory, the writer in the next section will only use the understanding put forward by Samsuri. The embedding process ‘the’

To make it easier for the next speaker, we call sentences or clauses where we embed such as sentences or clauses (11) and (15), while clauses that are embedded are called combining clauses such as clauses (12) and (14). 13) and (16) above are responsible for replacing the phrase nomen / child / in sentence (12) and the phrase nomen / my sister / in sentence (14). The particle above is called by Samsuri the embedding part, while Parera mentions it as a relative, an important one, or a substitute. All of the examples of embedding in (13) and (16) above are processes of embedding relative clauses using embedded or relative particles. As we know, in Indonesian there are five kinds of basic sentence patterns. Therefore,

Relative Clause as Subject Description, The following discussion will explain about relative clauses that function as subject descriptions. Let us consider the example below:

(17) The

doctor performs a heart transplant experiment

(18)

a. The doctor is a member of the DPR b. The doctor raises a tiger c. The doctor is very simple d. The doctor is only an e. The doctor in the village of Tawas Linguistic Program UKM Language and Literature Department UNJ

121

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

Embedding one of the integrating sentences (18) into the matrix (17) will produce the derivative sentences (19) below.

(19)

a. The doctor who is a member of the DPR conducted a heart transplant trial b. The doctor who kept the tiger conducted a heart transplant experiment. C. The doctor is very simple to do a heart transplant experiment d. The only doctor doing a heart transplant e. The doctor who is in the village of Tawas is doing a heart transplant experiment

Relative clauses can be in the form of subject descriptions, object descriptions, and other FN information in place or time descriptions. Sentence (19) is an example of a relative clause that becomes a subject description. Semantically, the clause which is a member of the DPR in sentence (19 a) limits the meaning / doctor / who simultaneously provides information / answers to which doctor’s question. Likewise with sentences (19, a, c, d and e). some other examples of sentences with relative clauses as subject adverbs, we can see below:

(20)

a. A bitter smile came back in his mouth b. A bitter smile came back in his mouth c. The person wearing the yellow shirt is black d. The price of white rice is expensive e. A nice house is big f. The leaking boat finally sank g. The corruptor who escaped from the prison was caught again yesterday. h. The arrow that had come out of his bow stuck right into his chest i. Wilson, an Indonesian Idol from Maluku last night appeared stunning.

In the Indonesian language it has also received the… its form. This construction varies with different constructs. Example sentence (21) will clarify this problem.

Linguistics Program of Language and Literature Unit of UKM UNJ

122

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

(21)

a. The person’s book is red b. That person is my friend.

Will produce the following sentence: c. The person whose book is red is my friend. d. The person with the red book is my friend. Another example sentence: (22)

a. Ahmad rides a bicycle b. The color of the bicycle is green c. Ahmad rides a green bicycle. d. Ahmad rides a green bicycle

The following is given an example of the use of pinning in a literary work written by Sapardi Djoko Damono with the title “Sharp Your Rain” Sharp Your Rain Sharpening Your Rain This already loves you: an open umbrella shaking in my right hand, water dripping from the edges of the umbrella. That, the asphalt chattering under the shoe, the watch that is opaque with water, two or three words that are stuck in your throat. Hard to the wind: Your rain aches

In the above poem we find 5 (five) derivative sentences that use pins that function as relative clauses as a subject description.

(23)

(a) The open umbrella that swayed in my right hand (b) Water dripping from the edges of the umbrella (c) Asphalt crumpled under the shoe (d) The watch that was smudged with water (e) Two or three words lump in the throat.

Linguistics Program of UKM Language and Literature Position UNJ

123

Seminar on Language and Literature 2015

Relative clause as object description,

relative clause with embedding which can also be used as object description. The process that occurs in sentence (22) provides an explanation of that. Sentences (22 c) and (22 d) above are examples of relative clauses that contain objects. Examples of relative clauses that become descriptions of other objects are:

(24)

a. They will respect the goddess Agni who burned her body. b. I will meet friends who I really know c. He is looking for a quiet place d. The government has proposed a controversial law. e. Taufik Savalas has left very impressive memories g. You make up a pair of fish snatching up the bait little by little. (Sapardi, “I guessed it”) h. The first direct Regional Head Election Campaign (Pilkada) in Jakarta began on Sunday, July 22, 2007.

Furthermore, we also found several sentences with pins that function as object descriptions. The following will give an example of the use of pinning in a literary work written by Sapardi Djoko Damono with the title “flute”

The bamboo flute imagines someone blowing it, closing its holes, creating princes and princesses from distant kingdoms whose imaginations are unimaginable… .. It groping its own holes that are constantly gaping. In the poem above we find 2 (two) derivative sentences or 3 (three) clauses that use a pin that and serves as a relative clause as an object description.

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

124

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

(25) (a) The bamboo can imagine someone blowing it, closing the opening of its hole, creating princes and princesses from distant kingdoms who can not imagine its melody… .. (b ) he groped his own holes which were constantly gaping

Relative Clauses Containing Adjective Phrases

In the use of Indonesian relative clauses containing adjective phrases (FA) as predicates often remove the embedded particles so that there are the following sentences:

(26) The (small) food is fried tempeh (27) With the hand (which) trembled the door he opened (28) Your motion was the motion (which) was cunning (29) The convoy (which) was small crawled (30) The blow (which) was disgusting landed right on his nose. (31) In the 2007 Asian Cup, Indonesia lost to the honorable (the) embedded ‘yang’ in Indonesian Language Teaching

In a general sense application means using science to plan and make designs for practical and daily activities, for example building bridges, building cars, joining broken bones. Language teaching is a practical and everyday activity. Parera explained that the application of language means the use and utilization of linguistic knowledge for the benefit of language teaching and learning. Teaching Indonesian should not lead to memorizing grammar rules, but should aim at creating students who can use the language in communication, both oral and written, properly and correctly. If we had agreed on this goal, should the teaching of the language no longer force our students to know questions that they do not use outside of school and are no longer in place at this time wasting time and energy for something useless. UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

125

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

What we must encourage is how to properly use the Indonesian language in compiling both short and long reports, both oral and written. It should be trained how to compose good, clear, and clear sentences, how to express opinions in clear, clear and not confusing sentences, how to explain everyday things in a logical and systematic sequence of events. In this case, the application of the embedding process supports the achievement of the goals we have agreed upon above. Embedding in sentences can be applied in every aspect of language teaching, namely aspects of speaking, writing, listening and reading skills. With the capital of understanding and understanding the process of embedding in sentences, it is hoped that students can make good derivative sentences, can make good derivative sentences, can capture the essence of speech or writing in these four aspects. The application of embedding material in the aspect of reading skills is very helpful for students in finding the main idea of ​​a paragraph or long sentences of a discourse. We have to admit that in general discourse, a few short sentences or basic sentences are used. What is more common are long sentences or sentences derived from the base sentence. In this connection, we can give students a discourse unit consisting of approximately 6 to 10 paragraphs. We try to make the paragraph contain derivative or derivative sentences. After that, our students ask to analyze the paragraphs, sort them into sentences, and determine the topic of the sentence. This can be done by returning the derivative sentence to the base sentence. If students understand the process of embedding in sentences, then grasping the core of the paragraph will be easy for them. Its application to the aspect of listening skills is in principle the same as its application to the reading aspect of these two aspects is impressive (accepting). One perceives by means of sight while the other uses the sense of hearing. The difficulty that may be experienced in the application of the listening aspect is that students find it rather difficult to grasp the core of a conversation or discourse that is played just once. To and determine the topic of the sentence. This can be done by returning the derivative sentence to the base sentence. If students understand the process of embedding in sentences, then grasping the core of the paragraph will be easy for them. Its application to the aspect of listening skills is in principle the same as its application to the reading aspect of these two aspects is impressive (accepting). One perceives by means of sight while the other uses the sense of hearing. The difficulty that may be experienced in the application of the listening aspect is that students find it rather difficult to grasp the core of a conversation or discourse that is played just once. To and determine the topic of the sentence. This can be done by returning the derivative sentence to the base sentence. If students understand the process of embedding in sentences, then grasping the core of the paragraph will be easy for them. Its application to the aspect of listening skills is in principle the same as its application to the reading aspect of these two aspects is impressive (accepting). One perceives by means of sight while the other uses the sense of hearing. The difficulty that may be experienced in the application of the listening aspect is that students find it rather difficult to grasp the core of a conversation or discourse that is played just once. To If students understand the process of embedding in sentences, then grasping the core of the paragraph will be easy for them. Its application to the aspect of listening skills is in principle the same as its application to the reading aspect of these two aspects is impressive (accepting). One perceives by means of sight while the other uses the sense of hearing. The difficulty that may be experienced in the application of the listening aspect is that students find it rather difficult to grasp the core of a conversation or discourse that is played just once. To If students understand the process of embedding in sentences, then grasping the core of the paragraph will be easy for them. Its application to the aspect of listening skills is in principle the same as its application to the reading aspect of these two aspects is impressive (accepting). One perceives by means of sight while the other uses the sense of hearing. The difficulty that may be experienced in the application of the listening aspect is that students find it rather difficult to grasp the core of a conversation or discourse that is played just once. To One catches with a visual aid while the other uses the auditory senses. The difficulty that may be experienced in the application of the aspect of listening is that students find it quite difficult to grasp the core of the talk or discourse that is heard only once. For One catches with a visual aid while the other uses the auditory senses. The difficulty that may be experienced in the application of the listening aspect is that students find it quite difficult to grasp the core of the talk or discourse that is heard only once. For

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

126

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

assisting in this application requires electronic tools; for example a tape recorder or a language laboratory. This allows repetition of the discourse that is being heard. Furthermore, the application of embedding material on the aspects of writing and speaking skills; both of these aspects are more expressive. Therefore, special skills are needed for the writer or speaker (orator) in composing or making sentences. Language performs its function as a means of information and communication. This function will be achieved if the listener or reader can understand the information conveyed by the author or speaker. Informative and communicative functions are carried out in the form of sentences. So, humans always inform and communicate by using sentences. Composing a good sentence is not an easy job, in the sense of requiring adequate knowledge and experience for the author or speaker. Knowledge and experience about embedding that is very helpful for students in dealing with difficulties in arranging or combining sentences. For that, we need to train students more intensively. These exercises can be in the form of exercises to find other possibilities using relative clause embedding after going through the relative transformation process. In this connection, we can separate the function of the subject with relative human beings and relative things. we need to train students more intensively. These exercises can be in the form of exercises to find other possibilities using relative clause embedding after going through the relative transformation process. In this connection, we can separate the function of the subject with relative human beings and relative things. we need to train students more intensively. These exercises can be in the form of exercises to find other possibilities using relative clause embedding after going through the relative transformation process. In this connection, we can separate the function of the subject with relative human beings and relative things.

Examples of exercises looking for possible transformations of relative people and objects: Relative Person (1) a. The person is wearing a yellow shirt. b. That person is black. ___________________________________ + c. The person wearing the yellow shirt is black.

(2) a. The girl’s name is Marni. b. The girl’s eyes were deformed. ___________________________________ + c. The eyes of the girl named Marni were deformed.

(3) a. The woman’s husband owns a beauty salon. Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ

127

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

b. The woman is a famous model. ___________________________________ + c. The woman whose husband owns a beauty salon is a famous model.

(4) a. Pak Sudomo wearing a red hat b. Pak Sudomo hopes that Pancasila labor will be implemented ______________________________________________________ + c. Pak Sudomo, wearing a red hat, hoped that Pancasila labor would be implemented.

(5) a. Ade Irma Suryani died at a young age b. Ade Irma Suryani is a hero of the revolution __________________________________________ + c. Ade Irma Suryani, who died at a young age, was a hero of the

Relative Benda revolution

(1) a. The yellow map color is no longer yellow b. The map belongs to Sam _________________________________________ + c. The map whose yellow color is no longer belongs to Sam

(2) a. The book page has up to 53 pages b. The book is so thick _____________________________________ + c. The book whose 53 pages has been lost is very thick

(3) a. The color of the bicycle is green b. The bicycle was driven by Ahmad __________________________________ + c. The green bicycle was ridden by Ahmad Linguistic Program UKM Language and Literature Position UNJ

128

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

(4) a. The long cloth is 4 meters long b. The price of long cloth is very high _________________________________ + c. The price of a long cloth which is 4 meters long is very high

(5) a. Ambarukmo Hotel is magnificent and manly b. Hotel Ambarukmo is visited by many tourists ________________________________________ + c. The magnificent and dashing Ambarukmo Hotel is visited by many tourists.

Conclusion

(1) Combining sentences with embedding which is the placement or embedding of one basic sentence into another base by using that embedding. (2) The embedded sentence or clause is called a matrix clause, while the embedded clause is the unifying clause (3) The particle that is in charge of replacing the phrase in a sentence is called an embed particle, there are also those that name the relative, the important, or the substitute. (4) Embedding in a sentence can function as a subject description and can also be an object description. (5) Embedding in sentences can be applied in every aspect of teaching language skills, namely aspects of speaking, writing, listening and reading skills. Suggestion

As the end of this paper, the author wants to convey one thing to those that have to do with the problem of embedding and its application, that is, there should be a uniformity in terms of grammar in general, including the term for embedding. Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ

129

2015 Language and Literature Seminar

Aronof, Mark and Jenie Rees Miller, 2001. The Handbook of Linguistics. USA: Blackwell. Damono, Sapardi Djoko. 1983, Paper Boat. Jakarta: Balai Pustaka. Harimurti Kridalaksana. 1982. Dictionary of Linguistics. Jakarta: Gramedia. Hutubessy, Ellychristina D. and Prima Gusti Yanti., 2007. “Generative Grammar” Group Task Paper, Language Education Doctoral Program, UNJ Parera, Jos Daniel. 1980. Introduction to General Linguistics in the Field of Syntax Series C. Endes-Flores: Nusa Indah _________. 1982. “Principles of Language Teaching”. In Applied Linguistics I. Jakarta: FPBS IKIP Jakarta. _________. 1988. Syntax. Jakarta: Gramedia. Samsuri. 1978. Language Analysis. Jakarta: Erlangga Publisher. _________. 1981/1982. “Some Embeds in Indonesian.” In the Indonesian Literature Science Magazine, volume X no. 1. Jakarta: Bhratara Karya Aksara, pages 83-99

Linguistics Program of UKM Language and Literature Position UNJ

130

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

131

TRANSITIVENESS IN INDONESIAN10

Dendy Sugono11

Introduction Research and analysis of Indonesian sentences can be said to have started since the generation of Sutan Takdir Alisjahbana (1949) in the book New Indonesian Language Grammar Volume 1, CA Mees (1949) in the Indonesian Grammar book, Sabaruddin Ahmad (1952) in the book Seluk Beluk Bahasa Indonesia. At that time the main terms and designations for sentence analysis were used and the sentence was defined as a collection of words containing a complete mind. In subsequent developments, sentence analysis resulted in the terms subject (S), predicate (P), object (O), and adverb (K). People identify the subject with S and the designation with P. In fact, sentence analysis of the subject and designation is closer to the analysis of sentences on topics and comments or themes and rema in the organizational structure of information, not the syntactic structure (compare Suparno, 1991). In the development of sentence analysis on S, P, O, and K, there are two mandatory elements in transitive sentence construction. For example, in a sentence

My father bought me a computer my

grain is a computer not a phrase, each of which is a direct constituent of the sentence. Each is not an explanation because it does not coexist with a preposition, then as what? My point was presented at the Seminar between the Nation’s National University of Malaysia and the Jakarta State University. 10

11

Lecturers, Department of Indonesian Language and Literature, Jakarta State University.

Linguistics Program of Language and Literature Department, UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

132

In syntactic structure, Omakaorang calls my items O. Likewise, computer items are not adjacent to a preposition, so it’s not an explanation (Sugono, 2009), what is it called? People call it O too, but how in one sentence construction there are two O’s. , people call O1 for my items and O2 for computer items. In terms of syntactic and semantic structures, the two objects have different roles, so people call direct objects and indirect objects (compare Kaswanti Purwo, 1985: 15).

The development of semantic theory has enriched the syntactic theory after the two theories synergize in the analysis of sentence construction. According to semantic theory, the presence of constituents in a sentence is determined by the semantic type of the predicate verb of the sentence (Chafe 1970). As in the example the verb buy as a predicate requires the presence of the doer (‘who buys’) and the target (‘which is bought’). This semantic demand is manifested by the noun-actor in the S syntactic function and the target-noun (or sufferers of the term Alisjahbana, 1949) in the syntactic function O. As in the example sentence father as the actor occupies the syntactic function S and the computer nomina as the target occupies the function O. So, verbs In contrast to the verb buy, apart from obliging the subject-actor of the father,

(not the

target)

(ie

me)

and

obliging

the

complementary-target presence

(ie computer.) So, my presence is the fulfillment of the semantic demands of the -kan element in the verb buy, that is, ‘who gets the result of the purchase’. Thus, my items are referred to as O, while computer items are called complementary (Pel). Unlike the case with verbs made as a predicate, this verb, apart from requiring the presence of the subject, requires the presence of an explanation. For example, of white gold in the sentence the

Ring is made of white gold.

If above the difference between the verbs buy and buy have different structural demands, so do the verbs come and come. The verb comes only requires the noun-doer as S, the Guru comes. If given an explanation, for example the Teacher comes early in the morning; the presence of K in the morning is not obliged by the semantic type of the verb come. On the other hand, a verb comes other than the noun-doer as S, semantically it requires a noun-locative as the object. For example, the

Teacher came to the house of a student.

The nominal-locative phrase of a student’s house becomes a mandatory constituent of that structure. Linguistics Program of Language and Literature Department, Language and Literature Department, UNJ

2015 Language and Literature Seminar

133

These various linguistic (syntactic) phenomena show the development of semantic theory. Semantic theory is not only engaged in the lexicon (lexical semantics), but has led to syntactic construction. Chafe (1970) states that sentences are constructed by semantic structures, so verbs control sentence construction. As in the example above, the verb buy as a predicate in a sentence requires the noun-doer of father as S and the noun-target computer as O.Semantic theory does not differentiate between buy (without to-) and buy verbs both require the presence of noun-doer and target-noun (see Tampubolon, 1979). Unlike the case with

verbs

buy, mem-noun-offender requires the presence of the father, -kanmewajibkan presence nominabenefaktif (receiver) me, and verb-noun purchase requires the presence of verbs sasarankomputer.Perubahan

buy

menjadimembelikan

has changed the structure

of

the two constituent

broadcaster

predicate (transitive) into three constituents accompanying the verb (dwitransitif) buy. Thus, the influence of the development of semantic linguistics changes the syntactic structure of S, P, O1, and O2 (or direct objects and indirect objects) in the above sentence to become complementary SPOP (Pel), namely the emergence of the syntactic function of Pel (see Quirk, 1985). Meanwhile, in America a syntactic theory was born, which made sentence construction based on the structure of the phrase. Chomsky (1965), a character from the Transformation Grammar school, does not use the terms syntactic functions P, O, Pel, and K.The sentence structure is built from the basic sentence and the basic sentence is described as a phrase structure, so the sentence

Father bought a computer.

formulated as a composition of nominal phrases (FN) and verbal phrases (FV); FN is in the form of a father number and FV is in the form of buying a computer. As for the sentence

Daddy bought me a computer

analyzed as a combination of dad bought the computer and the computer for me. The combination results in the sentences (a) Dad bought a computer for me or (b) Dad bought me a computer. If Chomsky (1965) does not use the term predicate in sentence analysis, Pike and Pike (1982) place predicates as a determinant in the structure of sentence transitivity (Soeparno, 2008).

The exposure to language phenomena and various sentence analyzes shows that linguistic theory determines the results of sentence analysis. As illustrated in the explanation above, various linguistic phenomena and the development of syntactic linguistic theory revolve around the function of the Linguistic Program of the UNJ

Language and Literature Department of the 2015 Language and Literature Seminar on

syntactic Language and Literature 2015 , the role of semantics, word classes, the nature of the presence of sentence constituents, and transitivity. That is, research on the use of language in several domains is carried out to find various types of transitivity of predicate verbs so that the codification of the syntactic system of Indonesian sentences can be compiled.

As seen in the explanation above, various analyzes and handling of language problems are centered on predicate verbs. Various forms of sentence structure or construction are different as a result of the different transitivity characteristics of the verb that become the predicate. The problem is how the transitivity of predicate verbs in Indonesian sentences with respect to controlling sentence construction based on:

a.

(1) the number of constituents in the construction, (2) the verb predicate construction control,

b.

(3) transitivity of the predicate verb, (4) the semantic role of the predicate, (5) the filler class of the predicate, and (6) the

nature of the predicate’s presence (Pike and Pike, 1982).

The six analysis points of view of the predicate verb are used to find the characteristics of transitivity: syntactic functions, word categories, semantic roles, and the nature of the presence of constituents in the transitivity construction of Indonesian clauses / sentences.

This research on predicates was carried out to find the types of verb predicates in Indonesian sentences related to the codification of the sentence system for the purposes of coaching the speaking community, especially in the world of Indonesian language education. This research was conducted to obtain various kinds of predicate sentences in Indonesian, among others, the control of sentence construction, the type of predicate verbs (syntactic function, semantic role, class of predicate fillers, and the nature of the presence of predicate verbs).

This research uses descriptive-analytic method, the data as the basis of the analysis of this research is taken from the use of language in written documents of the 2010 Teacher Dane novel book, Rupa and Wayang Purwa characters books. 2009; the book The Mystery of 2012: Predictions, Forecasts, and Possibilities; Kompas newspaper published in May-June 2011; and the intuition of researchers as Indonesian speakers. The analysis is based on syntactic theories in the latest linguistic theory, as stated in the beginning. The data is classified based on the syntactic behavior of the predicate verb in sentence construction, the sentence data is classified into the predicate verb (a) intransitive and bi-intransitive, (b) transitive and dwitransitive, and (c) predicatesquative and bi-equative (i) predicate adjective, (ii) ) predicate noun, and (iii) predicate numeralia. However, equative and bi-equative matters are not discussed in this paper. Each verb is reclassified into subtypes according to syntactic behavior, number of constituents, Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ.

134

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

, syntactic functions, semantic roles, word class, transitivity, and the nature of presence (Pike and Pike, 1982: 21-51).

Theoretical Framework

In the development of linguistics, structuralist theory, especially the principles of Saussure theory, is very influential in the development of linguistics, both semantic structure theory, transformational grammar theory and tagmemic theory. Therefore, the use of theory in this research is eclectic, especially semantic theory (Chafe 1970), structuralists and their applications (Matthews, 1981), Quirk (1985), transformation theory (Chomsky, 1965; Samsuri 1981), and tagmemic theory (Pike and Pike, 1982, Soeparno, 2008) are greatly utilized in the analysis of this research.

The Langue and Parole principles in structuralist theory are embodied in semantic theory; Langue terms as semantic structures and parole as the realization of semantic structures. For example, the verb carry in the sentence (semantic structure) requires the presence of a noun-actor (‘which carries’) and a target noun (‘which is carried’). On the demands of the semantic structure, sentences were born, for example,

my uncle brought a student dictionary.

My uncle’s constituent is a nominal phrase as a realization of the demands of the agent’s role in a carrying statement, while the constituent of the student dictionary is a nominal phrase as a realization of the demands of the role of the target (objective). In other words, the sentence my Uncle carries out the student’s dictionary is a parole built from a semantic structure controlled by the verb carry.

In the theory of transformation, the concepts of langu and parole (structuralist theory) are manifested as competence and performance. In syntactic analysis, the term refers to the concept of deep structure and surface structure. However, in the transformation theory there is no semantic control in sentence construction. Sentences are built from the inner structure as competence, then to the outer structure as performance through a process of transformation. The use of sentences in various spheres of life for language speakers is returned to the inner structure as basic sentences (Sugono, 2009: 106-11). So, codification of basic sentences and basic sentence formulas was made using phrase structure analysis. namely that the basic sentence is formulated as a composition of nominal phrases (FN) and verbal phrases (FV). Then, each phrase is analyzed for its constituent elements. FN consists of nouns and adjectives or nouns and nouns, UNJ Language and Literature Department UKM Linguistics Program

135

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

while FV consists of verbs and nouns or verbs and prepositional phrases. So, the sentence mentioned above, rewritten below,

My uncle brought a student dictionary.

analyzed as FN + FV. My uncle’s FN constituency consisted of the nouns uncle and I, while FV carried the student dictionary consisting of V carrying and the FN student dictionary as well as the student dictionary consisting of the dictionary and students. On the basis of such sentence analysis, there are five basic sentence types in Indonesian (compare Samsuri (1981: 237–246) as follows.

FN + FV FN + FN FN + FNum (eralia) FN + FAdj (ektiva) FN + FPrep ( osisi)

The codification of the sentence construction is based on language data which is analyzed based on items which are commonly known as word classes (types of words). The mention of phrases in construction brings the learner’s dictionary out of line with the principle of phrases according to Matthews (1981) and Pike and Pike (1982). Matthews distinguishes the phrase from the clause by the permutation of the constituent of the construction in question. Clause constituents can be mutated, while phrase constituents are not mutated. For example, that person hunting deer can be mutated to be hunting deer, that person or a passive permutation of deer being hunted by that person without any change in meaning is essential, so the construction is called a clause. As for the phrase deer hunting cannot be interpreted as hunting deer because there is a change in meaning, the construction is categorized as a phrase. Meanwhile, in tagmemic theory the phrase has the relationship (1) attributive (student dictionary), (2) possessive (my uncle), (3) coordinative (he and I), (4) coupling axes (in Jakarta). As for the construction of carrying a student’s dictionary, it does not belong to one of the four relationships. The carrying constituents and the learning dictionary have a string relationship (flat) and the two constituents do not each fill a syntactic function (the term slot in the tagmemic) at the sentence level, but the two constituents accompany my uncle’s FN. In fact, the student dictionary in the sentence construction can be separated from the verb carry and fill a syntactic function as S in the following passive construction. As for the construction of carrying a student’s dictionary, it does not belong to one of the four relationships. The carrying constituents and the learning dictionary have a string relationship (flat) and the two constituents do not each fill a syntactic function (the term slot in the tagmemic) at the sentence level, but the two constituents accompany my uncle’s FN. In fact, the student dictionary in the sentence construction can be separated from the verb carry and fill a syntactic function as S in the following passive construction. As for the construction of carrying a student’s dictionary, it does not belong to one of the four relationships. The carrying constituents and the learning dictionary have a string relationship (flat) and the two constituents do not each fill a syntactic function (the term slot in the tagmemic) at the sentence level, but the two constituents accompany my uncle’s FN. In fact, the student dictionary in the sentence construction can be separated from the verb carry and fill a syntactic function as S in the following passive construction.

The student dictionary was brought by my uncle. UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

136

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

Therefore, the carrying verb relationship and the learner’s dictionary phrase show a predicative relationship. Although Chomsky (1965) recognizes passive construction, still the phrases that accompany the verb being brought are analyzed as one constituent with the verb as a verbal phrase. In the analysis according to the transformation theory there are no syntactic functions S, P, O, Pel, and K. In theory That basic sentence is an internal structure that is identical to competence, so transformation formulas or rules are created. There is a compounding, expanding, subtracting or pervasive transformation, and focusing. The combination transformation rule is the combination of two or more basic sentences, the expansion rule is an expansion of the constituents (elements) of the sentence; eg expanded nominal phrases, verbal phrases, adjective phrases.

The competition committee will give announcements and the contestants enter the classroom as a result of the transformation of the combination of basic sentences (a) the competition committee will give an announcement and (b) the contestants enter the classroom. Likewise, the sentence

My friend reads a novel book and I

is also a transformation sentence from My friend reads novels and I read novels. Sentence The

results of the competition have been announced by the committee

is a transformation of the active sentence. The committee has announced the results of the competition (Sugono, 1995). However, transformation theory is not used in this study because in this theory the structure of phrases does not control sentence construction and verbs do not control clause construction, even though these two things are very dominant in this study, except for the use of categorical terms, such as nominal phrases, verbal phrases. Prepositional phrases, nouns, verbs, adjectives, prepositions, etc. are used in this research.

Unlike the case with semantic theory, this theory is used to identify the characteristics of predicate verbs that control sentence constituents. However, in relation to syntactic construction, this study utilizes tagmemic theory, namely that the slot fill verb (syntactic function) predicates determines the type of clause or sentence construction (Pike and Pike, 1982: 42-44). Linguistics Program of Language and Literature Department of UNJ

137

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

Classification of sentences on intransitive, bi-intransitive. transitive, dual transitive is controlled by the feature of the predicate syntactic function filler verb. These principles form the basis for the classification of clauses or sentences in Indonesian.

Transitivity in Indonesian

The data sentences for the various constructs are classified into six categories of transitivity, as presented below.

1. Intransitive Sentence From the data of this study, it is found that intransitive verbs as a predicate in intransitive sentence construction. Semantically this type of sentence verb only requires one mandatory constituent in the form of a nominal (or noun) phrase fill in the S function. There are two subtypes of this transitive clause verb, namely (1) monomorphemic verbs (come, go, sit, arise, wake up, rise, and fly) ; and (2) polymorphemic verbs {ber-} (walking,

cycling, playing, farming, gardening and working) and {ter -} (trapped, legible,

tripped, stuck, and embedded). The two subtypes are discussed in the following sections.

a. Intransitive Sentence Sub-Type A In traditional grammar, monomorphemic verbs (without affixes) are called original verbs, namely verbs that only consist of one free morpheme, without an affix. Without going through the transitive formation process, the verb can become a sentence predicate and obligate the subject’s presence. Based on the results of this study, the monomorphemic intransitive verb predicate data has a semantic characteristic that demands one obligatory constituent, namely a nominal or noun phrase, with a role as an actor in predicate verb statements, as in the following example. (1) All competitors arrive (early morning). (2) Some of the participants went up (to the stage). (3) A participant gets up (from his seat).

The three sentence constructs above are predicated monomorphemic intransitive verbs (1) come, (2) rise, and (3) rise. The three constructs in the intransitive sentence above give an indication that the predicate verb of this subtype has semantic characteristics of intransitive sentence construction with compulsory SP elements. and the optional element K, with the following rules.

Intransitive constructions A: + S (FN: Pelk) + P (V [monomorphemic]: sta) +/- K Linguistics Program of Language and Literature Department of UNJ

138

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

139

(FPrep: Time / Lok) The

rules are read as an intransitive sentence consisting of (1) monomorphemic verb predicate,

role

statement, intransitive type, mandatory presence; (2) the subject of the nominal phrase, the role of the actor, the obligatory presence, (3) the description of the prepositional phrase, the role of time, the location, optional attendance.

b. Intransitive Sentence Subtype B

From the data of the results of this study, it can be seen that intransitive sentences with the predicate of a polymorphemic verb with a prefix or a semantic feature require the presence of a nominal phrase or a noun filler in the S function as actor (1-2) or target (3), as shown in the data in below.

(1) The ceremony participants line up (on the page). (2) Some of the demonstrators moved (to the door of the embassy). (3) Their steps were detected (by security).

The two constructs of the first sentence above show that the predicate verb with the affixed polymorphological characteristics (line up and move) is accompanied by a nominal phrase as the filler of the function S as the actor. Meanwhile, in one sentence the following construction shows that the predicate verb is polymorphemic with an affixed morphological feature (detected) accompanied by a nominal phrase. filler functions S as target.

On the basis of data analysis, the intransitive construction of this subtype consists of an intransitive verb predicate and a tar, formulated as follows.

The intransitive construct B: + S (FN: Pelk) + P [ber-V: sta] +/- K (FPrep: Lok)

The rule is read as an intransitive sentence for a polymorphemic verb predicate consisting of (1) predicate verb with / ter-, the role of the statement, the intransitive type, obligatory presence, (2) the subject of the nominal phrase, the role of the actor, the obligatory presence, (3) ) adverb of prepositional phrases, locative role (direction), optional presence.

2. Bi-intransitive

sentence The construction of a bi-intransitive sentence is divided into two subtypes, namely (a) the predicate of this verb which requires the presence of K and (b) the predicate of the verb ber- / ter- which requires the presence of Pel. Differentiation of Linguistic Programs UNJ

Language and Literature Position UKM The 2015 Language and Literature Seminar is

both solely on the demands of the semantic characteristics of predicate verbs.

a. Bi-intransitive Sentence Subtype A

From the data from the results of this study, it can be seen that the dual transitive sentences of this subtype consist of polymorphemic predicate verbs with a prefix or requiring the presence of a nominal phrase or noun filler function S and a phrase with a mandatory K filler position, as shown in the data below.

(1) The

solution to all problems depends on the willingness of the leadership.

(2)

Participants in this training come from various vertical agencies.

(3)

The inheritance ring is made of white iron.

In the three examples, the intransitive sentence predicates the verb ber- (dependent, originating), and ter (made) accompanied by the nominal phrase filling the S function as (1) item, (2) item, and (3) item. Verb (1) depends on prepositional phrases on the ability of the leader who is filling in the mandatory function K as a locative, verb (2) comes with prepositional phrases from various vertical agencies that fill the mandatory K function with a locative role (origin); (3) is made with prepositional phrases of white iron as mandatory K with a locative role (origin).

Based on the results of the data analysis, the bi-intransitive sentence construction constructed from intransitive verbs is formulated as follows.

Bi-intransitive constructs subtype A: + S (FN: It) + P [ber- / ter-: sta] + K (FPrep: Lok)

The rule is read as a bi-intransitive sentence consisting of (1) predicate verb with the role of the statement, the bi-intransitive type, obligatory presence, (2) the subject of the nominal phrase with the role of the item, (4) description of prepositional phrases with local roles (origin), mandatory attendance.

b. Two-intransitive

sentence Sub-type B The construction of a bi-intransitive sentence of this type consists of a predicate of a verb along with a nominal phrase as the filler of the function S and a nominal phrase as Pel, as shown in the following example.

(1) The

establishment of this cooperative is based on the decision of a village citizen meeting. Linguistics Program of UKM Language and Literature Position UNJ

140

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

(2) The

forest on the slopes of Mount Rinjani is bathed in the morning sun.

(3)

Between residential areas and mountains, the distance is about seven kilometers.

The predicate for the three sentences is in the form of intransitive verbs (based, bathed, and spaced) accompanied by the nominal phrase of the S function filler as (1) possessive, (2) benefactive, and (3) possessive. In addition, (1) accompanied by a nominal phrase for the decision of the village citizen meeting the mandatory Pel function with a reference role, (2) accompanied by a nominal phrase for sunshine light to fill in the mandatory Pel function with the role of cause, and (3) accompanied by a nominal phrase about seven kilometers to fill the mandatory Pel function with the role of distance. .

On the basis of the results of the data analysis, a bi-intransitive sentence construction is formulated from intransitive verbs with the following terms.

The bi-intransitive construction of type B: + S (FN: Pos / Ben + P [ber- / ter: sta] + K (FPrep: Reference / derivation / origin]) The

rule is read as a bi-intransitive sentence consisting of (1) verb predicates with the role of a statement, bi-intransitive type, obligatory presence, (2) the subject of a nominal phrase with a possessive, benefactive role, (3) complementary to the nominal phrase with the role of the actor, locative (origin), presence required.

3. transitive sentences

in this study the transitive sentence construction data is divided into two subtypes, namely transitive sentence with a predicate (a) a transitive verb monomorfemis and (b) a transitive verb polimorfemis., as presented in the following sections.

a. sentences transitive subtype A

This research found that the transitive sentence consists of the transitive monomorphemic verb as a predicate, although not many, this verb requires the presence of the S-filler nominal phrase with the role of the actor and the presence of the O-filler nominal phrase with the target or benefactive role, as seen in the following example.

(1)

Some workers drink young coconut water.

(2)

Their chief waiter at the project site. Linguistics Program of UKM Language and Literature Position UNJ

141

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

(3) The

owner of the building is having an evening reading in the capital.

In the three examples, the transitive sentence predicates the monomorphemic verb (drink, wait, and read) accompanied by the nominal phrase of the mandatory S function filler with the role as the actor and the nominal phrase or pronoun to fill the mandatory function O with the role as the target.

Based on the examples above, a transitive sentence built from the predicate transitive verb monomorphemia has the following constructs.

Transitive sentence construction: + S (FN: Pel) + P (V [monomorphemic] + O (FN: Sas) +/- K (FPrep: Lok)

The rule is read as a transitive sentence predicated on a monomorphemic verb, consisting of (1) the predicate of a monomorphemic verb with the role of the statement, the transitive type, obligatory presence, (2) the subject of the nominal phrase with the role of the actor, mandatory presence, and (3) the object of the nominal phrase with the target role , mandatory attendance, and (4) description of prepositional phrases with localized roles, optional attendance.

b. Transitive Sentence Subtype B

The opposite of the transitive sentence of the type above, the polymorphemic verb applies one free morpheme {laku} and one bound morpheme {ber-}, in the verb type enforce consists of free morpheme {laku} bound morpheme {ber-}, {-kan}, and { meng-}. Polymophemic verbs can also be formed from two free morphemes {shake} and {hand} with a bound morpheme {to-} to shake hands or two free morphemes {responsibility} and {responsibility} with several morphemes bound {per-}, {-kan}, and {meng-} becomes accountable. As a predicate, the verb obliges the existence of both the subject and the object. The following example shows that the transitive polymorphemic verb predicate requires the presence of a nominal filler phrase S with the role of the actor and the presence of the filler nominal phrase O with the target or benefactive role, consider the following example.

(1)

A group of people protecting the street vendors in the center of the city.

(2)

Several street vendors came to the nearest police post.

(3) The

leadership of the organization must be accountable for all actions of its members.

In the construction of the three sentences above, the predicate verb semantically (protect, visit, and Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Unit of the Student Activity Unit of UNJ

142

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

take responsibility) require the presence of a nominal phrase that is filler in function S as the actor and a nominal phrase that is filler in function O as a target. If any of the phrases with the filler function K as locative are optional, see Example (1). In sentence construction (1) the predicate verb protects along with the nominal phrase of a group of people with the obligatory function S as the actor and the nominal phrase of street vendors who fill the function O is mandatory as a target and the prepositional phrase in the city center fills the optional adverb function as locative.

Based on the data analysis of this research, the transitive sentence construction built from the polymorphemic transitive verb predicate is formulated as follows.

Transitive sentence construction of subtype B: + S (FN: Pelk) + P ([meng- V -i / -kan]: sta) +/- K (FPrep: Lok)

The rule is read as a transitive sentence consisting of (1) the verb predicate meng-, -i / -kan with the role of the statement, transitive type, obligatory presence, (2) the subject of the nominal phrase, the role of the actor, obligatory presence, (3) the object of the nominal phrase, target role, mandatory attendance, and (4) description of optional prepositional phrases.

4. Dwitransitive Sentences

In contrast to transitive verbs, dual transitive sentence data shows that this type of sentence always consists of polymorphemic verb predicates, there is no dwitransitive verb predicate in the form of monomorphemic verbs. While transitive verbs can be formed from free morphemes of intransitive verbs, dwitransitive verbs are not formed from intransitive verbs, but are formed from transitive verbs. From transitive verbs, through a morphological process, dwitransitive verbs are formed, namely predicate verbs that require the presence of a complementary or adverbial constituent. For this reason, dwitransitive verbs are grouped into two subtypes, namely the dwitransitive verb subtype (a) requires the presence of Pel beside S and O, while the dwitransitive verb subtype (b) requires the presence of K in addition to S and O. as described below.

a. Dwitransitive Sentence Subtype A The

construction of a dual transitive sentence of this subtype consists of a polymorphemic verb predicate with semantic characteristics requiring the presence of Pel other than S and O. For example, verbs make consists of a transitive verb free morpheme {make} and a bound morpheme {-kan} and a bound morpheme {meng-} . In addition to the {-kan} morpheme, the verb of the Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Unit of the UNJ

143

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

Polymorphemic dwitransitive can also be formed from the bound morpheme {-i}, for example the verb send consists of the free morpheme {send} and the bound morpheme {-i} and {meng -}. The predicate of these verbs obliges the existence of S and O and Pel. As can be seen in the following data, the predicate of the dual polymorphemic verb requires the presence of a nominal phrase filler function S with the role of the actor and the presence of a nominal phrase filler function O with a benefactive role as well as a nominal phrase to fill the Cell function with the target.

(1)

The old woman always makes her husband breakfast of boiled cassava.

(2) The

grandfather of five grandchildren brings his wife merchandise to the market.

(3)

The grandfather’s children sent their parents dinner.

In the construction of the three sentences above, semantically the verb predicate makes, delivers, and sends, requiring the presence of the nominal phrase of the filler of the function S as the actor and the nominal phrase of the filler of the function of O as the benefactive and the nominal phrase of the filler of the Pel as the target. If there is a market-ready phrase the function K (direction) filler is optional.

Dwitransitive sentence construction, based on the results of data analysis, consists of a polymorphemic dwitransitive verb predicate with the following formula.

Dwitransitive construction: + S (FN: Pelk) + P ([meng- V -i / -kan]: Sta) + O (FN: Ben) + Pel (FN: Sas) +/- K (FPrep: Lok) Rule it is read as a dual transitive sentence predicated on polymorphemic verbs -i, -kan, and meng-, consisting of (1) the predicate verb meng-, -i / -kan with the role of the statement, the dwitransitive type, obligatory presence, (2) the subject of the nominal phrase, the role actor, obligatory presence, (3) nominal object phrase, benefactive role, mandatory attendance, and (4) complementary nominal phrase, target role, mandatory attendance, and (5) description of prepositional phrase, locative role (direction), optional presence.

b. Subtype B Dwitransitive Sentence

The data of subtype B’s dwitransitive sentences are always predicated on polymorphemic verbs. As with the sentence subtransitive subtype A, the predicate verb subtransitive subtype B is not formed from intransitive verbs, but is formed from transitive verbs. The predicate of the dwitransitive verb subtype B requires the presence of K. For example, if the verb sends requires the presence of a complement, while the verb sends requires the Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Unit of UNJ

144

Language and Literature Seminar 2015 the

presence of information to both parents (other than the object of dinner). Compare the two examples below.

(1)

The grandfather’s children send their parents dinner.

(2)

The grandfather’s children send dinner meals to both parents.

In the dwitransitive sentence (1) the nominal phrase (both parents) is O, while the prepositional phrase (to both parents) is as K in the dwitransitive sentence subtype B. Meanwhile, the nominal phrase (dinner) Pel in the dwitransitive subtype A becomes a filler for O on the dual subtype B. As can be seen in the example above, the predicate of subtype B is composed of transitive verb free morpheme {send} and bound morpheme {-kan} and bound morpheme {meng-} to send. Apart from the morpheme {-kan}, the subtransitive verb subtype B does not have a bound morpheme to form a bipransitivity. Thus, morpheme {-kan} is the only morpheme that forms subtype B’s dual transitive verbs. Here’s an example of a subtype B.

(1)

Friday afternoon the plant clerk popped a wave of love from the hallways of

the office. (2) The

plant clerk places the plant pot in the backyard of the office.

(3)

Early Monday the officer put the plant pot into the office.

In the three sentences above, semantically the predicate of the verb to issue, place, and enter requires the presence of the nominal phrase of the filler of the function of S as the actor and the nominal phrase of the filler of the function of O as the target and the phrase with the preposition of the filler of K as the locative (origin, place, and direction).

Based on the analysis results of this subtype dual transitive sentence, a dual transitive sentence consists of the predicate of a polymorphemic dwitransitive verb subtype B with the following formula.

Dwitransitive sentence subtype B: +/- K (FN: Wkt) + S (FN: Pelk) + P ([meng- Vt right]: sta) + O (FN: Ben) + K (Fprep: Lok) The

rule is read as a polymorphemic dwitransitive sentence subtype B (-kandanmeng-) consists of (1) adverb of the nominal phrase, the role of time, the optional presence (2) the verb predicate Vt -kan with the role of the statement, the type of subtype B, mandatory attendance, (3) the subject of the nominal phrase, the role of the actor, the obligatory presence, (4) the object of the nominal phrase, the target role, the obligatory presence, and (5) the description of the prepositional phrase, the locative role, the obligatory attendance. Linguistics Program of UKM Language and Literature Position UNJ

145

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

This is the explanation of research results on transitivity in Indonesian.

Reference Alwi, Hasan et al. 2003. Standard Indonesian Language Administration. Jakarta: Balai Pustaka. Chafe, Wallace, L. 1970. Meaning and the Structure of Language. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Chomsky, Noan. 1965. Aspects of the Theory of Syntax. Cambridge, Mass: The MIT Press. Kaswanti Purwo, Bambang. 1985. Strands of Syntax Theory 1970-1980s. Jjakatrta: Arcan Publisher. ————— 1986. ” Men- and in Indonesian Language Discourse ”In Indonesian Linguistics IV No. 8: 7-13. Matthews, PH 1981. Syntax. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Mees, CA 1955. Indonesian Grammar. Jakarta: JB Wolters. Fifth Printing, First Printing 1949. Pike, Kenneth L. and Evelyn G. Pike. 1982. Grammatical Analysis. Arlington: The Summer Institute of Linguistics and The University of Texas. Quirk, Randholph. et al. 1985. A Coprehensive Grammar of the English Langage. London: Longman. Samsuri. 1981. Language Analysis. Jakarta: Literature Hudaya. Soeparno. 2008. Tagmemik Flow: Theory of analysis, and Application in Language Learning. Yogyakarta: TiaraWacana. Sugono, Dendy. 1995. Subject Impression in Indonesian. Jakarta: Language Center. ————-. 2009. Proficient in Indonesian. Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama. Suparno. 1991. “Construction Themes-Rema: Study of Pragmatic Functions in Indonesian Language of the Community of Kota Madia Malang”. Dissertation of the University of Indonesia. Tampubolon, DP et al. 1979. Semantic Types of Contemporary Indonesian Verbs. Jakarta: Language Center. Sugono, Dendy. 1995. Subject Impression in Indonesian. Jakarta: Language Center. ————-. 2009. Proficient in Indonesian. Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama. Suparno. 1991. “Construction Themes-Rema: Study of Pragmatic Functions in Indonesian Language of the Community of Kota Madia Malang”. Dissertation of the University of Indonesia. Tampubolon, DP et al. 1979. Semantic Types of Contemporary Indonesian Verbs. Jakarta: Language Center. Sugono, Dendy. 1995. Subject Impression in Indonesian. Jakarta: Language Center. ————-. 2009. Proficient in Indonesian. Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama. Suparno. 1991. “Construction Themes-Rema: Study of Pragmatic Functions in Indonesian Language of the Community of Kota Madia Malang”. Dissertation of the University of Indonesia. Tampubolon, DP et al. 1979. Semantic Types of Contemporary Indonesian Verbs. Jakarta: Language Center.

List of Data Sources Faris, Salman. 2010. Teacher Dane: A Dark Time Novel People Sasak. Pancor Selong, East Lombok: STKIP Hamzanwadi Press. UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

146

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

Branden, Grecc, at al. The Mystery of 2012: Predictions, Predictions, and Possibilities. Translation of The mystery of Kompas newspaper published May and June 2011.

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS FAdj

adjective phrase

FN

nominal

phrase FNum numeralia phrase FPrep prepositional phrase FV

verbal phrase

Lok

location

O

object

P

predicate

Pel

complement

Pelk

actor

S

subject

Sas

target

Wak

time

Program SME Linguistics and Literature Languages Department UNJ

147

Seminar Languages and Literature 2015

148

STRATEGY GAME BASED IN constructivist vocabulary SEMANTIC ASPECT AND ASPECTS OF SPELLING KOSAKATA12

N. Lia Marliana13

Introduction In the Indonesian Language and Literature Department, Lexicography courses are only for students of the Indonesian Literature Study Program (non-education) in their third year, even semester of 4 credits. The prerequisite for this course is that students must pass General linguistics, Phonology, Morphology, Syntax, Semantics, Discourse, and Sociolinguistics courses. This means that lexicography is seen as a subject that is full of linguistics, especially the mastery of lexicology that students must study before they can compile their own dictionary. This lecture is not just a practice of making a dictionary. However, in the first half semester of the initial meeting, students were again faced with mastery of concepts and theories in microlinguistic studies, namely linguistics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and discourse. These microlinguistics courses are a prerequisite for compulsory lexicography courses. This means that students have to really master and understand these concepts. But in fact, when the lecturer who taught the Lexicography course reviewed the microlinguistic problem in the initial few weeks of the meeting, students experienced difficulties. They are still not fully able to master these concepts well and forget all the material they have learned in previous semesters. Again, the lecturer must repeat explaining the microlinguistic concepts by giving a lecture. This is based on 12 But in fact, when the lecturer who taught the Lexicography course reviewed the microlinguistic problem in the initial few weeks of the meeting, students experienced difficulties. They are still not fully able to master these concepts well and forget all the material they have learned in previous semesters. Again, the lecturer must repeat explaining the microlinguistic concepts by giving a lecture. This is based on 12 But in fact, when the lecturer who taught the Lexicography course reviewed the microlinguistic problem in the initial few weeks of the meeting, students experienced difficulties. They are still not fully able to master these concepts well and forget all the material they have learned in previous semesters. Again, the lecturer must repeat explaining the microlinguistic concepts by giving a lecture. This is based on 12 the lecturer must repeat explaining the microlinguistic concepts by giving a lecture. This is based on 12 the lecturer must repeat explaining the microlinguistic concepts by giving a lecture. This is based on 12

Presented at the Seminar Between the Nation, the National University of Malaysia and the Jakarta State University.

13

Lecturers, Department of Indonesian Language and Literature, Jakarta State University.

Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Position UKM UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

The results of observations by researchers as a lecturer assistant in the Lexicography course from 2008 to 2010 that the teaching lecturer used the lecture method and students read aloud the materials in the textbook in turn, then the lecturer explained. Is it appropriate for this method to be chosen by the lecturer as an effort to make students understand microlinguistic concepts in the Lexicography course? Therefore, this study will provide an alternative constructivist-based learning strategy in the Lexicography course which is intended for non-learning students in the Indonesian Language and Literature Department in a fun and meaningful way for students to achieve their learning goals. This learning objective is contained in the RPKPS (Program Plan and Semester Learning Activities) in the Lexicography course, namely “Students are able to compile a good dictionary with a limited corpus”. Because there are so many discussions in the Lexicography subject, this study only focuses on the semantic aspects of vocabulary and aspects of vocabulary spelling. In the semantic aspect of vocabulary contains language meanings, types of meanings, meaning relations between vocabulary units, changes in lexical meanings, inaccuracies, and word taste values. Meanwhile, on the material for the aspect of vocabulary spelling, there are many concepts and theories regarding word writing, word decapitation, vocabulary with twin spelling, and spelling in the history of Indonesian. These topics are an indispensable discussion as a basis for student understanding in compiling a dictionary.

Thus, the problem in this study is formulated into, “How to improve student competence in the semantic aspect of vocabulary and aspects of vocabulary spelling in lexicology through a constructivist based game strategy?” This research was structured with the aim of: 1) solving problems faced by students in understanding lexicology before entering lexicography work. This research will apply a constructivist based game strategy which is considered capable of solving student problems to the preparation of a dictionary; 2) improve student competence in the semantic aspect of vocabulary and aspects of spelling of vocabulary in lexicology through constructivist-based game strategies.

Literature Review

1. Lexicography Lectures Linguistic Program, Language and Literature Unit, UNJ

149

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

150

The Lexicography course in the Indonesian Language and Literature Department has been held since 2004. This lecture is only attended by students from the Indonesian Literature Study Program (non-education). This course with a weight of 4 credits has prerequisites that students must have passed General Linguistics, Phonology, Morphology, Syntax, Semantics, and Discourse, and Sociolinguistics courses. The description of the Lexicography course includes the definition of lexicology and lexicography, Indonesian vocabulary, development and development of Indonesian vocabulary, vocabulary division, word formation, term formation, vocabulary semantic aspects, and aspects of vocabulary spelling, dictionaries and types, and various problems before and while compiling the dictionary. Meanwhile,

Lexicology (from Greek: lexiko-, “lexicon”) is a branch of linguistics that studies words, properties and meanings, elements, relationships between words (semantics), groups of words, and the entire lexicon. This science is closely related to lexicography which also studies words, especially in relation to dictionary compilation. In simple terms, lexicography is called the practical application of lexicology.

The relationship between lexicography and lexicology

it is very close (Chaer, 2006: 1). Not much different from Chaer, Doroszewaki in Verhaar (2008: 13) states that lexicology is the name given to the field of study in theoretical linguistics, while lexicography is the science of applied languages. So, lexicology is the field of linguistics that studies vocabulary which forms the written basis for lexicography, namely the science of compiling dictionaries. In other words, lexicology is a branch of linguistics that discusses or investigates the meaning of words. In general linguistics studies, lexicography is one of the fields in the discipline of applied linguistics. Lexicography is closely related to all fields of linguistic studies, both micro (phonology, morphology, syntax, discourse, and semantics), and macro (such as sociolinguistics, anthropolinguistics, dialectology, and others). This is because according to Chaer (2006: 2), the study of vocabulary, which will be compiled into a dictionary in the work of lexicography involves all fields of linguistics. Knowledge of the spelling system is required to write the words that will be used as a lemma (entry) correctly. Aspects of vocabulary spelling involve the problem of writing words, both basic words, prepositional words, repetitive words, compound words (compound words), etc., as well as the problem of the use of letter types and some punctuation.

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

Semantic knowledge is needed to be able to explain the meanings of words correctly. In this case, the lexicographer should be able to understand and apply the concept of lexical meaning, grammatical meaning, contextual meaning, and idiomatic meaning correctly. Semantic knowledge includes the semantic aspect of vocabulary, which deals with knowledge of meaning, language meaning, meaning relations, types of meaning, and components of the meaning of words in Indonesian. Without sufficient semantic insight, the resulting dictionary is useless or less useful. Knowledge of sociolinguistics, dialectology, anthropolinguistics, and other macro studies is needed to be able to explain the meaning of word use in different social, cultural and societal situations (2007: 178)

Based on the theoretical explanation above, it can be concluded that knowledge of the semantic aspects of vocabulary and aspects of vocabulary spelling is necessary in understanding lexicology before lexicography work. Knowledge of the spelling system is required to write down the words that will be made into entries correctly. Meanwhile, semantic knowledge is needed to be able to explain the meanings of words precisely, which includes vocabulary semantics. 2. Definition and Constructivistic Objectives a. Constructivistic Definition Construction means it is constructive. According to Tran Vui, constructivism is a philosophy of learning that is built on one’s own experiences, while constructivist theory is a theory that gives freedom to humans who want to learn or seek their needs with the ability to find these wants or needs with the help of other people’s facilitation. According to Glasersfeld (in Beetencourt, 1989 and Matthews, 1994), constructivism is a philosophy of knowledge which emphasizes that our knowledge is our own construction (formation) and also emphasizes that knowledge is not an imitation of reality (reality), knowledge is always the result of a cognitive construction of reality through one’s activities. Further Von Glasersfeld (Collette & Ciappatta,

Linguistics Program for Language and Literature Department, UNJ

151

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

b. Constructivistic Objectives Still according to Martin (1993), constructivism aims to: 1) motivate students that learning is the responsibility of the students themselves. 2) develop students’ ability to ask questions and find their own answers to these questions. 3) helping students to develop a complete understanding and understanding of the concept. 4) develop students’ abilities to become independent thinkers. 5) put more emphasis on the learning process how to learn it.

c. Principles and Characteristics of Constructivist Teaching The principles and characteristics of constructivist teaching according to Martin (1993) are as follows: (1) The principles of constructivist teaching Broadly speaking, the constructivist principles applied in teaching and learning are: 1) knowledge is built by the students themselves; 2) knowledge cannot be transferred from lecturers to students, except only by being active in the students themselves to reason; 3) students are active in continuous construction, so that scientific concepts always change; 4) lecturers only help provide facilities and situations so that the construction process runs smoothly; 5) structure of learning around the main concepts of the importance of a question; and 6) seeking and assessing student opinion.

Of all that, there is only one most important principle, which is that lecturers should not merely provide knowledge to students. Students must build knowledge in their own minds. A lecturer can help this process with teaching methods that make the UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

152

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

information becomes very meaningful and highly relevant to students, by providing opportunities for students to find or apply their own ideas and by inviting students to be aware of and use their own strategies for learning. Lecturers can provide ladders to students which are meant to help them reach a higher level of understanding, but it must be endeavored for the students to climb them themselves. A constructivist view of learning and learning, learning environment, learning strategies and evaluation. According to Martin, et al (1993): a. A constructivist view of learning and learning 1) Knowledge is non-objective, temporary, always changing and uncertain. 2)

Learning is the compilation of knowledge from concrete experiences, collaborative activities, and reflection and interpretation. Teaching is structuring the environment so that students are motivated to explore meaning and respect uncertainty.

3)

Students will have a different understanding of knowledge depending on their experience and the perspective used in interpreting it.

b. A constructivist view of the learning environment 1) Irregularity, uncertainty, and clutter. 2) Students must be free. 3) Freedom is an essential element in the learning environment. 4) Failure or success, ability or disability are seen as different interpretations that need to be appreciated. 5) Freedom is seen as a determinant of learning success. Students are subjects who must be able to use the freedom to organize themselves in learning. 6) Learning control is held by students. c. A constructivist view of learning strategies 1) Presentation of content emphasizes the use of knowledge meaningfully following the order from the whole to the parts. 2) Learning is more directed at serving student questions and ideas. 3) Learning activities are based more on primary data with an emphasis on critical thinking skills. Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ

153

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

4) Learning emphasizes the process.

d. A constructivist view of evaluation 1) Evaluation that explores the emergence of divergent thinking, multiple solutions, not just one correct answer 2) Evaluation is an integral part of learning by giving assignments that require meaningful learning activities and applying what is learned in a real context. 3) Evaluation emphasizes process skills in the group.

3. Constructivist-based Game Strategy Constructivist-based game strategies are offered in solving problems in studying the semantic aspects of vocabulary and spelling aspects of vocabulary before working to compile this dictionary through five constructivist-based games. The games created by the researcher depart from the various educational games that teachers play inside and outside the school. According to Iva Rifa (2012), educational games inside and outside of school can improve the quality of learning, foster solidarity and cooperation, stimulate the development of thinking and creativity. These games, namely:

1. Ikondos / Lecturer Icons (Warm Up Game) 2. Besekata (First Game) 3. Kotakotega (Preliminary Game) 4. Whispering Horse (Closing Game) 5. Snakes and Ladders The heating game is not related to the material, only as a variation in determining which group will start first answering the questions in the first game. The first game deals with the spelling aspect of vocabulary, namely standard and non-standard words. The second game deals with aspects of vocabulary spelling, namely affixation, particles, spelling, word combinations, clitics, number words, abbreviations, and loanwords. The third game KUDA BISIK contains aspects of vocabulary spelling about words with affixation, reduplication, and composition, decapitation of vowels and consonants, particles. The fourth game, TANGGA SNAKE contains the semantic aspect of vocabulary,

154

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

155

on the relation of meaning, components of meaning, types of meaning, meaning of language. These four games are closely related to lexicology, which is the basis for students’ understanding when they compile a dictionary. This is because, when compiling a dictionary, it is necessary to re-know the words berEYD, standard words, meaning relations, meaning components, types of meaning, and language meanings.

Learning steps with a constructivist based game strategy: 1) The class is divided into six groups consisting of 5-6 students. 2) One group will assist the teaching lecturer in the position of a facilitator. 3) The facilitator will read the rules of the game to all students. 4) Strategy games are carried out step by step until all five games are exceeded. 5) The group with the highest score at each stage of the game will get a prize.

It is the dependence of fellow friends in the group that will then lead to individual responsibility for the

group

and

the interpersonal skills

of

each

members of the group. Each individual will help each other, they will have the motivation for the success of the group to collect points through five games, so that each individual will have the same opportunity to contribute to the success of the group.

Research Methods This classroom action research was conducted in a lexicography course with a weight of 4 credits. The subjects of this study were 32 sixth semester students (Class 2010) of the Indonesian Literature Study Program, Department of Indonesian Language and Literature, Faculty of Languages ​​and Arts, Jakarta State University who took the Lexicography course. The parties involved in this research are the Indonesian Literature Study Program, the Indonesian Language and Literature Department, the Language and Arts Faculty, Jakarta State University.

This research uses action research, which is a systematic study or research on classroom situations by following certain procedures or steps. These activities are driven by problems in the classroom that are lived by the teacher in carrying out daily tasks as people who try to teach students (Kemmis, Ebbut, and Elliot in Kinayati and Sumaryati, 2000: 145). Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Position UKM UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

This research took place in one cycle, each of which consisted of: planning (plan), implementation (act), observation (observe), and reflection (reflect). One cycle consists of two meetings (face to face) a week. Recording is done using a camcorder and photo camera. Students involved in this study were 32 sixth semester students (Class 2010) Indonesian Literature Study Program (non-education), C and D classes, majoring in linguistics, Indonesian Language and Literature Department, Faculty of Languages ​​and Arts, Jakarta State University who took Lexicography courses. . Initially, since 2008 there have been active participatory observations / observations, meaning that observers are present in class and help lecturers to check student attendance, observing the course of the learning process in class (Kinayati and Sumaryati, 2000: 152). Furthermore, since 2011, full participatory observations have been made, meaning that observations are made by lecturers who teach the Lexicography course, who also act as researchers (Kinayati and Sumaryati, 2000: 152). Then, the researchers conducted non-standard interviews (Kinayati and Sumaryati, 2000: 153) with students who had taken the Lexicography course from year to year against 6th semester students who had attended Lexicography courses, from the Indonesian Language and Literature Department. After carrying out data collection through the two steps above, a follow-up study was carried out. who also acts as a researcher (Kinayati and Sumaryati, 2000: 152). Then, the researchers conducted non-standard interviews (Kinayati and Sumaryati, 2000: 153) with students who had taken the Lexicography course from year to year against 6th semester students who had attended Lexicography courses, from the Indonesian Language and Literature Department. After carrying out data collection through the two steps above, a follow-up study was conducted. who also acts as a researcher (Kinayati and Sumaryati, 2000: 152). Then, the researchers conducted non-standard interviews (Kinayati and Sumaryati, 2000: 153) with students who had taken the Lexicography course from year to year against 6th semester students who had attended Lexicography courses, from the Indonesian Language and Literature Department. After carrying out data collection through the two steps above, a follow-up study was carried out.

Results and Discussion of

Cycle I (1) Lecturer planning provides students with understanding in advance about constructivist-based game strategies that are considered to be able to solve student problems in understanding the concept of lexicology, especially the semantic aspects of vocabulary and aspects of vocabulary spelling. Lecturers provide examples of constructivist-based game forms. Then, the thirty-two students were divided into four groups. Each group of eight students. The learning is carried out twice face to face, namely in room Q.102 on Monday, March 11 and Thursday March 14 in room Q.107. Linguistics Program of UKM Language and Literature Position UNJ

156

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

157

(2) Actions

The following describes the implementation of constructivist-based learning on the semantic aspects of Indonesian vocabulary and aspects of vocabulary spelling in the Lexicography course with a constructivist-based game strategy for Indonesian Literature Study Program students step by step accompanied by photo documentation during the activity.

1. Ikondos or Lecturer Icons (Warm Up Game), with the following game rules: 1. Each team appoints one representative to guess the Ikondos. 2. Each team must determine the distinctive sounds as a bell for each team in guessing the name of the lecturer after the icon of several lecturers from the Indonesian Literature Study Program is displayed. 3. After three guesses, it is allowed to change the team representative. 4. Team members who are not representatives may not whisper / tell their friends who are in charge of answering. 5. If someone notifies / whispers an answer, then his team will be disqualified for one Ikondos guess that is being broadcast as well as one broadcast of the next Ikondos guess. 6. The points earned are different, according to the Ikondos difficulty level.

WEEK

2. Besekata (First Game), with the rules of the game as follows: 1. Each team is divided into FISHING and CATCHER word. UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

158

2. FISHING word consists of one permanent person. 3. THE word catcher is represented by five people from the team. ARRESTS will use Alternate Words. 4. FISHERMEN = Signal about words on BeseKata. 5. CATCHER = Signal guesser. 6. The captured signal is written in the answer sheet provided without being spoken. 7. CAPITAL letter writing according to EYD rules. 8. 10 Points per word 9. Time given 5 minutes

KOTAKOTEGA

3. Kotakotega (Preliminary Game), with the following game rules: 1. There are 15 boxes containing the value + (if the answer is correct) and the value – (if the answer is wrong). 2. The value of each box varies according to the difficulty level of the question. 3. There are 5 boxes containing stars that have special privileges.

Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

159

Kuda Whispered

4. Whispering Horse (Closing Game), with the following game rules: 1. Each team sends 5 representatives. 2. There are 5 sentences that will be whispered. 3. Every single question the players change places (rolling). The last player writes down the sentence he hears on the provided answer sheet without being spoken. The material and questions given in this game strategy are as follows:

1. Besekata (First Game) Writing Standard Words According to EYD: complex

theoretical pro-SBY expression February phase athletes design quality non-Indonesian post – harvest country miracles between cities active prayer careers

the essence of the alphabetical

principle of

the

bus

post-Sukarno

schedule of the

Koran

quintal

khilaf Friday

practice pharmacy the essence of the rules of the Linguistic Program of the Language and Literature Unit of the UNJ Language and Literature Seminar 2015 160 2. Kotakotega (Preliminary Games) NO. 1. PROBLEMS “suffix and prefix ANSWER (including forms 1. ma-kan-an 2. Air-gu-mul alomorfnya) as well as particles that are usually written 3. a-bai-kan 4. bell-a-jar

sequence with the root word, can be cut off 5. help at the break of the line. “Give 5 examples of words that indicate the above statement (written in fragments)! 2.

Give 3 examples of writing or usage

1. Sit quietly!

particle good and proper! (in the sentence)

2. If he goes, I will go. 3. They are called one by one.

3.

Any

Any

name

spellings

were

inaugurated spelling

Languages

Indonesia

that

its use by the President on the Enhanced and spelling Baharu 1972? 4.

5.

Bahasa Malaysia

Write down 10 examples of word combinations that open the Chaer-Lexicography book, written sequentially according to the EYD guidelines!

page 162.

What is meant by the word klitika?

The word klitika is a pronoun whose form is cut off, such as kuata or –ku (from me). The word klitka is written in series with the words that precede or follow it.

6. The

statement below is true or false:

True

Aspect spelling vocabulary berimbuhan comes to writing,

word,

both

said

repeatedly,

the base, said

word combining

Program SME Linguistics and Literature Languages Department UNJ

Seminar Languages and Literature 2015

161

(compound), and so on, as well as regarding the use of fonts and some punctuation marks. 7.

What is meant by the word number?

Number words are words that represent a number, number, or count.

8.

Mention 2 rules for writing words with an affix!

1. All affixes that are appended to the basic form in the form of a root word are written in series with the basic form. 2. If the basic form is a combination of words, then the affix is ​​written in series with the word that immediately

precedes the

following. 9.

The film ‘Habibie-Ainun’ takes the theme of the story of

Salah, the

eternal love of BJ Habibie and Hasri Ainun Habibie. Spelling writing in the sentence above…. 10.

At the end of the 19th century, various publications in One Indonesia

has been

using the

spelling of

the

uniform or the same. 11.

“Rahmat is responsible for completing the

Incorrect

Accountability Report.” Writing the sentence above…. 12.

Abbreviations in the form of chemical symbols, correct units of measure, measure, scale, and currency not followed by a period.

13.

In the history of writing loanwords, there are 3 See Chaer’s book, page 166 kinds of foreign or regional words that are absorbed into Indonesian. Mention two of them in the Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ

or

the 2015 Language and Literature Seminar,

162 of

them! 14.

In what year was the first edition of the 1972 General Guidelines for Spelling Enhanced Indonesian Published?

15. A

generic abbreviation consisting of two letters

True

followed by a dot on each letter. Example: on behalf of = an

4. Whispering Horse (Closing Game)

Sentences that are whispered: 1. Basic words are words that have not undergone a process of affixation, reduplication, or composition. 2. If in the middle of a word there are two vowels in a row, then a cutting is done between the two vowels. 3. Acronyms in the form of a combination of the initial letters of the word combination are written entirely in capital letters. 4. In 1954 the Second Language Congress was held in Medan. 5. Particles per meaning ‘start, by, and each’ are written separately from the words that follow or precede it. Snakes and Ladders Game At the second meeting, the next game was held, namely snakes and ladders. The rules of the game are divided into two, first the general rules of the game and the second the specific rules of the game for each round. The Snakes and Ladders game is divided into four stages, namely: wording round, who am I round, essay round, and the fragment round. In addition, on the Snakes and Ladders game board, there is a ‘surprise game’ in the form of certain pictures that have their own game rules. General Rules 1. One class is divided into six groups, each group consisting of 6-7 people. 2. Each group designates one member as a pawn. Pawns cannot be changed until the end of the game. In addition, the pawn has a duty as a conclusion maker at the end of the game. Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ Pawns cannot be changed until the end of the game. In addition, the pawn has a duty as a conclusion maker at the end of the game. Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ Pawns cannot be changed until the end of the game. In addition, the pawn has a duty as a conclusion maker at the end of the game. Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

3. Each group appoints one member as an answerer to answer questions. Each question must be answered by a different interpreter, unless all members are already responsible. 4. Each group is allowed to open references. 5. At the start of the game each group is allowed to roll the dice and move according to the number that appears on the dice (done by the pawn) as the first step for each group. 6. Each group that successfully answers the questions is allowed to roll the dice and move according to the number that appears on the dice. 7. Each question successfully answered will give 10 points to the group that was successful in answering it the first time and 5 points to the other group who also managed to answer but lost quickly. 8. The game is divided into four rounds. The first half is wording, the second half is who I am, the third act is an essay and the fourth is a fragment. Each round has its own rules. Special Regulations a. Special rules for the ‘wording’ round 1. Each group lines up to form one banjar (5 groups, so 5 banjars) 2. The wording round is answered collectively by all group members except the pawn. 3. Each group must arrange the words contained in the cards given by the presenter group on the provided answer boards. 4. The compilation is done by all members of the group-except for the pawn, and arranges the words one by one. Group members who have placed one word on the answer board can line up again in the back row. 5. All members of the group are required to play – except for the pawn b. Special rules for the ‘Who Am I’ chapter 1.

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

163

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

3. From the instructions given, each group can answer by writing the answer on the answer board provided after the instructions have been read out and participants are welcome to answer. 4. Those who may answer are the interpreters of each group and the answerers must be different members for each question. * General rule no. 2. c. Special rules for the ‘Essay’ round 1. Participants sit neatly in groups. 2. The presenter group will read the questions. 3. Each group is allowed to answer after the questions have been read out. 4. Each group can answer by raising their hands, after being invited, they can answer the question. 5. If the first answerer fails to answer (wrong) then the question will be thrown in the way that the presenter will read out the questions first. Participants who are 6. has failed is not allowed to answer again on the same question 7. The question will be repeated once. d. Special rules for the ‘Fragment’ round 1. Participants sit neatly in groups. 2. The presenter group will present the fragments that each group must pay attention to in order to answer the questions. Pragmen in the form of dialogues or monologues carried out by a group of presenters. 3. Groups that already know the answer can answer by raising their hand, after being invited to answer the question. e. Special rules for the ‘Surprise Game’ Surprise game will be carried out if one of the pawns stops at a number that has a certain image, among other things: This ‘gift’ image means:

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

164

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

165

The picture ‘kado / bom’ means: the group whose pawn stops at the number with the picture ‘gift / bomb’ can go forward or back according to the number that appears on the dice after answering the question. If it is true then it can go forward, if it is wrong then it must be backwards. The box marked ‘Drop Opponent’ means: the group whose pawn stops at the number that says ‘Drop opponent’ can select another group to ‘knock down’. If the selected group can answer then the group remains in its position. If the selected group cannot answer then they are dropped, or in other words, take a few steps back according to the number that appears on the dice, (note: the position of the pawn in this box is not affected regardless of the result).

VOCABULARY Assessment Rubric: Points are given to groups that successfully compose sentences correctly and on time. Points 10. Then, for the group that answered correctly, but lost quickly, got a point 5. WHO I AM: Points are given to the group that successfully answers by writing it on the board. correctly and on time. Points 10. Then, for the group that answered correctly, but lost quickly, scored 5. ESSAY: Points are awarded to the group that successfully answers correctly and quickly. Points 10. FRAGMENT: Points are awarded to groups who successfully answer correctly and quickly. Points 10.

Category of Winners and Prizes Given to the TERLUCKY Winners: the winner who occupies the highest position on the board. (get a medal consisting of candy, quasi, and chocolate)

1. Winner of MOST POINTS: that is, the winner who gets the highest points from the result of answering the overall question. (get a medal consisting of candy, cauliflower, and chocolate) 2. Winner BEST

CONCLUSION

:

that is the

winner

whose

“pawn” is

able to

conclude the results of the game well in accordance with the assessment made by the lecturer. (get a medal consisting of candy, kuaci, and chocolate)

UKM Linguistics Program UNJ Department of Languages ​​and Literature Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

Snakes and Ladders Game Questions A. ‘Word Order’ Round Questions The answers to the wording round are as follows: 1) Problem: Arrange the words on the cards to form a correct definition and state what is the definition? Answer: “Definition of Meaning”, which is “A concept, meaning, or idea contained in a unit of speech, either in the form of a word, combination of words, or even larger units”. 2) Problem: Arrange the words on the card to form a correct definition and state what is the definition? Answer: “Conventional Definition”, namely “The meaning given to a word is based on mutual agreement by a group of people who own the language”. 3) Problem: Arrange the words on the card to form a correct definition and state what is the definition? Answer:

B. ‘Who Am I’ chapter questions 1) WHO AM I? –

I am part of the contextual meaning

I am concerned with the feelings of the speaker / language user personally

I feel more verbally than written Answer: Affection

2) WHO AM I? –

I am the subject of the study of the meaning of language

I am part of the science of semiotics

I am part of microlinguistics Answer: Semantics

3) WHO AM I? –

I am a lexicon of Linguistic Program of Language and Literature Unit of UNJ

166

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

– My

nature is internal

I am the meaning of the word Answer: Lexical meaning

4) WHO AM I? –

I am the implied meaning in a context, either linguistic context or situation context

I am implied in a sentence or speech Answer: Presupposition

5) WHO AM I? –

I am the meaning related to the culture, norms, and way of life in a society

I am close to the meaning of affection

I have value of feeling Answer: Connotation

6) WHO AM I? –

I am arbitrary, dynamic and conventional.

I also deal with culture and social society, as well as with the context of various discourses. Answer: Meaning of Language

7) WHO AM I? –

I am divided into several types, sometimes absolute, sometimes gradational, or relational.

In addition, there are also those that are hierarchical and plural in nature. Answer: The Reverse Relationship (Antonimi)

8) WHO AM I? –

I consist of two words or more which combine to form a new meaning. Answer: idiomatic

9) WHO AM I? –

I have a complementary partner

I have a verb category, there is also a noun category for the Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of the Student Association of UNJ

167

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

I am a type of reverse relation

Which reverse relation (Antonym) do I answer: Relational Antonyms

C. ‘Essay’ chapter questions

1) The position of the word in a linguistic unit, whether in phrase units, sentence units, or paragraph units, is included in the context? Answer: Linguistic Context 2) In a cultural and social context, apart from the meaning of the term, it also relates to four meanings. What are the four meanings? Answer: Meaning of association, meaning of affection, meaning of connotation, and meaning of stylistics. 3) Two days before the match between Indonesia and Malaysia, the TIMNAS Garuda supporters already filled Senayan. The word senayan in the above sentence implies a meaningful association? Answer: Gelora Bung Karno, where the match will take place. 4) The meaning of affection with connotative meaning is both related to the value of taste, but there are also differences. Explain the difference! answer: the meaning of affection with respect to utterance as a whole, while the connotation meaning is related to the word unit. 5) Words such as angkot, city bus, taxi, train, and plane, mean the lexical meaning of public transportation commonly used by humans. However, on a social level the user has a different meaning. Such a thing is a kind of meaning? ANSWER: STYLISTICS 6) Idioms, in the ideal sense, are divided into how many types? Mention! ANSWER: TWO. PARTIAL IDIOM AND FULL IDIOM 7) “Head of stone” in the ideomatic meaning is classified into the type of idiom? Answer: Part 8) Give examples of full idioms! answer: green table, eat heart, etc. 9) Opposite the connotative meaning is meaning? Answer: Denotative 10) In the relation of meaning between vocabulary units, there is a similarity relation which is called? Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ 5) Words such as angkot, city bus, taxi, train, and plane, mean the lexical of public transportation commonly used by humans. However, on a social level the user has a different meaning. Such a thing is a kind of meaning? ANSWER: STYLISTICS 6) Idioms, in the ideal sense, are divided into how many types? Mention! ANSWER: TWO. PARTIAL IDIOM AND FULL IDIOM 7) “Head of stone” in the ideomatic meaning is classified into the type of idiom? Answer: Part 8) Give examples of full idioms! answer: green table, eat heart, etc. 9) Opposite the connotative meaning is meaning? Answer: Denotative 10) In the relation of meaning between vocabulary units, there is a similarity relation which is called? Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ 5) Words such as angkot, city bus, taxi, train, and plane, mean the lexical of public transportation commonly used by humans. However, on a social level the user has a different meaning. Such a thing is a kind of meaning? ANSWER: STYLISTICS 6) Idioms, in the ideal sense, are divided into how many types? Mention! ANSWER: TWO. PARTIAL IDIOM AND FULL IDIOM 7) “Head of stone” in the ideomatic meaning is classified into the type of idiom? Answer: Part 8) Give examples of full idioms! answer: green table, eat heart, etc. 9) Opposite the connotative meaning is meaning? Answer: Denotative 10) In the relation of meaning between vocabulary units, there is a similarity relation which is called? Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ lexical meaning of public transportation commonly used by humans. However, on a social level the user has a different meaning. Such a thing is a kind of meaning? ANSWER: STYLISTICS 6) Idioms, in the ideal sense, are divided into how many types? Mention! ANSWER: TWO. PARTIAL IDIOM AND FULL IDIOM 7) “Head of stone” in the ideomatic meaning is classified into the type of idiom? Answer: Part 8) Give examples of full idioms! answer: green table, eat heart, etc. 9) Opposite the connotative meaning is meaning? Answer: Denotative 10) In the relation of meaning between vocabulary units, there is a similarity relation which is called? Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ lexical meaning of public transportation commonly used by humans. However, on a social level the user has a different meaning. Such a thing is a kind of meaning? ANSWER: STYLISTICS 6) Idioms, in the ideal sense, are divided into how many types? Mention! ANSWER: TWO. PARTIAL IDIOM AND FULL IDIOM 7) “Head of stone” in the ideomatic meaning is classified into the type of idiom? Answer: Part 8) Give examples of full idioms! answer: green table, eat heart, etc. 9) Opposite the connotative meaning is meaning? Answer: Denotative 10) In the relation of meaning between vocabulary units, there is a similarity relation which is called? Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ divided into how many types? Mention! ANSWER: TWO. PARTIAL IDIOM AND FULL IDIOM 7) “Head of stone” in the ideomatic meaning is classified into the type of idiom? Answer: Part 8) Give examples of full idioms! answer: green table, eat heart, etc. 9) Opposite the connotative meaning is meaning? Answer: Denotative 10) In the relation of meaning between vocabulary units, there is a similarity relation which is called? Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ divided into how many types? Mention! ANSWER: TWO. PARTIAL IDIOM AND FULL IDIOM 7) “Head of stone” in the ideomatic meaning is classified into the type of idiom? Answer: Part 8) Give examples of full idioms! answer: green table, eat heart, etc. 9) Opposite the connotative meaning is meaning? Answer: Denotative 10) In the relation of meaning between vocabulary units, there is a similarity relation which is called? Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ there is a similarity relation which is called? Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ there is a similarity relation which is called? Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ

168

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

Answer: Synonyms 11) Why are synonymous words not absolute? answer: because it depends on the context of the conversation. 12) Explain why the meaning is also conventional! answer: because, the meaning given to a word is based on a mutual agreement by a group of people who own the language. D. ‘Fragment’ round questions

1) Watch the following conversation! A: Where were you on vacation yesterday? B: I went to the opah-omah’s house in Surabaya. A: Oh yeah ?! It is the same. I also went to my grandparents’ house in Solo. question: what relation does the words opah-omah and grandparents mean? answer: Relationship meaning similarity (synonymy). 2) Look at the following fragments! A mother is looking at fruit at a fruit market. Mother: How much is dukunya, sir? Seller: 7 thousand Sir. Question: What is the meaning of the conversation and give the reason? answer: Contextual Meaning.

3) Look at the following fragments! A: How about this? Should we just beat this thief? B: No, we just take this matter to court? A&C: What ?! Green table? question: the word “green table” belongs to the meaning? answer: Idiomatic meaning. 4) Look at the following fragments! Mother: Nina, please buy flowers for Mother Nina: What flowers? Mother: Hmmm .. Red roses, white roses, tulips, and orchids. question: what kinds of flowers did you mention in the relationship? Linguistics Program of Language and Literature Department of UKM UNJ

169

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

170

answer: Hyponymy Relations. E. ‘Surprise Game’ questions Questions for ‘surprise games’ follow the current round. Game Result (Total Points Earned): Group I: 40 Points Group II: 30 Points Group III: 60 Points Game Winner: The luckiest winner The luckiest winner is chosen from the group whose pawn stops at the furthest point. The luckiest winners are group III. Most points winner: The winner of the most points is selected from the group that has the most points. The winner of most points is group III. Best conclusion winner: The best conclusion winner is selected from the pawns who succeeded in making the best conclusion. The assessors are lecturers. The winner of the most points is group II. After completing the game, students were given a test about the semantic aspects of vocabulary and aspects of vocabulary spelling.

(3) Observation

Based on the results of collaborator observations, the following data were obtained: Table 1 Observation Sheet of Learning Semantic Vocabulary Aspects and Vocabulary Spelling Aspects in Classroom through Constructivistic Based Game Strategies NO.

OBSERVATION INDICATORS

YES /

DESCRIPTION

NO 1.

knowledge

of the

material Yes

Students

build their

own

related semantic aspects of vocabulary

knowledge regarding semantic aspects

and vocabulary spelling aspects are built

vocabulary and aspects

of Linguistics Program UKM Language and Literature Position UNJ

vocabulary spelling

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

171

by the students themselves through

through

strategies

constructivist

game

-based

strategy

game

based

reasoning

through

constructivist 2.

active students to make sense of

Iya

Students

active

inducement-inducement

in

every

game 3. The

student is

4.

actively

constructing Iya

constantly,

Students actively mengostruksi concept

that

the semantic aspects of vocabulary and

always There is a change in the concept

of spelling of vocabulary through

scientific strategies regarding semantic aspects

vocabulary games and aspects of vocabulary spelling

such as types of meaning, meaning

through

grammatical based game strategies , lexical meaning, EYD,

constructivist relations of

meaning.

Lecturers

only

help, Yes,

based on

constructivism.

Lecturers facilitate the means and tools to

provide facilities and

game situations . The lecturer is assisted by one

so that the construction process through

student groups as facilitators

of constructivist -based

game strategies runs smoothly; 5. Four structure based game structure

constructivist learning

constructivist

around

about the main concept is done through

the concept

through the

main

excavation

carried out questions-

questions;

four

games in the learning

-based exploring questions. The excavation of questions is carried out by being prompted, given a stick in the form of an impression, a stick in the form of paper number 6. four games based on Yes The four games involve constructivist searching and assessing

students in exploring the opinions and

opinions of fellow students in

calculating the assessment of

the Linguistic Program of the Language and Literature Program of UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

(4) Reflection

In learning semantic aspects of vocabulary and aspects of vocabulary spelling using a constructivist-based game strategy, based on observer observations, the lecturer has carried out learning the semantic aspects of vocabulary and aspects of vocabulary spelling with a fun strategy and makes it easier for students to understand concepts. This can be seen from the high scores generated by students in answering questions about the semantic aspects of vocabulary with a mean of 86.06 and aspects of vocabulary spelling with a mean of 95.6. (5) Reflective Analysis and Evaluative Discussion

To help research, this paper uses a questionnaire whose scope is that of the Indonesian Literature Study Program UNJ students who take the 2010 class of Lexicography courses as many as 32 people. The questionnaire distributed did not take into account the gender of the respondent. Following are the results of the questionnaire used in this paper. From the results of the questionnaires that were distributed to 32 people, it can be seen that 57% liked language / linguistic material, 43% answered casually, and 0% answered disliked. This means, most students who take the Lexicography course really like language material. Furthermore, on the questionnaire question about whether students used to experience difficulties during microlinguistics courses, the majority (67%) answered sometimes, and a few answered that they had difficulty (14%) and had no difficulty (19%). This means that only 19% of students have had no difficulty at all in understanding microlinguistic courses since the beginning of their study (from General Linguistics, Phonology, Morphology, Syntax, Discourse, to Semantics courses). The main cause of the biggest difficulty of students in understanding microlinguistics is the conventional way of teaching lecturers (usually by lecturing). As many as 52% of students answered this, while 29% of students answered that it was difficult language material that was the cause, and 19% of other students answered that difficulties from themselves in absorbing information were the cause. This means that most students find it difficult to absorb information when lecturers’ teaching methods are still conventional. Furthermore,

172

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

173

in the Lexicography subject 86% and only 14% of students feel more comfortable if the lecturer speaks. Furthermore, 100% of students answered that they were happy if the Lexicography lecture used the game method.

This contradicts the answer

previously that there were still 14% of students who were more comfortable if the lecturer gave a lecture. Only 4 students understood better if the lecturer used the lecture method, while 17 students did not understand if the lecturer used the lecture method in lexicography lectures. Most students (90%) find it easier to understand words, terms, semantic aspects of vocabulary, aspects of vocabulary spelling if the lecturer uses game techniques in lexicography lectures. Meanwhile only 10% of students answered no. As many as 100% of students answered that they were enthusiastic and happy to take lexicography lectures through game techniques. This is also supported by their statement that problems in the preparation of the dictionary, one of which can be solved by selecting the appropriate teaching method (teaching methodology) of the lecturers as much as 95%, while only 5% answered no. Finally, 100% of students were inspired to develop game techniques in lexicography lectures into other aspects of the material. Based on the results of the questionnaire, it can be concluded that this constructivist-based game technique has succeeded in increasing their understanding in understanding microlinguistics and overcoming various problems in understanding microlinguistics (lexicology) before entering into dictionary compilation work (lexicography). The test results showed that of the 32 students who took the lexicography lecture, in the semantic aspect of vocabulary, there was a student who got the lowest score of 74. Meanwhile, in the material for the aspect of vocabulary spelling, there were two students who received the lowest score of 80. amounting to 86.06 above the KKM, meanwhile, the mean score in the vocabulary spelling aspect was 95.6, also above the KKM of 75. The test results on these two aspects have shown that the students’ ability to understand lexicology, especially in the semantic aspect of vocabulary and the aspect of vocabulary spelling, has been successfully passed by students. The learning process they went through by using a constructivist based game strategy has also been able to make learning meaningful and fun. The scientific concept of the semantic aspect of vocabulary can be constructed by students independently and together with the Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ. especially in the semantic aspect of vocabulary and aspects of vocabulary spelling have been successfully passed by students. The learning process they went through by using a constructivist based game strategy has also been able to make learning meaningful and fun. The scientific concept of the semantic aspect of vocabulary can be constructed by students independently and together with the Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ. especially in the semantic aspect of vocabulary and aspects of vocabulary spelling have been successfully passed by students. The learning process they went through by using a constructivist based game strategy has also been able to make learning meaningful and fun. The scientific concept of the semantic aspect of vocabulary can be constructed by students independently and together with the Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ.

2015 Language and Literature Seminar

with other students. In addition, based on the results of a questionnaire that was distributed after learning with a constructivist-based playing strategy, it was found that this constructivist-based game technique succeeded in increasing their motivation and cognition in constructing the concept of semantic aspects of vocabulary and spelling of vocabulary as part of microlinguistics. This means that the constructivist-based game strategy is successful in overcoming various problems in understanding microlinguistics (lexicology) before entering the work of dictionary compilation (lexicography).

Conclusion

The competence of semantic aspects of vocabulary and aspects of vocabulary spelling can be improved through constructivist-based game strategies. The ability of students to understand lexicology, as well as mastery of the semantic aspects of vocabulary and aspects of vocabulary spelling have been shown with good results based on the results of questionnaires and the results of tests of mastery of the semantic aspects of vocabulary and aspects of vocabulary spelling. The learning process they went through using constructivist-based game strategies has also been able to make learning meaningful and fun. The scientific concept regarding the semantic aspect of vocabulary can be constructed by students independently and together with other students in very positive social interactions. This constructivist based game strategy succeeded in increasing their motivation and cognition in constructing the semantic concept of vocabulary and spelling of vocabulary as part of microlinguistics. The constructivist-based game strategy was successful in overcoming various problems in understanding microlinguistics (lexicology) before entering the work of dictionary compilation (lexicography). This constructivist based game strategy requires careful preparation and planning. Therefore, the lexicography lecturer as a facilitator has indeed prepared as well as possible all the properties, tools, and materials needed for the game, in addition to the learning scenario in each meeting with a constructivist-based game strategy. The constructivist-based game strategy was successful in overcoming various problems in understanding microlinguistics (lexicology) before entering the work of dictionary compilation (lexicography). This constructivist based game strategy requires careful preparation and planning. Therefore, the lexicography lecturer as a facilitator has indeed prepared as well as possible all the properties, tools, and materials needed for the game, in addition to the learning scenario in each meeting with a constructivist-based game strategy. The constructivist-based game strategy was successful in overcoming various problems in understanding microlinguistics (lexicology) before entering the work of dictionary compilation (lexicography). This constructivist based game strategy requires careful preparation and planning. Therefore, the lexicography lecturer as a facilitator has indeed prepared as well as possible all the properties, tools, and materials needed for the game, in addition to the learning scenario in each meeting with a constructivist-based game strategy.

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

174

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

Brooks, Jacqueline Grennon and Martin G. Brooks. 1993. The Case for Constructivist Classroom. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Chaer, Abdul. 2007. Lexicology and Lexicography. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta. __________. 2006. Lecture Materials Lexicography. Department of Indonesian Language and Literature. Faculty of Language and Art. State University of Jakarta. Djojosuroto, Kinayati and Sumaryati. 2000. Basic Principles of Language and Literature Research. Bandung: Nuansa Publisher. Driver, R. Guesne, E., Tiberghien, A. 1985. Children’s Ideas and The Learning of Science in: Children’s Ideas in Science * Ed: Driver, R et al), Milton Keynes: Open University Press. Kemmis & Mc. Taggart. 1988. Participatory Action Research. Kridalaksana, Harimurti. 1984. Dictionary of Linguistics. Jakarta: Gramedia. Margaret. E. Gredler. 2011. Learning and Instruction: Applications and Theory. Jakarta: Golden. Mulyasa, E. 2006. Education Unit Level Curriculum. Bandung: PT. Rosdakarya youth. Ministry of National Education Language Center. 2005. General Guidelines for Improved Indonesian Spelling. Jakarta: Balai Pustaka. ____________________. 2008. Big Indonesian Dictionary. Jakarta: Language Center of the Ministry of National Education. Rifa, Iva. 2012. Collection of Educational Games Inside and Outside Schools. Flashbooks Publisher. RPKPS for Lexicography Subjects. Department of Indonesian Language and Literature. Faculty of Language and Art. State University of Jakarta. Trianto. 2007. Constructivist Oriented Innovative Learning Models. Jakarta: Prestasi Pustaka Publisher. Verhaar, JWM. 2008. General Liguistic Principles. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press. General Guidelines for Improved Indonesian Spelling. Jakarta: Balai Pustaka. ____________________. 2008. Big Indonesian Dictionary. Jakarta: Language Center of the Ministry of National Education. Rifa, Iva. 2012. Collection of Educational Games Inside and Outside Schools. Flashbooks Publisher. RPKPS for Lexicography Subjects. Department of Indonesian Language and Literature. Faculty of Language and Art. State University of Jakarta. Trianto. 2007. Constructivist Oriented Innovative Learning Models. Jakarta: Prestasi Pustaka Publisher. Verhaar, JWM. 2008. General Liguistic Principles. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press. General Guidelines for Improved Indonesian Spelling. Jakarta: Balai Pustaka. ____________________. 2008. Big Indonesian Dictionary. Jakarta: Language Center of the Ministry of National Education. Rifa, Iva. 2012. Collection of Educational Games Inside and Outside Schools. Flashbooks Publisher. RPKPS for Lexicography Subjects. Department of Indonesian Language and Literature. Faculty of Language and Art. State University of Jakarta. Trianto. 2007. Constructivist Oriented Innovative Learning Models. Jakarta: Prestasi Pustaka Publisher. Verhaar, JWM. 2008. General Liguistic Principles. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press. Department of Indonesian Language and Literature. Faculty of Language and Art. State University of Jakarta. Trianto. 2007. Constructivist Oriented Innovative Learning Models. Jakarta: Prestasi Pustaka Publisher. Verhaar, JWM. 2008. General Liguistic Principles. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press. Department of Indonesian Language and Literature. Faculty of Language and Art. State University of Jakarta. Trianto. 2007. Constructivist Oriented Innovative Learning Models. Jakarta: Prestasi Pustaka Publisher. Verhaar, JWM. 2008. General Liguistic Principles. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press.

UKM Linguistic Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

175

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

176

REPRESENTATION OF GENDER IDEOLOGY IN

COMPASS STORY 2011: ANALYSIS OF CRITICAL DISCOURSE14 Miftahul Khairah A. Fathiaty Murtadho15

Introduction

Critical discourse sees that language is always involved in power relations, especially in shaping hegemony and various acts of repression in society. Therefore, critical discourse analysis is used to uncover the power that exists in every language process. This power is often presented, applied and exercised through literature. Literature has the power of “magic” which is able to transform the reader from the real world to a far more pleasant place. Not only is it fun, literature is also an intellectual challenge that needs to be analyzed. However, readers often do not realize that the literary works they read contain a certain ideology. Therefore, literature challenges its readers to carry out an analysis,

14

Presented at the Seminar Between the Nations of the Malaysian National University and the Jakarta State University.

15

Lecturers at the Postgraduate Study Program, Jakarta State University.

Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ’s Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

177

Since Plato’s time, literature has been used to bridge fact and fiction, between reality and fiction. Marxists view literature as a vital means of spreading ideology. Literature is an ideological battleground in order to gain the hegemony of certain groups. Literary works are not facts, they work imaginatively so that discourse is exploited maximally (Loomba, 2000 in Khairah, 2009: 96). Literary work becomes an abstraction from concrete reality. Various ways and efforts taken by humans to reveal and explain the complex realities of life. One of them is through short stories. Short stories have their own uniqueness and excellence in revealing the realities of life. The short story tells about human life partially. Even though they are partial, short stories are able to present various values ​​and moral messages. This paper focuses on the study of the January 2011 edition of Kompas short stories which are published every Sunday. There are four short stories published during January. The short stories are Woman in the Head, Kak Ros, Ibu Pulang, and Bones. What is interesting to research is that the four short stories discuss women’s problems with different portraits of life. Even though they are different, they are all representations of what Indonesian women have experienced. Therefore, critical discourse analysis is used as an analytical tool to uncover the gender ideology that is implied behind the language used in the short story. and Bones. What is interesting to research is that the four short stories discuss women’s problems with different portraits of life. Even though they are different, they are all representations of what Indonesian women have experienced. Therefore, critical discourse analysis is used as an analytical tool to uncover the gender ideology that is implied behind the language used in the short story. and Bones. What is interesting to research is that the four short stories discuss women’s problems with different portraits of life. Even though they are different, they are all representations of what Indonesian women have experienced. Therefore, critical discourse analysis is used as an analytical tool to uncover the gender ideology that is implied behind the language used in the short story.

Theoretical Basis of

Critical Discourse Analysis Study Model Critical Discourse Analysis (AWK) is an analysis of critical

discourses , namely discourses that contain ideas, domination, and power, such as

political discourse , race, gender, etc. AWK reveals ideas that highlight

political power,

domination, hegemony, ideology, class of society, gender, race, discrimination, interest, reproduction, institutions, social structures, and social roles (Darma, 2006: 15). AWK sees language not as a structure, but sees language as a linguistic character related to socio-cultural processes and structures. AWK studied the Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ

in the 2015 Language and Literature Seminar

power relations in discourse and seeing the relationship between discourse and society and culture dialectically: society and culture are shaped by discourse, and at the same time also define discourse. In addition, AWK sees the use of language that is ideological. Ideology is a central concept in AWK. This ideology is constructed by the dominant group with the aim of reproducing and legitimizing their domination. One strategy is to create public awareness that domination is taken for granted. Ideology in this case is inherently social and AWK sees discourse as a form of social practice. AWK is an approach in cultural studies (Pennycook, 2001 in Darma, 2006: 75-76). There are several models of critical discourse analysis developed by experts, including Sara Mills, Fowler, and Fairclough (Eriyanto, 2005). Sara Mills places more emphasis on how women are depicted in texts (especially literature). Sara Mills, using Althusser’s analysis, emphasizes how actors are positioned in the text. This position is seen as a form of oppression of a person: one party has a position as interpreter while the other party becomes the object being interpreted. Fairclough tries to connect text analysis at the micro level with a larger social context, in this case sociocultural practice. In the analysis stage, the three stages are carried out together. Text analysis aims to reveal meaning, and that can be done by analyzing language critically. Discourse practice mediates text with socio-cultural contexts (sociocultural practice). This means that the socio-cultural relationship with text is indirect and is connected with discourse practice. Roger Fowler focuses on the practice of using language. There are two things that must be considered. First, at the word level. How the events and actors involved in these events are to be discussed. The words here are not only markers or identities but are associated with a certain ideology, the meaning of what one wants to communicate to the public. Which party or group benefits from the use of these words and which party or group is disadvantaged and their position is marginalized. Second, at the level of word order, or sentence.

178

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

language, but language practice. What is emphasized here is how the pattern of arrangement, amalgamation, arrangement has a certain effect: makes one party’s position more favorable or has a positive image compared to another, or certain events are understood in certain categories that are more favorable than other categories of understanding. Gender Assumptions The concept of gender is a trait inherent in both men and women that is socially and culturally constructed. For example, that women are known to be gentle, beautiful, emotional, or motherly, while men are considered strong, rational, manly, and mighty. Gender problems start from a universal perspective, namely that culture (in which there is an educational process) seeks to control and manage nature for human needs. In this case, men are identified with culture and women are identified with the realm ruled by men. Women are identified with nature because their life is considered close to their biological processes, namely their reproductive functions. Starting from this view, women are stereotypically considered to have inherited feminine traits, namely emotional, passive, inferior, dependent, gentle, and their role is limited to the family sphere; while men are considered to have inherited masculine traits, namely rational, active, superior, powerful, tough, and mastering roles in society (Moore, 1988). Talking about gender, of course, cannot be separated from language and cultural factors, as expressed by Phillips quoted by Budiman (1992) that one of the important aspects of social relations in society is the division of roles based on gender. If language is a set of conventions that can reflect social relations, then this gender differentiation will also be reflected in it. This can happen because language contains terms, concepts or labels that indicate which behavior is appropriate for men and which ones are appropriate for women. then the gender differentiation will also be reflected in it. This can happen because language contains terms, concepts or labels that indicate which behavior is appropriate for men and which ones are appropriate for women. then the gender differentiation will also be reflected in it. This can happen because language contains terms, concepts or labels that indicate which behavior is appropriate for men and which ones are appropriate for women.

Linguistics Program of Language and Literature Unit of UNJ

179

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

Further said by Trudgill in Wardhaugh (1992) that variations in gender are a result of different social treatment of male and female behavior, and as a result these behaviors appear in language as a social symbol.

Gender ideology Gender ideology is a gender structure that is believed by society in placing the identity, role and position of men together with women in a social system. A statement is categorized as containing a gender ideology if the vocabulary or grammar expresses inequality and differentiates the treatment of men and women. There are many types of gender ideologies that regulate the identity of women and men, the position and position of women and men, and the behavior of women and men. There are types and kinds of ideology that are dominant in a certain place and period of time and some are not dominant (Bhasin, 1996; Saptari and Holzner, 1997; Yulianeta, 2002: 42 in Darma 2006: 48-53). In Asian society, the dominance of patriarchal ideology is very dominant, whereas in British and Indonesian capitalist societies, the ideology of familialism is dominant, which is an ideology that constructs 48 women to play a role in the household, as housewives, good wives, and good mothers. This ideology of familialism has expanded and penetrated into the public or social arena (Bhasin, 1996; Barret, 1980; Elmhirot, 1989). Meanwhile, in various Asian countries, there is a general ideology which imposes the value of seclusion of women, exclusion of women from certain fields (exclusion), and the priority of women’s femininity. The type of gender ideology has various functions that can be used as a vehicle to achieve certain goals or interests. For functionalists, ideology as a housewife, a good wife, and a good mother. This ideology of familialism has expanded and penetrated into the public or social arena (Bhasin, 1996; Barret, 1980; Elmhirot, 1989). Meanwhile, in various Asian countries, there is a general ideology which imposes the value of seclusion of women, exclusion of women from certain fields (exclusion), and the priority of women’s femininity. The type of gender ideology has various functions that can be used as a vehicle to achieve certain goals or interests. For functionalists, ideology as a housewife, a good wife, and a good mother. This ideology of familialism has expanded and penetrated into the public or social arena (Bhasin, 1996; Barret, 1980; Elmhirot, 1989). Meanwhile, in various Asian countries, there is a general ideology which imposes the value of seclusion of women, exclusion of women from certain fields (exclusion), and the priority of women’s femininity. The type of gender ideology has various functions that can be used as a vehicle to achieve certain goals or interests. For functionalists, ideology exclusion of women from certain fields (exclusion), and the prioritization of women’s femininity. The type of gender ideology has various functions that can be used as a vehicle to achieve certain goals or interests. For functionalists, ideology exclusion of women from certain fields (exclusion), and the prioritization of women’s femininity. The type of gender ideology has various functions that can be used as a vehicle to achieve certain goals or interests. For functionalists, ideology

gender can be a vehicle for mutual consensus. For

poststructuralists, social feminists, radical feminists, and postmodernists, gender ideology can become an arena for conflict, struggle and power struggles for the formation of “hegemony” or “hegemonic” ideology (Saptari and Holzner, 1997: 200-210).

UNJ Language and Literature Unit

180

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

181

In general, gender ideology can be manifested in the form of gender injustice, marginalization, discrimination, subordination, familialism, ibuism, domestization, repression, and victimization. Research methods

This study used a qualitative descriptive method by examining four short stories from Kompas published in January 2011. The four short stories: (1) Sis Ros by Gus TF Sakai, (2) Ibu Pulang by Fransisca Dewi Ria Utari, (3) Woman in Avianti’s Head Armand, (4) Bones by Rama Dira J. The focus of the research is Critical Discourse Analysis which involves three dimensions of analysis: 1) textual dimensions, 2) discourse interpretation / production dimensions, 3) and socio-cultural explanatory / practice dimensions. At the text analysis stage, data analysis was carried out at the level of vocabulary and grammatical aspects which showed gender domination and hegemony. At the interpretation stage, data analysis was carried out in the form of tracing the history of short story authors and the ideology of the Kompas daily. The short story writer and compass are the elements that produce the short story. At the explanation stage, an analysis of the socio-cultural conditions which became the setting of the short story was carried out. In general, the flow of analysis carried out in this paper follows the 2005 Darma analysis pattern.

short story

Dimensions of socio-cultural practice

Subjects The

object of

storytelling

storytelling

Dimensions of discourse production of

the Linguistic Program of the UKM Language and Literature Program UNJ

Text dimensions: vocabulary and sentence structure

2015 Language and Literature Seminar

182

Research Results: Short Story Compass Perspective Analysis of Critical Discourse

The results of this study include the results of subject analysis and the object of storytelling, the results of the analysis of the dimensions of the text (vocabulary and sentence structure), the results of the analysis of the interpretation dimension ((discource practice), and the results of the analysis of the socio-cultural dimensions (social practice).

The subject of storytelling versus the object of storytelling Sara Mills places representation as the most important part of her analysis. How one party, group, person, idea, or event is presented in a certain way in news discourse that influences the meaning when it is received by the public (Eriyanto, 2005: 200). The investigation of the subject and object of the story on the four Kompas short stories shows that the placement of the male gender is always positioned as the subject and the female character is always positioned as the object. This implicitly represents gender discrimination. In this case, men are given a superior position, while women are given an inferior and marginal position. Men are positioned as story subjects who seem to benefit, while women are constructed as objects of stories that seem to be disadvantaged. The following is an example of the placement of the subject and object of storytelling in a short story called Kak Ros. In general, the position of the subject and the object of storytelling in the text is mapped as follows. No.

Actor

1

I

Portrait in Text

Position

Young, unmarried, story-telling subject by profession. poet, likes leaves

2

Ros

Middle-aged woman, single, The

object of the story is

a boarding house mother, loves plants, mysterious because often the Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

183

speaks to leaves, soft but very cold. 3

Ben

Pemuda, nomads who live in

Strengthening

boarding position , hardworking, younger

Brother Ros as the object of

three years from my character,

storytelling, namely a character who is always the subject of their discussion.

This mapping of the subject and object of the story makes it easier to explore the representation of gender ideology hidden behind the text. Strictly speaking, this short story does not contain elements of gender discrimination. However, if you pay close attention, the presence of these figures represents discrimination against gender. The character Aku, who is placed in the text as the subject of the story, tells the story of Ros, a middle-aged woman with a single status. At first, he described Ros as a gentle woman who

loves plants. Gentleness and

compassionate that made him fascinated with that figure. However, he also described Ros as a mysterious woman with a strange personality. In fact, at the end of the story, she described Ros as a rough, cold, and scary woman. A rough and terrifying figure wrapped in tenderness. As an object, Ros was not empowered to tell himself. He is only presented by text through the character Aku. The character of Ros as a strange and rude woman is obtained by readers through the character Aku. This indicates that Ros as a female figure is indeed placed by the text as the object of storytelling. The placement of the male character I is positioned as the subject and the female Ros character who is positioned as an object implicitly represents the existence of gender discrimination. In this case, males are given superior positions, while females are given inferior and marginal positions. UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

Text Dimension This stage is linguistic analysis which includes vocabulary and text structure. Language describes how the reality of the world is seen so that it allows a person to control and organize experiences of social reality. a. Vocabulary Level Vocabulary is important in critical discourse analysis because it relates to how a reality is represented in language. Or in other words, vocabulary choice sometimes forces readers to see how reality should be understood. This aspect relates to how a person, group, events, and activities are displayed in the text. Vocabulary analysis in this text includes: (a) vocabulary: making classifications, (b) vocabulary: limiting views, and (c) vocabulary: discourse battles. These three concepts were adopted from Roger Fowler’s critical linguistic thinking. b. Vocabulary: Making Classification The use of vocabulary in Kompas short stories makes certain classifications. Certain realities are categorized as either this or that, and are ultimately distinguished from other realities. Searches for text also show the same thing. The use of vocabulary in short stories makes a classification between men and women. The male and female portraits are different. Men are constructed and imaged as superior, while women are imaged as inferior. This construction does not only appear in the physical aspects, but also in the psychological, behavioral, and social aspects of men versus women. The physical aspect of the image of women means that women are reconstructed differently from men. Men were imaged as handsome and well-built, while women were imaged as cute, wrinkled, sour face, and so on. Imaging

in the psychological aspect, women are associated as

emotional beings , angry, cruel, and others, while men are imaged as rational figures in the Linguistic Program of the UKM Language and Literature Department UNJ

184

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

and ideal. Indirectly, this creates segregation between men and women in psychological terms. What is disadvantaged are the women because they give bad characteristics to the female figure. The different images between men and women can also be seen in the aspects of attitude and behavior, for example, women prefer hedonic life, shopping at the mall and so on. The depiction of such a woman is illustrated in the following sentences. (1) Ben’s chat was all that: Sis Ros, her boarding house mother who is almost middle age, but still single, very gentle, gentle, loving, and as if she could talk to leaves. (2) Grandma is a pushy type. (3) Rather than begging or pitying, grandmothers are more comfortable being angry or sulking. (4) So old, he resembles a dry-wrinkled tree, bent, and bent here and there with awkward corners. (5) A man suddenly looms in front of me. High, sturdy, fragrant. His face is clean. (6) Behind him, the old woman sat with a sour face. (7) Since then, she (the old woman) has become more cruel and arbitrary. (8) I believe he is a witch. (9) So, this guy is ideal. (10)

My mother is even happy that someone will look after me at home if she spends her

time and money at the mall. (11)

Boys shouldn’t be weepy.

c. Vocabulary: Limiting Views of

the Linguistic Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ

185

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

In addition to forming a classification, the use of vocabulary offered by the text also limits the reader’s view. That is, readers are directed to an understanding of a certain reality. The text tries to shape and at the same time limit the reader’s understanding that men and women are indeed different beings, both from physical, psychological, behavioral, and professional aspects. In physical terms, for example, women who are considered beautiful are women who are white, slim, without wrinkles, smell good, etc. Therefore, when there is a female figure who does not have these characteristics, she is included in the type of bad and evil woman, as experienced by the Old Woman. In psychological terms, for example, women are positioned by short stories as angry, irrational, emotional, etc. This leads the reader’s understanding to admit that by nature women are really angry, irrational, and emotional, so that when a woman is always angry and has an emotional attitude, people think it is normal for a woman. In terms of behavior, women are positioned by short stories as whiny, happy shopping, spending time in malls, etc. This leads the reader to understand that women are whiny, hedonistic, only thinking about pleasure and so on. The image of women in the aspects of profession and social relations can be seen in the use of vocabulary such as witches, baby sitters, housewives, boarding mothers, TKW, etc. On the other hand, men are imaged as workers in the public sector. The depiction of such a woman is illustrated in the following sentences. (12) and emotional, so when there is a woman who is always angry and emotional, people think it is normal for a woman. In terms of behavior, women are positioned by short stories as whiny, happy shopping, spending time in malls, etc. This leads the reader to understand that women are whiny, hedonistic, only thinking about pleasure and so on. The image of women in the aspects of profession and social relations can be seen in the use of vocabulary such as witches, baby sitters, housewives, boarding mothers, TKW, etc. On the other hand, men are imaged as workers in the public sector. The depiction of such a woman is illustrated in the following sentences. (12) and emotional, so when there is a woman who is always angry and emotional, people think it is normal for a woman. In terms of behavior, women are positioned by short stories as whiny, happy shopping, spending time in malls, etc. This leads the reader to understand that women are whiny, hedonistic, only thinking about pleasure and so on. The image of women in the aspects of profession and social relations can be seen in the use of vocabulary such as witches, baby sitters, housewives, boarding mothers, TKW, etc. On the other hand, men are imaged as workers in the public sector. The depiction of such a woman is illustrated in the following sentences. (12) In terms of behavior, women are positioned by short stories as whiny, happy shopping, spending time in malls, etc. This leads the reader to understand that women are whiny, hedonistic, only thinking about pleasure and so on. The image of women in the aspects of profession and social relations can be seen in the use of vocabulary such as witches, baby sitters, housewives, boarding mothers, TKW, etc. On the other hand, men are imaged as workers in the public sector. The depiction of such a woman is illustrated in the following sentences. (12) In terms of behavior, women are positioned by short stories as whiny, happy shopping, spending time in malls, etc. This leads the reader to understand that women are whiny, hedonistic, only thinking about pleasure and so on. The image of women in the aspects of profession and social relations can be seen in the use of vocabulary such as witches, baby sitters, housewives, boarding mothers, TKW, etc. On the other hand, men are imaged as workers in the public sector. The depiction of such a woman is illustrated in the following sentences. (12) The image of women in the aspects of profession and social relations can be seen in the use of vocabulary such as witches, baby sitters, housewives, boarding mothers, TKW, etc. On the other hand, men are imaged as workers in the public sector. The depiction of such a woman is illustrated in the following sentences. (12) The image of women in the aspects of profession and social relations can be seen in the use of vocabulary such as witches, baby sitters, housewives, boarding mothers, TKW, etc. On the other hand, men are imaged as workers in the public sector. The depiction of such a woman is illustrated in the following sentences. (12)

I believe she is a magician.

(13) A group of baby sitters in oversized uniform followed hurriedly. (14) Some were carrying babies, others carrying bags filled with bottles of milk and hot water which looked heavy

. Linguistic Program of Language and Literature Department of UNJ

186

Seminar on Language and Literature 2015

(15) So far, his wife has routinely sent foreign money from foreign countries. which, if converted, can finance more than enough to live with their only child. (16) I (male) returned here after graduating from college and immediately worked as an editor …

d. The Battle of Vocabulary Discourse that is depicted in the text, not only classifies and limits understanding of reality, but vocabulary is also a discourse battle. The discourse fighting between men and women in these short stories shows that the text discriminates against female figures. Men are always the winner. (17)

While looking at the contents of the photo album, Grandma finally told me that Dad was like that

want children in marriage to Mother. I was born five years later. But my presence could not prevent Mother from leaving. For Dad, I am a gift in his life. As for Mother, my presence was a memorabilia of her disloyalty. Now I realize why my face is not the same as Father or Mother. On the last page of the photo album, I saw myself as a child in a park. I’m on the lap of Mother who is sitting with a man with the same eyes and smile as me. 1) Sentence Structure In addition to being shown by the use of vocabulary, gender discrimination is also shown by the use of sentence structures. The sentence structures constructed by these short stories are generally in the form of declarative sentences with the SPOK / Pel pattern. The male character occupies the function of the subject of the sentence, while women occupy the function of sentence objects. This shows that men act as actors of stories, while women are only targets of what is told. (18)

Occasionally I saw the woman digging the caterpillars from the wall …

(19)

I believe she (the old woman) is a witch.

(20)

I once drove him away.

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

187

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

Discourse Practice Dimensions The relationship between text and socio-cultural context is indirect. To connect the text with the social structure, it is necessary to have an analysis stage called the interpretation stage. What is discussed at this stage is how the relationship between text, media, and the author. At the language description stage, linguistic data were found which indicated the existence of stereotypes attached to the text for men and women. Stereotypes in this text must be dismantled by tracing the text production. Gender discrimination in short stories also appears in the text production process. The results of the analysis show that the identities and backgrounds of the four short story writers also influence the image of women. Even more interesting, Kompas, which calls itself a follower of pluralism, it turns out that they are still co-opted by the patriarchal culture inherent in Indonesian society. Indirectly, Kompas takes part in affirming gender beliefs that have been embedded in the subconscious that women have higher emotional sensitivity and levels than men. The rational owner is male, while the emotional owner is female. The change in the paradigm of gender relations between men and women after the New Order has not been clearly illustrated in the January 2011 edition of the Kompas short story. Explicitly, this short story does not present gender discrimination and marginalization, but the dismantling of the text shows that Kompas is still co-opted with a patriarchal culture that is firmly attached to Indonesian society. As a result, These short stories contain gender ideological content that has the potential to lead readers to gender-discriminated actualization and grounding. One example is a short story entitled “Ibu Pulang” by Fransiska Ria Dewi Utari. Explicitly, this short story seems to flatter women by placing them in a superior, independent, modern, independent position and so on. However, this position actually brought her back to an inferior position by illustrating that women who do not maximize their function in the domestic sphere will result in family disharmony. This condition can be interpreted as rejection of the text against the concept of women’s modernity. This short story seems to flatter women by placing them in a superior, independent, modern, independent position and so on. However, this position actually brought her back to an inferior position by illustrating that women who do not maximize their function in the domestic sphere will result in family disharmony. This condition can be interpreted as rejection of the text against the concept of women’s modernity. This short story seems to flatter women by placing them in a superior, independent, modern, independent position and so on. However, this position actually brought her back to an inferior position by illustrating that women who do not maximize their function in the domestic sphere will result in family disharmony. This condition can be interpreted as rejection of the text against the concept of women’s modernity.

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

188

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

Social Practice Dimensions Apart from text production, gender discrimination in these short stories is also influenced by the socio-cultural background that surrounds them. The existence of women’s inferiority in this short story is a representation of the patriarchal ideology adopted by society. The gender role of a person, whether male or female, depends on the cultural values ​​that develop in their society. In a patriarchal society, from the start, the gender roles of boys were more dominant than girls so that there was a comparison of gender roles and in turn men were considered to be superior in life than girls. Gender Ideology in Kompas Short Stories From the search for texts, text production, and socio-cultural backgrounds, it is found that the gender ideology is hidden behind these short stories. Ideology here is a belief system that people use to explain and justify their behavior and to interpret or judge the behavior of others. Gender ideologies are some of the beliefs that govern the pattern of people’s participation in gender settings and are used to explain and justify that participation. The dominant ideology in this short story is as follows. a. Stereotypes In general, stereotypes are labeling or marking of a particular group. Unfortunately, stereotypes are always harmful and cause injustice. Lots of certain gender injustices, generally women, originate from stereotypes carried out on women. . Stereotype as a concept related to gender roles, can be illustrated as a picture that women are weak, emotional, and passive creatures, while men are strong, manly, mighty, and rational. This stereotype is deeply embedded in Indonesian society. Women are always associated with being dandy, seducing men, so every case of violence or sexual harassment is always associated with this stereotype. These stereotypes are shown physically, psychologically, and behaviorally.

b. Discrimination The existence of stereotypes in society that place men higher than women often leads to discrimination. However, in a patriarchal society, the Linguistic Program of the UKM Language and Literature Position UNJ

189

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

190

the role of men is more central than that of women. This of course is discrimination for women. c. Domestization Almost all cultures in the world recognize the superiority of men over women. Anatomical differences are often used as the main reason in determining the social roles of the two. Men play a major role in society because they are considered physically more productive, stronger and more potential. This difference creates a separation of functions and responsibilities between men and women. Men play a role in the public sector and women take part in the domestic sector. d. Familialism Familialism in this short story is shown by conditions that require women to be aware of their nature as being

pregnant and giving birth. As

consequently, she has to look after and raise children, as well as take care of her husband. If this function is not carried out properly, a harmonious family will not be created. e. Marginalization The marginalization of women in these short stories can be seen in the position of women in the work sector. Many jobs are considered women’s work, such as TKW, secretaries, maids, baby sitters, housewives, boarding houses, etc. For most people, this job has a negative connotation because it affects the low salary. f. Subordination The subordination in this short story shows that men are given a higher position than women. In this case, men are seen as more useful than women. Therefore, in Java, there used to be an assumption that women did not need higher education. I’m finally going to the kitchen anyway. This view is still shared by some people in Indonesia. Even the government once had a rule that if the husband would go to study (away from the family), he could make up his own mind. However, wives who want to study abroad must have the permission of their husbands. In the household, it is still often heard that if the family finances are very limited, and have to take the decision to send their children to school, the boys will get the Linguistics Program of the UNJ Language and Literature Department. for a wife who wants to study abroad, the husband must have the permission of her husband. In the household, it is still often heard that if the family finances are very limited, and have to take the decision to send their children to school, the boys will get the Linguistics Program of the UNJ Language and Literature Department. for a wife who wants to study abroad, the husband must have the permission of her husband. In the household, it is still often heard that if the family finances are very limited, and have to take the decision to send their children to school, the boys will get the Linguistics Program of the UNJ Language and Literature Department.

The 2015 Language and Literature Seminar is a

top priority. This kind of condition certainly places men in a superior position, while women in an inferior position.

g. Victimization / Violence In almost all parts of the world, women are often the victims of sexual violence. The victimization in this short story is shown by the short story “Tulang Bulang”, in which a woman commits suicide because she cannot bear the shame of bearing the seed of her employer. Of course, this was not done on a consensual basis, but on the basis of employer coercion which resulted in rape and death. The gender ideology contained in these short stories shows that the mass media is one of the institutions that unconsciously takes part in affirming gender beliefs that have been embedded in the subconscious mind of women from all over the world that they are “ destined ” to be housewives. broader context; become an inferior object in the presence of a superior male subject. Therefore, the mass media should take part in distributing short stories with a gender-unbiased perspective, so as to create an awareness to position men and women wisely. It is also hoped that the mass media can become a useful tool to free and empower marginalized groups, including women.

Conclusion

Patriarchal societal ideology plays a role in shaping Kompas short stories. Indirectly, readers will consume and accept this short story in a patriarchal view so that gender-biased short stories are sometimes not considered strange, they are even considered a reason that does not need to be criticized. From the search for the text, the production of the text, and the socio-cultural background, it is found that the gender ideology is hidden behind the short stories. These ideologies are stereotypes, discrimination, domestization, familiaslism, marginalization, subordination, and victimization.

Linguistics Program of Language and Literature Department of UNJ

191

Seminar on Language and Literature 2015

192

Reference Bhasin, K. 1996. Suing Patriarchy: Introduction to the Issue of Domination against Women. Yogyarakta: Fortress and Kalyanamitra. Darma, Yoce Aliah. 2006. Application of Critical Discourse Analysis Model in Short Story Study with Gender Ideology to Develop Students’ Discourse Analysis Ability (Quasi-Experimental Study in the Department of Indonesian Language and Literature Education, FPBS UPI, Class 2003-2004). Dissertation. Bandung: UPI Eriyanto. 2005. Introduction to Discourse Analysis Media Text Analysis. Yogyakarta: LKIS Fairclough. 2003. Discourse Analysis. London: Routledge. Fakih, Mansour. 1996. Gender Analysis and Social Transformation. Yogyakarta: Student Library. Khairah, Miftahul. 2009. “Uncovering the Effects of Colonialism in the Novel Ayat-Ayat Cinta: A Postcolonial Reading” in Literary Studies Books in a Contemporary Perspective. Bandung: UPI Press Lips,

Essay in Anthropology and Gender.

Saptari and Holzner. 1997. Women, Work, and Social Change: An Introduction to Women’s Studies. Jakarta: The Main Study of Graffiti Wardhaugh, Ronald. 1992. An Introduction to Sociolinguistics. Oxford: Basic Blackwell Inc.

SMEs Linguistics Program Language and Literature Department UNJ

Seminar Language and Literature 2015

193

CONTINUITY IN STYLE say LITERATURE ENGLISH TEXT

Mohammad Jaafar Fadzeli

Introduction

This paper will discuss the style of speech in Malay literary texts in terms of pattern and function. Patterns refer to the conventions and forms of utterances used by the author, while functions refer to the utterance selection strategies in a conversation. This study will compare the use of utterances diachronically, i.e. classical and modern literary works. Classical literary works will be represented by Hikayat Hang Tuah (HHT), while Salina by A. Samad Said will represent modern literary works.

Through this comparison, will

be shown later continuation of the style of speech in Malay literature.

This study is of the

view that utterances will be able to show the way the author tells the story through the characters.

Speech Structure According to Toolan (1998) the basic structure in presenting the words or thoughts of a character in a fiction is as follows: (1) (2)

She said, ‘I’m sorry I can’t stop right now’. She wondered why those types always picked out her to ask. UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

194

It can be observed that each of the above examples consists of a matrix clause (She said, She wondered) and a bound clause.

The matrix clause serves as the framework of the clause that will

supply information on who is speaking / thinking.

The bound clause is the recording

speech / utterances or thoughts of the character. Based on this explanation, it turns out that an utterance consists of two basic components, namely the matrix clause and the bound clause. In this paper, the matrix clause is referred to as the reporting clause, as mentioned by Halliday (1994) and Greenbaum & Nelson (2002), while the bound clause refers to utterance. Based on the presence of the reporting clause in a statement, Greenbaum & Nelson (2002) has divided the utterance pattern into three, initial position (initial position), middle position (medial position) and final position (final position). The initial position reporter clause uses the structure ‘X says + utterance. In this context, ‘X says’ refers to the reporting clause. For example: (3)

She told them, ‘We should not waste food when millions are starving’

Contrasting with the initial position, the reporter clause which is placed at the end of the utterance is called the final position. For example: (4)

‘I’m not ready yet,’ he replied.

The example above shows the structure for ‘speech + X says’. The reporting clause which is in the middle position is also a combination of speech in the initial and final positions, that is, the reporter clause is present in the middle of the speech, for example “(5)

‘I’m not ready yet,’ he replied. ‘You go ahead without me’.

Based on the example above, the reporter clause is flanked by utterances. This pattern can be simplified as follows: ‘utterance + X says + utterance’. With this, there are at least three different utterance patterns, based on the position of the reporter clause either at the beginning, middle or end. This paper will analyze the style of speech in Malay literary text based on patterns of speech that discussed this.

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

Live Speaking Style

This study has selected chapter 1 for each work studied. In comparison, chapter 1 in Hikayat Hang Tuah consists of 17 pages. Salina is 13 pages long. The selection of these two works as Hikayat Hang Tuah for example, is the only authentic Malay epic. This text is considered to be more original than the Sejarah Melayu style, which is influenced by the styles of Arabic (Kassim Ahmad, 1971). Hikayat Hang Tuah is also a story because the word ‘hikayat’ means story. This contrasted with a more Sejarah Melayu history.

Salina between early modern Malay literature that gets

recognition in terms of its quality for having won the Prize of Appreciation in the Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka novel contest in 1958. Produced by the national writer, A. Samad Said, this work is his first work.

In total there are a total of 45 paragraphs in HHT, and 127 in Salina. Based on that number, a total of 26 paragraphs in HHT have dialogue, while 90 paragraphs in Salina use dialogue. The rest is narrative. This comparison illustrates the balance of narrative paragraphs with paragraphs that are dialogues in HHT. On the other hand, Salina shows the dominance of the use of dialogue in the chapters studied. Speech Patterns and Strategies Based on observations, HHT’s storytelling style is to mix narrative with dialogue. Not a single dialogue is separate from the narrative. The author will begin a paragraph with a narrative that serves as the background of the story. For example: (6)

Alkisah then that is the word Sang Perta Dewa. Once the elders then he said to all the chief ministers, “O gentlemen, get out tomorrow; we want to go hunting. ” Then he prayed: “All right, my lord.” So mangkabumi also begged out to be equipped with elephant horses and people. When it was complete, then Mangkabumi came in and prayed, “O my lord shah alam, I was ordered to complete it, I will now mobilize all the people and the elephants.” So he said, “All right, tomorrow we will go.” So the king went into the palace. So all the ministers returned to his house. (p.3) UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

195

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

Based on the example above, the first sentence with the Alkisah discourse marker serves as the beginning of the storytelling. The two characters involved in this example are Sang Perta Dewa and mangkabumi.

In terms of the convention, there are two ways to present the text of the speech in

Malay classics, namely: (7) (8)

Once persetua then he also commanded all the chief minister, “Masters, a fitted out tomorrow; we want to go hunting. ” Then he prayed: “All right, my lord.”

Example (7) places a comma before the utterance, while example (8) uses a period of overlapping periods. Each utterance will be marked with a quotation mark “…”. Based on the analysis, it is found that HHT dominates the pattern of the initial reporting clause, which is the structure of ‘X says + utterance’. The difference between example (7) using the word bertitahlah, while example (8) is the response by mangkabumi to the king through the word sembah. Based on the analysis, this form is consistently used to refer to kings and slaves. This corresponds to the background and story of HHT which revolves around the palace. According to Lacaze (2013), the pattern of the initial position reporting clause is an old fashioned style. This view was right to work Malay language as observations of other works of classical Malay, such as Sejarah Melayu, This pattern is the most popular. This indicates that the style of classical Malay speech is a reporting clause initial position. However, in chapter 1 is found an utterance that the speaker does not state. (9)

Once that is done, then all employees and counselors apply to return to his house. And the Bendahara Paduka Raja was turned and sat back down at the station own meeting with all possess, to collect young people RICHRICH and Petuanan twenty it: “There is also the sole servant, whoever there is a boy or a girl, all right was laid down His Dipertuan because he himself told the servant to order to collect. ” So all the lords worshiped, “My lord has a son.” Then one prayed, “I have a daughter.” So the Treasurer said, “All right, gentlemen, we present to you His Majesty.” (p.16)

No structure ‘X said’ was found in the clause preceding the above statement. Based on the context, it can be traced that the one who uttered this statement was the King’s Treasurer who was meeting with his servants.

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

196

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

(10)

197

“There is also in the speech of the servant, whoever has a son or a daughter, it should be offered to His Majesty the King because he himself told the servant to order pick up. ”

The present invention also provides an interesting indication because it turns out a classic French style speech there is little variation. The use of these statements without a reporter is actually more commonly found in modern works. This will be detailed later based on Salina’s text. One thing that can be confirmed here is that the use of ‘X says’ can determine the status of the speaker. For example, when the treasurer speaks to the king, the author chooses the word worship because the king has a higher status. When the treasurer speaks to his servant, the element X chosen is the worship for the servant and the word for the treasurer. The highest X element of status is command. The word worship is used for the people (including the treasurer) to the king, and the servant to his master (e.g. the treasurer).

The word is the reference of the narrator to

someone of lower status, such as a slave.

Next, look at the following example of an excerpt of a conversation between a captain and a shahbandar. (11) As

soon as the captain arrived, he reached Palembang. So it also completes the presentation. After that, he walked to Bukit Seguntang. How many of them then arrived, then he came to shahbandar. So the captain said, “Ya shahbandar, these servants want to face shah alam.” So the Shahbandar said, “All right.” (P. 11)

Apparently, element X in the reporting clause can determine a person’s status or degree. The author uses the word for both the utterances of the captain and the shahbandar. If based on the example above, the use of the word refers to the words of the treasurer to his servant. The function of the word in this context is to describe the difference in the status of the teacher. The use of words for fellow preachers, for example between the captain and the shahbandar shows that each has equal status. The structure of ‘X says + utterance’ in HHT can be formulated as follows: (12)

king X (command)

with treasurer / people

UKM Linguistic Program UNJ Department of Languages ​​and Literature

2015 Language and Literature Seminar 2015

198

treasurer / people X (worship)

with

king

treasurer X (word)

with

servant

servant X (worship)

with treasurer / king

captain X (word)

with

shahbandar

Next, the data of this study also show a form of utterance related to cognitive. For example: (13)

Then he saw that the slaves of four people were too good-looking. So the captain thought, “These boys are not human beings; if the children of the gods do not know who it is. ” (p. 10)

The author of the text of the classic work has used direct thought patterns to describe what the character of the captain is thinking about a group of boys he met. This technique has in fact shown that classical text authors wisely diversify the use of reporter clauses. The word thought is also used in modern works to describe the internal monologue of the character.

With this, there was a

continuation of the speech style between classic and modern French text. The data of this study also show the inversion utterance style, for example ‘X said’ changed to ‘said X’. This can be traced in the example above, for example:

(14)

then he also said then his command

The structure of the inversion utterance in the example above is that his preacher was preceded by the word of the reporter said which then turned into a command that he followed.

The strategy of

using this inversion is for the purpose of emphasis. For example, ‘X said’ UKM Linguistics Program, Department of Language and Literature UNJ

Seminar Language and Literature 2015

199

aims to emphasize that X (he) said, while ‘said X’ to highlight the word (command). The ‘X says’ structure can also be associated with new and old information concepts. For example, the selection of ‘X says’ means X is new information, i.e. the author must first introduce the identity of the narrator (his Majesty).

Because of that

the ‘X said’ structure is present in the early part of the narrative. The ‘say X’ structure is present in the middle part of the narrative. Readers already know that the command refers to him. With this he said it became old information. That is why the word precedes the preacher. In contrast to the classical texts, modern Malay text is more likely to choose the ‘speech + X said. For example: (15) “Is it true in this place, mother?” asked the young man as he wiped his sweaty forehead with a bad, dirty and dirty handkerchief. Her hair falling down to cover her sweaty forehead she raised with her hands, but the hair covered her forehead again. Eyes all over the village. “That’s right. Ha, that’s also his cempedak tree. Behind the plague of the room. ”Replied the old man who coughed while pointing to the cempedak tree whose seeds were coated with dirty yellow paper; the fruits are coated, clearly visible, four seeds in all. Then we will stop, “said the young man again. And he immediately went to get the truck driver — a skinny Chinese man with a gray-gray hat dipped in — then said: This is where you can stop. ” (p. 1)

The above piece is a conversation between a young man and his mother. There are 4 utterances in total, with 3 utterances uttered by young people, while 1 utterance by siibu. Of these, a total of 3 utterances used the pattern of the final position reporting clause, and 1 utterance was delivered in the initial position. Overall, the final position reporting clause pattern is the most dominant one used in the text of this study. With this, one of the characteristics of modern Malay text speech style is the use of a reporting clause final position.

Next, the text of this study also shows the use of chain utterances by the same teacher, for example,

(16) (17)

“That’s right. Ha, that’s also his cempedak tree. Behind the plague of the room. ” “Taukeh, right. This is where you can stop. ” UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

200

Both of the above examples are uttered by young people. Sentence (16) consists of three speech chains. This is marked by a period. The meaning of the chain here is that several utterances have been aligned in parallel by the same narrator. Example (17) also shows the same symptoms, i.e. two chains of utterances delivered by the young person. Chain speech styles are commonly found in modern fiction.

Based on research, symptoms like this

actually also used in HHT. For example: (18) So all of them prayed, “My lord, patek sakalian this servant who is weak and humble begging for forgiveness and grace under the duli shah alam. Patek sakalian coming this want to ask for grace under duli shah alam; if the grace of duli shah alam then dare patek come to worship. ” So he said. “Hi sirs, what do you mean sirs? Let’s say we hear too. If we have it, there is no land for you. ” (p.14) Example (18) is a conversation between the people of Bentan and Singapore who met the king Sang Perta Dewa. Each preacher uttered more than one utterance, namely two utterances by Bentan and Singaporean, while the king delivered three utterances. These findings indicate that there has been a continuation of the style of utterance of classical texts with modern. The strategy of using chained utterances like this seems simpler and more economical, that is, by eliminating the common preacher. Compare with the following utterances: (19)

“That’s right. X said. Ha, that’s also his cempedak tree. X said. Behind the plague of the room. ” X said.

A statement that maintains the structure of the ‘X says’ after an utterance like the example above will only slow down the story. Furthermore all the utterances were delivered by the same person. From another aspect, the style of presentation such as (19) is unrealistic because one can only deliver a few utterances at a time. The text of this study also shows a pattern of utterances that are not used directly in HHT, for example:

UKM Linguistic Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

(20)

201

“Who is this?” Kurupaya asked while pointing at Hilmy. “If you have a brother or sister have children.” “I have a child.” (11)

Example (20) is a conversation between Kurupaya and Hilmy. This utterance uses a middle position pattern, i.e. ‘utterance + X says’ + utterance. Saying “Angkaupunya adikkah or angkau have children.” is a continuation of the question by Kurupaya in the previous statement. He then said, “I have a child.” is Hilmy’s response to that question. This statement was delivered without a reporter. Indeed this style of utterance is a modern style of text, which has economic and realistic features. Note also the following example: (21) “It is a great tow; we all know, “said Siti Salina, shaking her head,” once the toukeh said, we all know. Taukeh do not be difficult huh? We do not want to knock on the wall, we do not want to remove the pumpkin leaves. If we knock, all the walls fall: if we unplug, all the roofs will fall! ” (p. 9) (22) I try to smile. “These people are really crazy,” he added, looking back at Khatijah, “during the day you can’t take water. Bengal is on guard. Angkau nights can take ar; I love how much you want to take. But sometimes Bengalis come at night as well. If he comes, don’t take him. Does that make sense? ” (p. 10)

Both of the above examples use the middle position reporting clause pattern. Example (22) is Siti Salina’s statement addressed to Kurupaya, while example (23), Kurupaya addresses her words to Khatijah.

The convention of presenting the reporter clause in the middle

shows two ways, namely (i) the utterance followed by the reporter clause ending in full stop, before the utterance, and (ii) the utterance followed by the reporter clause ending in a comma, before being by utterance. In both of these situations, the reporting clause serves to interfere with the continuity of the utterance.

An interesting point also discussed here is the convention of utterance structure in modern texts. Based on the example above, there are two ways to present a statement, namely. (i) UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

202

reporter clauses with capital letters, for example Ask in example (20) and (ii) reporter clause with lowercase letters, for example words in example (22). The use of reporter clauses in capital letters is not found in classical texts. It can be considered as an innovation in style speech Malay text.

Regarding the use of punctuation, such as commas or semicolons

before or after utterances, this study found that there is still a continuation of the style, for example (15) in the text Salina.

One of the features of modern Malay fiction speech is speech without reporting delivery. This is especially prevalent in Malay fiction in the 21st century in particular. Examples of statements without a reporter in the text of this study are: (23)

“None other than that: Zainab’s voice. Maybe he will fight again with Sunarto! ” “Her sister?” “No.” (13)

Example (23) implies a fast and quick reading style.

Readers need to

read and understand conversations like this cognitively, that is, keep the informant’s information in mind. For example, the first statement was delivered by Siti Salina, and answered by Zainab, through the question, “Her sister? ‘.

And Siti Salina quickly replied,

“No.” This conversation is fast approaching.

Readers should be able to save

cognitive informant information, i.e. who asks, and who answers. In fact the absence of the reporter clause in this example does not lead to misunderstanding because the author still uses the concept of orderly rotation. Such a force can not be found directly in classical Malay text because it separates the narrative style of conversation. Classical Malay text otherwise would consistently mixes narrative with speech.

Conclusions

The results of this study have shown some important discoveries about the work style of speech in Malay.

First, in terms of convention, there has been a continuum of ways

presents utterances from 17th to 21st century works. For example, the features of HHT utterances in Salina are (i) the presence of commas or periods overlapping after the reporter clause, i.e. before the utterance, and (ii) each utterance will be marked with a quotation mark “…”. The difference is the UKM Linguistic Program of the Department of Language and Literature UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015 is

only the use of capital letters for ‘X says’, for example Ask for Salina and ask for HHT.

Secondly, there has been innovation in the speech patterns of languages other than English. For example, HHT dominates only one utterance pattern, i.e., the initial position, ‘X says + utterance’. Salina’s text uses all the patterns of utterance. Consistently, however, the more commonly used pattern in Salina is the final position, ‘utterance + X says’. . In addition, Salina’s text also uses non-reporter expressions, with the aim of speeding up conversations between characters. The use of speech without a reporter has led to more economic and realistic conversations. Further, an interesting finding is also discussed here is that the use of ‘X says’ in classical works will determine the status of the speaker. For example, the command is exclusive to the king only.

The opponent of the command is worship, which is referred to as non-king, for example

treasurer and servant.

The word worship can be used by the lower classes,

such as slaves. Words are used for fellow status. On the other hand, in modern texts the form ‘X says’ is neutral, i.e. used for all statuses.

References A. Samad Said. 1986: Salina. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. Greenbaum, S. & Nelson, G. 2002: An introduction to English grammar. Second Edition. Great Britain: Pearson Education Limited. Halliday, MAK 1994: An introduction to functional grammar. London: Edward Arnold. Lacaze, G. 2013. Word order in utterances of direct speech in English: a subtle balance between conventions and innovation. Hikayat Hang Tuah. 1971. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka Toolan, M. 1998: Language in literature: an introduction to stylistics. London: Arnold.

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

203

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

204

PRESERVATION OF BETAWI CULTURE AS A MEANS OF PRESERVATION OF BETAWI LANGUAGE CISALAK CIMANGGIS16

Erfi Firmansyah, MA17

Introduction Betawi language and culture need special attention, because the Betawi language and culture are in Jakarta as a place of growth and development. Jakarta, as the capital of the country, has certainly become a barometer of the preservation of its ethnic language and culture, especially Betawi language and culture. Betawi, we need to make various concrete efforts so that the Betawi language continues to exist, and can even continue to develop along with the times. These efforts need to be done if you don’t want the Betawi language to be increasingly threatened. Realizing this potential threat, coupled with the desire to develop a language and culture. Talking about Betawi Language and Culture for the Indonesian context is also interesting to discuss about the origins of Betawi language and culture. This is because the Betawi Language and Culture has its roots in the Malay language spoken in Jakarta, the capital city of Indonesia. Therefore

16

Presented at the Seminar between the Nations of the Malaysian National University and the Jakarta State University.

17

Lecturers of the Indonesian Literature Study Program, Jakarta State University.

Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Position UKM UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

Of course, the Betawi language and culture have a very strong influence on other languages ​​and cultures in Indonesia. The Betawi Malay language Cisalak Cimanggis is part of the Betawi language that has developed since the era of Dutch colonial rule. The Betawi Cisalak Cimanggis language develops following the development of the community who uses it. Since the time of the Dutch occupation, the Cisalak Cimanggis Betawi community is a heterogeneous society. Some of the Betawi Cisalak Cimanggis residents are of Chinese descent, and from other ethnic groups of the archipelago (Sundanese, Javanese, Malay, etc.) who have children and mixed marriages which gave birth to the current Betawi Cisalak Cimanggis community. Various Cultural Activities Contributing to Strengthening the Cisalak Cimanggis Betawi Language. Here are some opinions gathered from the public regarding language, literature and cultural activities, Betawi Cisalak-Cimanggis especially rhymes and folklore and folklore. There are several Betawi Cisalak-Cimanggis figures who are persistent in preserving the Betawi language and culture in their environment, especially with regard to rhymes and folk tales. The following is a discussion that was held with the Betawi Cisalak-Cimanggis figures who were made as resource persons. Betawi Language and Cultural Activities, especially Pantun and Betawi folk tales of Cisalak-Cimanggis. Here are some opinions gathered from the community regarding language, culture, and cultural activities, Betawi Cisalak-Cimanggis. There are several Betawi Cisalak-Cimanggis figures who are persistent in preserving the Betawi language and culture in their environment. The following is a discussion that was held with the Betawi Cisalak-Cimanggis figures who were used as informants / resource persons. The first informant, Bang Heru (Ahmad Chairudin). According to Bang Heru (48 years old), based on conversations on 18 and 19 August 2014, the Betawi Cisalak rhymes and folk tales are in principle almost the same as the other Betawi folk tales and pantuns in Jakarta. It’s just that, the Betawi rhymes and folk tales are mostly rhymes and stories of the Linguistic Program of the Language and Literature Department of the UNJ. According to Bang Heru (48 years old), based on conversations on 18 and 19 August 2014, the Betawi Cisalak rhymes and folk tales are in principle almost the same as the other Betawi folk tales and pantuns in Jakarta. It’s just that, the Betawi rhymes and folk tales are mostly rhymes and stories of the Linguistic Program of the Language and Literature Department of the UNJ. According to Bang Heru (48 years old), based on conversations on 18 and 19 August 2014, the Betawi Cisalak rhymes and folk tales are in principle almost the same as the other Betawi folk tales and pantuns in Jakarta. It’s just that, the Betawi rhymes and folk tales are mostly rhymes and stories of the Linguistic Program of the Language and Literature Department of the UNJ.

205

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

206

short people consisting of two lines, namely one sampiran and one isi.

Bang Heru (Ahmad Chaerudin) Cing Aji Ani (Encing Hajjah Ani) was the next informant. According to Cing Aji Ani, who was 82 years old when talking, rhymes and Betawi folk tales, although they are rarely used in daily activities in Cisalak, they are still encountered, for example during “joyous” events (celebration events) such as weddings / ngawinin, circumcision / nyunatin. There are also death events, such as haul (commemorating the day of death) and tahlilan (commemorating the death of the 3rd, 7th, 40th or nigahari, nahunari, forty days), as well as family events, such as family gathering. Since the Dutch colonial era, Japanese colonialism and the early days of independence, according to Cing Aji Ani, Betawi folk tales and rhymes have existed in the Betawi Cisalak community. Pantun and Betawi folk tales are used in the daily activities of the Cisalak community. It’s just that, during the Dutch and Japanese times, rhymes and folk tales were rarely used because the Cisalak people were afraid of the Dutch and Japanese soldiers who often kidnapped young people and people.

Cisalak young women by force, so that the interaction between communities is greatly

reduced which results in reduced social interaction between communities and less crowd events. In the colonial era, although rarely heard of rhymes and folk tales. Pantun and folk tales are used in daily conversations, especially when chatting nosebling on the porch of the house in the afternoon, or during official events, such as during celebration celebrations. Pantun and folk tales are also used in Betawi cultural events, such as the Betawi lenong and Betawi masks. However, before the 80s until now the rhymes and folklore of the Linguistic Program of the Language and Literature Unit of the UNJ Department of Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

207

Betawi Cisalak is increasingly rare as the number of Betawi cultural events in Cisalak decreases, such as door latches, lenong, and masks.

Cing Aji Ani with the author Bu Haji Makmur is the next informant. Bu haji makmur is 50 years old. He lives in Gang Jagal behind Cisalak Pasar. Bu Haji Makmur’s residence is next to the largest cattle slaughterhouse in Cisalak. According to Bu Haji Makmur, although it has begun to be rarely used, poems and folklore in Cisalak are still found. Bu Haji Makmur’s family includes a family that is still eager to keep the Betawi cultural nuances. According to him, the bar crossing event in Cisalak, which had just been held, was during the marriage of one of his family in Gang Jagal on January 11, 2014. At that time, the door bar was shown complete with poetry and folk tales. Even the composers of poetry and folk tales at the time of the doorstop in Cisalak at that time were the perpetrators of fighting rhymes and folk tales who often appeared in Setu Babakan, Jagakarsa, South Jakarta. This fact is interesting, because it turns out that Setu Babakan, who is known as the center for the preservation of Betawi culture in Jakarta, turns out to be a Cisalak person who still lives in Cisalak.

Bu haji Makmur

Linguistic Program UKM Language and Literature Position UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

208

Next informant Emak Dedeh Kobdiah. Emak Dedeh is 65 years old. According to Mak Dedeh, Betawi folk tales and rhymes in Cisalak have existed since he was a child in Cisalak. Pantun and folk tales in Cisalak can be found in everyday community chats and during formal events, such as during joys or during tahlilan and other family events. Pantun and folk tales are mostly used during weddings and entertainment events such as lenong. According to Emak Dedeh, the Betawi Cisalak pantun and folk tales are used to entertain, insinuate, advise, or to provide moral instruction to young

people. Mother dedeh

including the Cisalak people who are concerned about the increasingly

rare use of rhymes and folklore by the Cisalak people as the number of events with Betawi culture in Cisalak is shown.

Photo of Mrs. Dedeh Kobdiah Cang Amin (Drs. Haji Muhammad Amin) was the next speaker. Cang Amin is 70 years old. He is an “educated” Betawi Cisalak figure. He is a former school supervisor in Jakarta. Currently he is a retired civil servant and the PGRI Advisory Board in Cipayung. According to Cang Amin, Betawi folklore and rhymes are still present in Cisalak in everyday life and during official Betawi events. Cang Amin felt that events with Betawi cultural nuances were increasingly rare, including rhymes and folk tales in Cisalak-Cimaggis. According to him, many Betawi cultures are not implemented in the Cisalak community, because the Cisalak community, some of them consider Betawi culture to be less compatible with Islamic teachings according to the beliefs of the Betawi people. For example, in a marriage ceremony, the marriage contract is mandatory,

Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Unit of the UNJ

Language and Literature

Department 2015 Language and Literature Seminar needs to be implemented. Moreover, the Betawi Cisalak community, who are not very well off, feel they do not have sufficient funds to hold a Betawi cultural performance in a celebration / persecution event. The problem of belief in Islamic teachings that considers Betawi culture to be not too in accordance with the style of Islamic teachings that are believed and Betawi cultural performances that require large costs are the cause of the decrease in Betawi cultural performances including the reduced use of Pantun and Betawi folklore in the Betawi Cisalak-Cimanggis community.

Cang Amin (Drs. Amin), a resource person in the Cisalak Market community. Conditions for Cisalak-Cimanggis Betawi Language Based on field observations Based on field observations, the following describes the development of the Betawi language in Cisalak-Cimanggis, including possible shifts. Indications of threat are in the form of a shift in Betawi Language and Culture, which may still occur in Cisalak-Cimanggis. Based on field observations made in Cisalak-Cimanggis, it is known that various things, such as the first aspect that can cause language shift is the bilingual aspect of society. Bilingualism over a long period of time can result in the erosion of one language by another, especially when one of these languages ​​and cultures is no longer needed or is not considered prestige. The Betawi Cisalak-Cimanggis people are generally bilingual, namely the Betawi language and the Indonesian language (especially the Indonesian dialect of Jakarta). The Indonesian dialect of Jakarta is increasingly being used in various social activities in Cisalak-Cimanggis. The second aspect is migration or population movement. The Betawi Cisalak Cimanggis community, especially those who already work or have families, have moved many houses. They are Linguistics Program of UKM Language and Literature Position UNJ The Betawi Cisalak Cimanggis community, especially those who already work or have families, have moved many houses. They are Linguistics Program of UKM Language and Literature Position UNJ The Betawi Cisalak Cimanggis community, especially those who already work or have families, have moved many houses. They are Linguistics Program of UKM Language and Literature Position UNJ

209

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

settled outside Cisalak-Cimanggis, with the excuse to be closer to the place of work. For those who move to a new environment that is far from the Betawi community, this may result in them no longer using the Betawi language as a means of communication. The third aspect is the economic aspect. The Cisalak-Cimanggis Betawi people are classified as middle to lower economic class. Based on the observations of researchers, their homes are mostly semi-permanent and simple permanent, although some are classified as luxury homes. Their work is also classified as informal work. This middle to lower economic condition resulted in the Betawi language among the Cisalak-Cimanggis community being considered less prestigious. The younger generation prefers to use Indonesian dialect in Jakarta compared to Betawi. The fourth aspect, education. Formal education in particular, in Depok and its surrounding areas, mostly uses Indonesian and is occasionally interspersed with the local Betawi dialect, especially for elementary schools. Including in Cisalak-Cimanggis, schools use the Indonesian language, sometimes interspersed with Indonesian dialect of Jakarta. This resulted in the Cisalak-Cimanggis Betawi youth less accustomed to using the Betawi language. The fifth aspect, the relation between high and low language. The general view of the people who have interacted with the Cisalak-Cimanggis Betawi language, considers the Cisalak-Cimanggis Betawi language which is a “fringe” Betawi language including “tacky”. Outsiders from Cisalak-Cimanggis think it is not prestigious to speak the Cisalak-Cimanggis Betawi language. As a result, the Cisalak-Cimanggis Betawi people themselves will be embarrassed to use the Cisalak Betawi language. Sixth aspect, language borrowing imbalance. The Betawi language of CisalakCimanggis and in terms of everyday vocabulary includes borrowing a lot of Indonesian dialects of Jakarta, but not the other way around. Borrowing or observing vocabulary by the Betawi language towards Indonesian is especially for new vocabulary. Over time, this imbalance can cause the speakers, especially the younger generation, to be more interested in switching to the Indonesian dialect of Jakarta. Seventh aspect, religious language. Official religious activities such as Friday sermons, generally using formal Indonesian, sometimes interspersed with Indonesian dialects of the SME Linguistic Program of the Department of Language and Literature UNJ The Betawi Cisalak Cimanggis language and in terms of everyday vocabulary includes borrowing a lot of Indonesian from the Jakarta dialect, but this does not apply otherwise. This borrowing or adoption of vocabulary by the Betawi language against Indonesian is mainly for new vocabulary. Over time, this imbalance can cause speakers, especially the younger generation, to be more interested in switching to Indonesian with the Jakarta dialect. The seventh aspect, religious language. Official religious activities such as Friday sermons, generally use formal Indonesian, sometimes interspersed with the Indonesian language dialect of the Linguistic Program UKM Language and Literature Department UNJ The Betawi Cisalak Cimanggis language and in terms of everyday vocabulary includes borrowing a lot of Indonesian from the Jakarta dialect, but this does not apply otherwise. This borrowing or adoption of vocabulary by the Betawi language against Indonesian is mainly for new vocabulary. Over time, this imbalance can cause speakers, especially the younger generation, to be more interested in switching to Indonesian with the Jakarta dialect. The seventh aspect, religious language. Official religious activities such as Friday sermons, generally use formal Indonesian, sometimes interspersed with the Indonesian language dialect of the Linguistic Program UKM Language and Literature Department UNJ Over time, this imbalance can cause the speakers, especially the younger generation, to be more interested in switching to the Indonesian dialect of Jakarta. Seventh aspect, religious language. Official religious activities such as Friday sermons, generally using formal Indonesian, sometimes interspersed with Indonesian dialects of the SME Linguistic Program of the Department of Language and Literature UNJ Over time, this imbalance can cause the speakers, especially the younger generation, to be more interested in switching to the Indonesian dialect of Jakarta. Seventh aspect, religious language. Official religious activities such as Friday sermons, generally using formal Indonesian, sometimes interspersed with Indonesian dialects of the SME Linguistic Program of the Department of Language and Literature UNJ

210

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

211

Jakarta. This gradually causes speakers to be more familiar and familiar with Indonesian dialect of Jakarta compared to Betawi language. The eighth aspect, bilingual speakers do not teach their mother tongue to their children. The Betawi people in Cisalak-Cimanggis, especially those who are intermarried and even more so who after being married do not live in Cisalak-Cimanggis, tend not to teach the Betawi language. This behavior causes their children to understand Betawi language, but they are not skilled at speaking Betawi. Their children only occasionally hear Betawi, for example when they visit their grandparents who live in Cisalak, Cimanggis. The Cisalak-Cimanggis Betawi people still play an active role in preserving the Betawi Language and Culture. The efforts to preserve the Betawi Language and Culture are manifested indirectly with the awareness of realizing it in the preservation of Betawi culture or daily activities that characterize kebetawian. Such cultural preservation is manifested for example by the willingness to wear traditional Betawi clothes in celebrations, religious holidays, and celebration of national holidays. The use of Betawi traditional clothing encourages the Betawi community, including the young, to know the vocabulary of the names of these traditional clothing sets. Even so, in their daily activities, the Cisalak-Cimanggis Betawi people rarely wear traditional Betawi clothes. Other efforts, The preservation of this culture is manifested, for example, by the willingness to wear traditional Betawi clothes in celebratory events, religious holidays, and national holidays. The use of Betawi traditional clothing encourages the Betawi community, including the young, to know the vocabulary of the names of these traditional clothing sets. Even so, in their daily activities, the Cisalak-Cimanggis Betawi people rarely wear traditional Betawi clothes. Other efforts, The preservation of this culture is manifested, for example, by the willingness to wear traditional Betawi clothes in celebratory events, religious holidays, and national holidays. The use of Betawi traditional clothing encourages the Betawi community, including the young, to know the vocabulary of the names of these traditional clothing sets. Even so, in their daily activities, the Cisalak-Cimanggis Betawi people rarely wear traditional Betawi clothes. Other efforts, The Cisalak-Cimanggis Betawi people rarely wear Betawi clothes. Other efforts, The Cisalak-Cimanggis Betawi people rarely wear Betawi clothes. Other efforts,

conducted by the Cisalak-Cimanggis

Betawi people to preserve the Betawi Language and Culture, for example by preserving rhymes and folk tales. The use of rhymes and folk tales, in Cisalak-Cimanggis, during the ceremony leading up to the marriage contract is called the “doorstop” event. In the doorstop event, skills of clashing rhymes and folklore were displayed as well as demonstrating the skills of fighting silat. The poetry and folk tales that were presented during the doorstop event were presented, replies alternating between the groom and the bride. Clashing rhymes and folklore in this doorstop event is a concrete example showing that Betawi culture, especially rhymes and folk tales, is still alive in Betawi society.

Linguistics Program of UNJ

Language and Literature Position Seminar on Language and Literature 2015

Pantun and folklore at the Cross Door event in Cisalak-Cimanggis

Pantun and folklore Cisalak-Cimanggis There are several examples of Betawi rhymes and folk tales that were obtained based on conversations with informants in Cisalak -Cimosteen. The poetry and folk tales were told directly / orally. Thus, the rhymes and folk tales presented are utterances, not written texts. Here are examples of rhymes and folk tales. The katuk tree grows under the coffee tree. The eyes are sleepy, the delicious taste of making coffee The pantun above is a poem and folklore used to insult the host or

the husband gently ordered his wife to make coffee.

With poems and folklore like this, those who are told to make coffee are usually not offended and immediately make coffee as their reaction. In fact, it is not uncommon to be told to make coffee with a smile while going to make coffee. Aki-aki noh bring a bundle If you make noh coffee that is thick The second poem above is a continuation of the first. The second verse and folklore also serves to subtly command. That is, the one who tells you to make coffee wants thick coffee to feel more delicious. UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

212

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

Catfish fish mendem. Nice clothes, it’s a shame to borrow. This third pantun is usually used to tease people who are already familiar. Usually thrown when gathered at the paseban / terrace of the house or at the guard station. Rhymes and satire folk tales like that usually do not offend the person being sarcastically offended, even the atmosphere of chattering is warmer and more intimate. The rhymes and folk tales above are meant to insult people / friends who appear with neat clothes, but whose clothes are obtained by borrowing. The original toy pigeon of a Betawi child. If you want to always be respected. Get used to living independently. This fourth rhyme is usually conveyed by parents to children or nephews or to younger people. These poetry and folk tales are used to convey advice from older people to younger people. These rhymes and folk tales mean that if we want our lives to be respected and not underestimated by others, then get used to living independently, not depending on others, including one’s own parents or relatives. The rhyme sampiran and folklore above illustrate that one of the favorite games of Betawi Cisalak boys is the game of pigeons. Since ancient times, usually Betawi cisalak boys like to play with pigeons and keep them. Usually in the spacious Cisalak Betawi house, in front of the house there are fruit trees such as duku, rambutan, mango, and durian. On top of the tree there is usually a pigeon cage.

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

213

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

This fifth poem is usually conveyed to ask for food to be provided to relatives to visit. Anthropologically sampiran or shadowers show the pride of the cisalak Betawi people to the culture of eating kebuli rice. This kebuli rice / samin rice is an influence from Arabic culture. This pantun is functioned to subtly convey requests to those who have a house. This rhyme means, as a form of intimacy with the host, usually it will get closer and feel more comfortable if passed by eating together. Eating together as a symbol that those who are invited to eat are close relatives. Usually while eating the host offers all that is available to the guest. Usually guests will also make small talk, pretending to be reluctant to eat anything that is provided by the host. It is not polite for guests to show too much love for the food served and take freely what is provided. Ketan Uli from Cisalak Kalo Rejeki don’t be rejected. This sixth pantun is usually delivered to people who refuse a gift. Anthropologically, the sampiran or shadow show the pride of the Cisalak Betawi people in the culture of eating Uli sticky rice. Ketan Uli is indeed a culinary characteristic of Cisalak. Ketan Uli is an influence from Banten culture. This is not surprising, because during the Dutch colonial period, many Bantenese migrated to Jakarta and its surrounding areas to spread Islam and work in Jakarta and its surroundings, including in Cisalak. This poem is functioned to convey a message subtly not to reject a gift. This poem means, as a form of intimacy between the giver and the receiver. Usually it will be tighter and more comfortable if the one who is given something receives the gift from the giver well. Usually, people who are given something in the Betawi Cisalak culture will make small talk, pretending to be reluctant to accept anything given by people. It is not polite for the Cisalak Betawi people to show too openly acceptance of a gift and openly accept what is given. Based on observations and results of conversations with informants / sources, it can be seen that the Betawi Cisalak rhymes mostly consist of two lines, with one sampiran and one content / message. It is rare to find the Betawi Cisalak folk tales and rhymes which consist of the Linguistic Program of the Language and Literature Department of the UNJ.

214

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

top four rows, with two sampiran and two contents. This is possible because the delivery of rhymes and folk tales in everyday interactions with two lines makes the structure easier. Choosing the right and appropriate words is also easier. The Betawi Cisalak pantun is usually displayed during the doorstop event in a marriage, or during the application ceremony delivered by the elders who are the spokesperson for the application, both from the groom and the bride. Pantun is also conveyed in daily activities, especially when relaxing on the paseban (terrace of the house) or at the guard station while chatting with idols. Pantun in daily activities in Cisalak-Cimanggis functions as a fixer for friendship, entertainment, and a means of conveying innuendos or conveying intentions indirectly. so that the quipped is not too offended. On another occasion, the Betawi Cisalak pantun functions as a speech smoother, for example, it is intended to order / rule not like commanding. Betawi Folklore Cisalak Based on the research conducted by researchers on folklore in Cisalak, there are at least two folk tales that are often discussed there. It can be seen that there are two stories of the Cisalak folklore, namely the story of the origin of Kampung Cisalak and the story of the origin of the Bandungan well. The story of the origin of Cisalak The story of the origin of the Cisalak Village, in general, has a structure: introduction, story content, cover (moral message). Geographically, Cisalak is located in Cimanggis sub-district, Depok City. Kampung Cisalak is flowed by two rivers or streams, namely, the river that flows along the Bogor highway which crosses Cisalak from Bogor to Jakarta. The second river, passes right in the middle of Kampung Cisalak, which flows from Kampung Pekapuran and Kampung Sukatani which crosses Cisalak to Jakarta. The origin of the name Cisalak is influenced by the Sundanese language, namely ‘Ci’ which means water, and ‘salak’ which means salak fruit. Previously, before 1970, in the Harjamukti area (upstream of Cisalak, where the Sumur Bandungan springs) there were still many salak gardens. Likewise, around the current Cisalak market, there are also many zalacca gardens. The number of zalacca gardens is thought to be the origin of the name Cisalak. Cisalak can be interpreted as water that is used by the Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of the UNJ It passes right in the middle of Cisalak Village, which flows from Pekapuran Village and Sukatani Village which crosses Cisalak to Jakarta. The origin of the name Cisalak is influenced by the Sundanese language, namely ‘Ci’ which means water, and ‘salak’ which means salak fruit. Previously, before 1970, in the Harjamukti area (upstream of Cisalak, where the Sumur Bandungan springs) there were still many salak gardens. Likewise, around the current Cisalak market, there are also many zalacca gardens. The number of zalacca gardens is thought to be the origin of the name Cisalak. Cisalak can be interpreted as water that is used by the Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of the UNJ It passes right in the middle of Cisalak Village, which flows from Pekapuran Village and Sukatani Village which crosses Cisalak to Jakarta. The origin of the name Cisalak is influenced by the Sundanese language, namely ‘Ci’ which means water, and ‘salak’ which means salak fruit. Previously, before 1970, in the Harjamukti area (upstream of Cisalak, where the Sumur Bandungan springs) there were still many salak gardens. Likewise, around the current Cisalak market, there are also many zalacca gardens. The number of zalacca gardens is thought to be the origin of the name Cisalak. Cisalak can be interpreted as water that is used by the Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of the UNJ namely ‘Ci’ means water, and ‘salak’ means salak fruit. Previously, before 1970, in the Harjamukti area (upstream of Cisalak, where the Sumur Bandungan springs) there were still many salak gardens. Likewise, around the current Cisalak market, there are also many zalacca gardens. The number of zalacca gardens is thought to be the origin of the name Cisalak. Cisalak can be interpreted as water that is used by the Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of the UNJ namely ‘Ci’ means water, and ‘salak’ means salak fruit. Previously, before 1970, in the Harjamukti area (upstream of Cisalak, where the Sumur Bandungan springs) there were still many salak gardens. Likewise, around the current Cisalak market, there are also many zalacca gardens. The number of zalacca gardens is thought to be the origin of the name Cisalak. Cisalak can be interpreted as water that is used by the Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of the UNJ

215

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

flows from the salak tree, because the river that flows through the Cisalak village, the water flows from the spring in the grove of Cisalak trees. The story of the water that flows from the Sumur bandungan spring, which was once overgrown with salak trees, is told from generation to generation. The flowing water divides Cisalak Village as if it always reminds the future generations in Cisalak to always protect the environment. The water from the flowing springs makes the land in Cisalak fertile and prevents the Cislak people from having difficulty getting water in the dry season because there is water that always flows across Cisalak Village. Unfortunately, now it is rare to find barking trees, let alone salak gardens. In Cisalak, there are no more barking gardens. The barking tree is also very rare. Therefore, Kampung Cisalak, which has many zalacca gardens, is now just a name. The story of the origins of Sumur Bandungan The story of the origin of Sumur Bandungan, in general, has a structure: introduction, story content, cover (moral message). As previously stated, Cisalak Village is flowed by two rivers or streams, namely rivers that flow along the Bogor highway that crosses Cisalak from Bogor to Jakarta. The second river, passes right in the middle of Kampung Cisalak, which flows from Kampung Pekapuran and Kampung Sukatani which crosses Cisalak to Jakarta. The Bandungan Sumur spring flows into the second river / river. Sumur Bandungan or another name Sumur Gondang, is a spring that flows from two large banyan trees. The large banyan tree in Sumur Gondang is now only one tree. The other banyan tree is said to have fallen at the same time as President Suharto. The springs from Sumur Gondang flow all year round. The water that flows from the Sumur Gondang spring never stops flowing, only the hardness is different. During the dry season, Sumur Gondang spring looks cloudy in the dry season, and looks clear in the rainy season. In the dry season, there is only a little water in Sumur Gondang.

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

216

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

According to Bang Hendra, who was interviewed by researchers, during the rainy season, if we go down and look directly at the springs, the springs are clear, blue like ocean water. He also said that the fish in Sumur Gondang are sacred fish that cannot be taken. No community dared to fish there. There are the same number of fish, not decreasing and not increasing throughout the year. Previously, Sumur Bandungan was the place for the ancestors of three ethnic groups, namely Betawi, Sundanese and Javanese. These spirits are like, King Siliwangi, Mother Daughter, and others. The Bandungan well was previously believed to be a place of “petilasan” or a place to purify respected and highly knowledgeable people in the past. The diversity of the souls of the inhabitants of Sumur Gandongan illustrates to the younger generation of Cisalak that the ancestors of the Cisalak people have always been diverse or multi-ethnic. Always be reminded that the multi-ethnic Cisalak community needs to be tolerant and tolerant. Not surprisingly, from hundreds of years ago to the present, Sumur Gondang is often visited by people from various regions in Indonesia to meditate or look for wangsit. During the days of lottery gambling, Sumur Gondang was visited by many people who wanted to get the ‘right number’. Too bad that sacred place has been misused. Thankfully, the lottery gambling period is no longer prevalent. In Sumur Bandungan, people who are meditating or looking for wangsit are still frequently visited. Based on the two folk tales above, It can be seen that the Betawi Cisalak folklore has almost the same structure, namely the introduction, the content of the story, the closing (moral message). The Betawi Cisalak folklore serves to remind / teach the origins of the ancestors or the Cisalak village, to strengthen kinship / friendship, teaches the need to respect differences and diversity, the need to protect the environment, and the need to maintain the cultural heritage of Cisalak which is full of moral values .

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

217

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

Space for praying or looking for wangsit for pilgrims of Kramat Sumur Bandungan / Sumur Gondang. Conclusion Based on the description above, it can be seen that although the language, culture and culture of the Betawi Cisalak Cimanggis are not experiencing threats, the potential for such threats is still there. Although the quality and quantity of language, culture and Betawi threats are not as strong as the potential threats to other languages, cultures and cultures, such as Javanese or Sundanese. The indication of threat is in the form of a shift in Betawi Language and Culture, such as the first aspect that can cause a shift in language and culture is the bilingual aspect of society. Bilingualism in a long period of time can result in the erosion of one language and culture by another language and culture. especially when one of these languages ​​and cultures is no longer needed or is not considered prestige. The Betawi Cisalak Cimanggis people are generally bilingual, namely the Betawi language and Indonesian dialect of Jakarta. The second aspect is migration or population movement. The Betawi Cisalak Cimanggis community, especially those who are already working or have families, have moved many houses. The third aspect is the economic aspect. The Betawi Cisalak Cimanggis community and from the economic level belong to the middle to lower economic class. This middle to lower economic condition resulted in the Betawi language among the Cisalak Cimanggis community being considered less prestigious. The fourth aspect, education. Formal education in particular, including in Cisalak Cimanggis, schools use Indonesian instead of Betawi. sometimes interspersed with Indonesian, the Jakarta dialect. The fifth aspect, the relation between high and low language. The general view of the people who have interacted with the Cisalak Cimanggis Betawi language considers the Cisalak Cimanggis Betawi language and the Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Unit of the UNJ

218

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

including the “fringe” Betawi language, including “tacky”. The sixth aspect is the imbalance of language borrowing. In terms of vocabulary, Betawi Cisalak Cimanggis borrows a lot from Indonesian, but it does not apply otherwise. The seventh aspect, religious language. Official religious activities, such as Friday sermons and lectures at the church in Cisalak Cimanggis, generally use formal Indonesian, sometimes interspersed with Indonesian dialect of Jakarta, not Betawi. The eighth aspect, bilingual speakers do not teach their mother tongue to their children. The Betawi people in Cisalak Cimanggis, especially those who are intermarried and even more so who after being married do not live in Cisalak Cimanggis, tend not to teach the Betawi language. The Cisalak Cimanggis Betawi Community must continue to make efforts to prevent possible threats and strive to develop Betawi language, culture and culture. Betawi cultural performances that support the preservation of Betawi Language and Culture need to be continued. Lenong performances or Betawi masks in the celebration of circumcision and marriage, Betawi pantun in the doorstop event need to be held continuously. Betawi folklore performances, Betawi dances, Betawi songs, Betawi traditional clothes, various Betawi specialties served on religious holidays and national holidays can be preserved. Awareness of the Betawi people in Cisalak Cimanggis and preserving the Betawi language and culture by conducting various Betawi cultural performances is very important for the continuity and regeneration of the Betawi language and culture. Suggestions It is suggested to the Cisalak Cimanggis Betawi community to continuously preserve the Cisalak Cimanggis Betawi culture in various ways. The existing methods, such as Betawi language and cultural performances during religious holidays, need to be preserved, including Betawi cultural performances on national holidays. It is also a good idea to establish the Cisalak Cimanggis Betawi Cultural House, a place for various learning activities and performances of Betawi language, culture and culture. The cultural house is also a place for Betawi children and youth, Cisalak Cimanggis, to learn and develop Betawi language, literature and culture, so learning and regeneration of kebetawian can take place. The cultural house can also be used as a means

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

219

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

Betawi tourism, which of course is expected to help improve the economy of the Betawi Cisalak Cimanggis community. Reference Abdul Chaer, 2001, “The Development of the Malay Language in Jakarta”, Betawi Language Journal, Jakarta: Masup Jakarta. Adul Chaer and Leonie Agustina, 1995. Sociolinguistics: Early Introduction. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta. Abdul Chaer, “Kinship and Greeting Systems in Betawi Society”, Betawi Folklore Workshop Paper, July 28-29, 2008, DKI Jakarta Culture and Museum Service Grijns, CD, 1991. Research on Betawi Malay. Jakarta Pustaka Utama Gafiti. Grijns in Deramawan 2004, Tamadun Melayu. Kuala Lumpur: DBP. Ismail Hamid, 1988. Malay Society and Culture. Kuala Lumpur: DBP Muhadjir et al., 1979. Function and Position of the Jakarta Dialect. Jakarta: Center for Language Development and Development, Ministry of Education and Culture. Sumarsono and Paina Partana, 2002. Sociolinguistics. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.

UKM Linguistic Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

220

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

221

LOCAL LANGUAGE AND SOCIAL CULTURAL MOVEMENTS IN BANYUWANGEN SONGS 18

Novi Anoegrajekti19

Introduction

By reading the reality of Banyuwangen art, it is often colored with nuances of inter-ethnic diversity. The Using community is known to have many arts in addition to being infatuated with even this community’s appreciation of various types of arts is more visible than other ethnic groups in Banyuwangi. The Blambangan Arts Council and the Banyuwangi Culture and Tourism Office noted that of the 16 types of arts appreciated by the Banyuwangi people, only two of them did not come from the Using community and were less appreciated by them, namely wayang kulit and wayang orang. In Banyuwangi, these two arts only developed in the Javanese Kulon community. Thus, almost all arts in the area were produced and appreciated by the Using people. Therefore, It is natural that we often hear the expression “if it is called Banyuwangi art, it is almost certain that what is meant is art that is appreciated by the Using people.” It is very difficult to say why art appreciation is so vibrant in the Using community. Some authors have speculated that it is related to various factors. 18

Presented at the Seminar Between the Nation, the National University of Malaysia and the Jakarta State University.

19

Lecturers of the Indonesian Literature Study Program, Jakarta State University.

Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Unit of the UNJ

Language and Literature Department 2015 Seminar on Language and Literature

222

Kusnadi (2002), for example, argues that appreciation was formed because: historically, as the center of the Blambangan kingdom; fertile geographical (agricultural) conditions; and the geo-cultural location between Java and Bali. This geo-cultural location causes the music and costumes of every Banyuwangi art to be a combination of Javanese and Balinese. The authors of the book Selayang Pandang Blambangan (1975) argue that the Using people are fond of art, due to, among other things, the openness in building relationships between cultures, something that can be an inspiration to create something new. The art of the Using community, apart from being gandrung, also develops jinggoan art, hadrah kuntulan, angklung caruk, seblang dance, paculgoang, mocoan, campursari, praburoro, barong, patrol music, and jaranan buto; This art does not include new creations, both musical dances, and dramas inspired by these arts, such as the jejer gandrung dance. Various songs sung in various performing arts use the Using language. Most of the Using people are able to speak the Javanese kulon well (ngoko and chromo), but they always use the Using language as a means of daily communication which in local terminology is better known as basa banyuwangen or basa using. Among Banyuwangi researchers and experts, there are many terms and categories regarding the language used by this community. Most of the Using people are able to speak the Javanese kulon well (ngoko and chromo), but they always use the Using language as a means of daily communication which in local terminology is better known as basa banyuwangen or basa using. Among Banyuwangi researchers and experts, there are many terms and categories regarding the language used by this community. Most of the Using people are able to speak the Javanese kulon well (ngoko and chromo), but they always use the Using language as a means of daily communication which in local terminology is better known as basa banyuwangen or basa using. Among Banyuwangi researchers and experts, there are many terms and categories regarding the language used by this community.

Darusuprapta

(1984: 11), for example, called and categorized the language as “Javanese using the Using dialect” or “Javanese language in the Banyuwangi dialect”. Stoppelaar (1927: 418-419) said that the language used by some residents of Banyuwangi Regency is called the Using language which is different from Javanese in terms of speech and vocabulary. At the end of 1929, on his official trip to Banyuwangi, Pigeaud as a taalambternaar, noted that the language of the Banyuwangi people was “Blambangan Dialect.” From his notes, it was found that the Banyuwangi dialect had different speech and vocabulary when compared to Javanese. Apart from naming the Blambangan dialect, he also called it the Using language (Pigeaud, 1932: 227; Herusantoso, 1987). Regardless of the controversy over the designation, In addition to different speech and vocabulary from Javanese, the language used by the Using people was very popular and widespread among them even when they no longer lived in Banyuwangi. Several groups of Using people who are now in Jember and Lumajang, two areas adjacent to Banyuwangi, are still consistently using basics as their daily language Linguistic Program UKM Language and Literature Position UNJ

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

223

days. In fact, since 2003 there has been a tendency for several private radios in Jember such as Prosalina to broadcast using the Using language. The use of the Using language in every art performance is a representation of Using’s identity as a product center that experiences constant instability. This paper intends to further analyze the locality in the

Indonesian context or the

Indonesianness of the locality. The analysis is focused on how the Using language is in the socio-political movement in Banyuwangi and how the Indonesian dialectic and Using Banyuwangi articulate something that can be categorized as locality or something that can be categorized as Indonesian as a form of identity.

Methods As a cultural issue, the Using language dialectic in relation to the socio-political movement in Banyuwangi through Banyuwangen songs was studied ethnographically by focusing on the knowledge system the subject possesses and how that knowledge is organized to determine action. In addition, ethnographic methods are used to discover how people organize culture in their minds and then use that culture in their lives. This approach is more holistic-integrative and qualitative analysis in order to obtain native’s point of view. Primary and secondary data will be collected by in-depth interviews, participant observation and tracking written documents. Cultural identity is always associated with hybridity and diaspora. According to Hall (1993; Melani, 2005: 38) identity is not an essence, but a number of identification attributes that show how we are positioned and position ourselves in society, because cultural and historical aspects are a necessity. Hall emphasized that identity as a production that is never finished, always in process and always built in representation. Identity is not static, always constructed in space and time, and is complex and plural. In other terms, Eriksen (1993: 117) says that “… identity is situational and can change. “Spradley calls ethnographic analysis a reexamination of field notes to look for cultural symbols (which are usually expressed in the native language) as well as looking for relationships between symbols. An ethnographic analysis, as said by Spradley, Linguistic Program of UKM Language and Literature Department UNJ

The 2015 Language and Literature Seminar

(1997: 118) departs from the belief that an informant has understood a series of cultural categories, studied their relationships, and is aware or knowing the relationship with the whole. As is common in ethnographic analysis, the method of interpretation is used to have deeper access to the various domains experienced and the characteristic activities of the actors under study (Morley quoted from Barker, 2000: 27). The critical aspects of ethnography that are applied in this study are more focused on the processing and comprehensive analysis of ethnographic findings in the field.

Results and Discussion In the social history of the Using community, Banyuwangen songs were first sung in Gandrung performances and Seblang rituals. A number of Banyuwangi culturalists state that the song Pada Nonton is a poem that describes the struggle to arouse and arouse the spirit of the people of Blambangan against all forms of colonialism. The message of struggle is expressed symbolically through words that are not understood by the colonialists and only understood by some Banyuwangi people themselves while maintaining the vocal rhythm as a song of respect to the host and guests. The song Padha Nonton means a lot to some Using people, not only as a song to be enjoyed but at the same time a historical inscription in which their journey is recorded and documented in the memories and rote of the next generation. However, for some supporters of the gandrung art itself, the song Padha Nonton does not have to be sung, apart from taking time it seems they also do not understand and interpret it as a story of struggle. The Bureaucracy and the Blambangan Arts Council (DKB) emphasized that the gandrung show representing Using was obliged to sing standard songs, especially in the first round (Jejer) and (Seblang-seblang). In Jejer, the standard songs sung are Pada Nonton and Jaran Dhawuk. The text of the song on the following Watch is interesting to watch. for some supporters of the gandrung art itself, the song Padha Nonton does not have to be sung, apart from taking time it seems they also do not understand and interpret it as a story of struggle. The Bureaucracy and the Blambangan Arts Council (DKB) emphasized that the gandrung show representing Using was obliged to sing standard songs, especially in the first round (Jejer) and (Seblang-seblang). In Jejer, the standard songs sung are Pada Nonton and Jaran Dhawuk. The text of the song on the following Watch is interesting to watch. for some supporters of the gandrung art itself, the song Padha Nonton does not have to be sung, apart from taking time it seems they also do not understand and interpret it as a story of struggle. The Bureaucracy and the Blambangan Arts Council (DKB) emphasized that the gandrung show representing Using was obliged to sing standard songs, especially in the first round (Jejer) and (Seblang-seblang). In Jejer, the standard songs sung are Pada Nonton and Jaran Dhawuk. The text of the song on the following Watch is interesting to watch. The Bureaucracy and the Blambangan Arts Council (DKB) emphasized that the gandrung show representing Using was obliged to sing standard songs, especially in the first round (Jejer) and (Seblang-seblang). In Jejer, the standard songs sung are Pada Nonton and Jaran Dhawuk. The text of the song on the following Watch is interesting to watch. The Bureaucracy and the Blambangan Arts Council (DKB) emphasized that the gandrung show representing Using was obliged to sing standard songs, especially in the first round (Jejer) and (Seblang-seblang). In Jejer, the standard songs sung are Pada Nonton and Jaran Dhawuk. The text of the song on the following Watch is interesting to watch.

WATCHING UKM Linguistic Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

224 Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

Watching Pudhak sempal ring lelurung Ya pendite, Pudhak sempal lambayane para putra

Para putra Kajala ring kedhung liwung Ya jalane jala sutra Tampange tampang kencana

Kembang Menur Melik-melik ring bebentur Sun flush-flush alum Sun gained mencirat hearted

boy slept Dunes is paculana Tandurana long bean accounting for virgin

flowers fake During rolls or a thousand Nora’s no expensive Kang nawa who sold flowers

She sold flowers Sun barisena ring Temenggungan Sun umbrella great wave created tittle

Program Linguistics UKM Department of Language and Literature UNJ

225

Festival of Arts 2015

Flower red Selebrang arrived at mattress Granny Teji Retype Sun wait for the paseban

Ring paseban pitiful liver Dhung Ki Demat eat and drink Seleregan man drew a dagger Gendam sugar dispersed abyur

(Translation) Bear Flower Cempedak broken on the streets belt around his waist, jackfruit broken swing The hands of the young men

The young men Scattered in the whirlpool of the river Scattered by the silk net Gold framed

Jasmine flowers in the corner of the courtyard Kusiram withered Kupetik seduce the heart

The shepherd boy Cangkullah the hill Plant long beans Seuntai for girls UKM Linguistic Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

226

Language Seminar and Literature 2015

Ivory Rolls are offered for a thousand Not cheap not expensive Those who offer flower traders Flower traders I line up in Temenggungan I accompany the umbrella of greatness The waves of his hands are very beautiful

Red flowers Throw on the mattress Grandfather Teji return Kunanti in paseban

In paseban agung Ki demang party eat drink sweet mixed with grief

A number of artists and cultural observers both at the Blambangan Arts Council and outside of it view that the song Pada Nonton contains messages of the struggle of the Blambangan people. Fatrah Abal (1990) explains that in its most explicit appearance, the song is a vocal rhythm to pay tribute to guests, but symbolically it means struggle. The team from the Banyuwangi Cultural Foundation20 believes that Pada Nonton is an allusion to the construction of a through road to Banyuwangi connecting the Deandels road which ends in Panarukan, or the incident of making the Merawan railway tunnel which resulted in the Blambangan people having to accept forced labor. In fact there is also. Furthermore, see “Efforts to Preserve the Banyuwangi Infinite Art in the era of Globalization”, a paper by the Banyuwangi Cultural Foundation Team,

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

227

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

which interprets about the nobles who squandered their lust with the women of Blambangan. Therefore, according to Fatrah Abal, Pada Nonton is not only seen as a song that is enjoyed but also a history of the past journey of the Using people which is recorded and documented in the memory and memorization of the next generation (Anoegrajekti, 2010). Seblang-seblang, as the last scene, is meant to cover the whole show. Because this scene always takes place before dawn, Seblang-seblang is also called Seblang Subuh. If in the Jejer stage, only one song must be sung, then in Seblang-seblang there are five mandatory songs that must be sung, namely: Seblang Lokento, Sekar Jenang, Kembang Pepe, Sondreng-sondreng, and Kembang Pirma. Since the 1950s the song Sondreng-sondreng, Kembang Pepe, and Kembang Pirma are not sung or very rarely, because more time is spent serving the advances, while the songs Seblang-Lukinto and Sekar Jenang are still often sung in performances featuring Seblang-seblang. Some artists at the Blambangan Arts Council believe that the gandrung show until the early 1940s was a painting of the oppressive and heroic events of the Using community against colonialism, especially in the Paregreg and Puputan Bayu wars. According to them, the painting can be understood in several songs and dance movements in the scenes from Jejer and Seblang-seblang. In the 1945 period, the creation of Using songs was dominated by Moh. Arif, who has a background of Persindo (Indonesian Socialist Youth) guerrillas with themes of struggle and independence such as Trumpets and Red and White. Many of his songs also express resistance to all forms of oppression, such as resistance to Japanese hegemony. The songs that were created included: Lurkung, Nandur Jagung, Kembang Gelang, Kembang Kopi, Nderes Karet, Genjer-Genjer, and Manuk Bethet. In the early 1950s Using young people began to spread in bigger waves to various cities and regions outside Banyuwangi such as Jember, Surabaya, Malang, Kediri, Jombang, Yogyakarta and Solo to study at various schools, colleges, and universities. boarding school. From these cities and regions, they received, apart from knowledge and degrees, an unexpected experience, namely the view of the attitude of outsiders towards him as Using a child.

228

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

229

As Using children they received directly from the daily life interactions of their friends at schools, campuses and Islamic boarding schools or from members of the community in which they lived who were entirely Javanese. The experience felt among educated Using these later, after they returned to Banyuwangi, stimulated the growth of collective awareness and a collective spirit to individually and in groups to develop strategies to respond to it in various forms of activity, especially in the cultural field. The hustle and bustle of culture, especially the arts in the 1950s to the mid-1960s caused the Using educated to run aground and did not come to the surface. They are more concentrated on contesting between various groups that are members of cultural organizations such as Lekra, LKN, Lesbumi, and HSBI in which the Using intellectuals themselves were divided. After the events of 1965 which stopped all cultural activities of the party’s organs, the Using scholars began to appear in the form of informal conversations and several writings. The spaces opened by Djoko Supaat Slamet caused this movement to increasingly acquire a concrete form and not limited to arts and language but also in other fields outside of culture such as the courage to compete in the bureaucracy and non-agricultural economic endeavors. Hasan Ali, a humanist who at that time (1972-1978) served as Head of the People’s Welfare Section of the Banyuwangi Regional Government After the events of 1965 which stopped all cultural activities of the party’s organs, the Using scholars began to appear in the form of informal conversations and several writings. The spaces opened by Djoko Supaat Slamet caused this movement to increasingly acquire a concrete form and not limited to arts and language but also in other fields outside of culture such as the courage to compete in the bureaucracy and non-agricultural economic endeavors. Hasan Ali, a humanist who at that time (1972-1978) served as Head of the People’s Welfare Section of the Banyuwangi Regional Government After the events of 1965 which stopped all cultural activities of the party’s organs, the Using scholars began to appear in the form of informal conversations and several writings. The spaces opened by Djoko Supaat Slamet caused this movement to increasingly acquire a concrete form and not limited to arts and language but also in other fields outside of culture such as the courage to compete in the bureaucracy and non-agricultural economic endeavors. Hasan Ali, a humanist who at that time (1972-1978) served as Head of the People’s Welfare Section of the Banyuwangi Regional Government The spaces opened by Djoko Supaat Slamet caused this movement to increasingly acquire a concrete form and not limited to arts and language but also in other fields outside of culture such as the courage to compete in the bureaucracy and non-agricultural economic endeavors. Hasan Ali, a humanist who at that time (1972-1978) served as Head of the People’s Welfare Section of the Banyuwangi Regional Government The spaces opened by Djoko Supaat Slamet caused this movement to increasingly acquire a concrete form and not limited to arts and language but also in other fields outside of culture such as the courage to compete in the bureaucracy and non-agricultural economic endeavors. Hasan Ali, a humanist who at that time (1972-1978) served as Head of the People’s Welfare Section of the Banyuwangi Regional Government

as well as the Chairman of the Board

Blambangan art in the 1978-1998 period, took the initiative to change the Menakjinggo story in jinggoan performances to the opposite. Menakjinggo, who was previously shown as a rebel, criminal, physically disabled with a voice hoarse like a horse chuckle, and likes women as he was shown in Ketoprak Mataram was transformed into a brave hero who always defends and loves his people. A very radical change that has attracted the attention of almost all cultural artists and even historians in Banyuwangi to discuss it; they are divided pros and cons. Although rejected by the Javanese community that concentrated in the southern part of Banyuwangi, Hasan Ali’s appeal narrative gradually received appreciation from supporters of the Jinggoan art, who were almost entirely Using people. As we can see now, in every Jinggoan performance, Menakjinggo appears as a brave hero; he became a prototype that was no longer the antagonist. Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

230

From repeated conversations with Hasan Ali, it was found that the attempt to reverse the substance of the Menakjinggo story was not accidental and instead originated from the awareness that however historical truth is something discursive. It really depends on who and in what process it is formulated. Hasan Ali emphasized that Menakjinggo was a rebellion and a criminal because it was formulated by and in Jawa Kulon with all its political positions and settings. Meanwhile, “for us, Menakjinggo, who historically really led Blambangan, is actually a hero who fights to defend his people,” said Hasan Ali. Intervention of colonizers (Netherlands and Japan) and its consequences on socio-economic life, politics, and culture initiated changes in Banyuwangi society to the level of cognition (attitude and outlook on life). Changes in the political map in 1965 which continued with modernization in the countryside since the late 1960s were encouraging

a large part of

the

community, including in Banyuwangi

, are increasingly leaving the old meanings, norms, values.

The meaning and values ​​understood by the Using community from

gandrung performances slowly shifted from previously attached to history and the Using people to become associated with pragmatic, economic life. Infatuation is an entertainment that only needs momentary, romantic, and profane. Thus, the meanings and values ​​that were previously attached to gandrung performances were left behind by supporters of the arts themselves and the Using community in general. Organizations engaged in the cultural sector, whether affiliated with political parties or not have sprung up and are increasingly productive in presenting their works of art. Lekra (People’s Cultural Institute) has adopted a lot of populist spirit. The emergence of Genjer-genjer as a group identity inspired other group art works with different art forms. Prior to 1965, several other groups of artists and cultural observers who were members of the Islamic Cultural Arts Association (HSBI) with religious roots presented dakwah in nature such as stories of the struggle of Khalid bin Walid and the story of a thousand and one nights displayed in the form of drama. From Lembanga, the Indonesian Muslim Arts and Culture (Lesbumi) performed Hadarah art. The National Cultural Institute (LKN) displays arts with the spirit of nationalism (Wahyudi, 2008: 174; Hayati, 2008: 154). From Lembanga, the Indonesian Muslim Arts and Culture (Lesbumi) performed Hadarah art. The National Cultural Institute (LKN) displays arts with the spirit of nationalism (Wahyudi, 2008: 174; Hayati, 2008: 154). From Lembanga, the Indonesian Muslim Arts and Culture (Lesbumi) performed Hadarah art. The National Cultural Institute (LKN) displays arts with the spirit of nationalism (Wahyudi, 2008: 174; Hayati, 2008: 154).

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

231

It seems that this is the reality that has prompted the bureaucracy and a number of Banyuwangi cultural artists to attract the pendulum of cultural life in the area. The Indonesian cultural policy of the early 1970s which was actually aimed at strengthening national political stability by fencing it from feudal values ​​and foreign influence (GBHN 1973), as well as from narrow regionalism (GBHN 1978), in Banyuwangi received the opposite response. The Regent of Banyuwangi, Djoko Supaat Slamet, who came to power in the 1966-1978 period, for example, shortly after being inaugurated for the second period in 1972, directed all cultural inventory and documentation activities in this area to confirm the identity of an ethnic community in the area, an activity that is the opposite of the offensive politics aimed at the national project above. Through the Blambangan Arts Council which was formed in 1978 the bureaucracy formulated and confirmed the concept, identification and category of Using in the midst of plural ethnic battles in Banyuwangi. A number of senior artists and cultural observers at the Blambangan Arts Council, for their encouragement and facilities

bureaucracy and their leadership as the Using elite,

confirms Using-non Using categories in the stage. Various seminars, workshops, and workshop were held involving members of the Gandrung community to socialize the categories and other matters regarding the identification of gandrung into Using. The implication of all the bureaucratic efforts and the Blambangan Arts Council is the emergence of an awareness that almost every artist is infatuated with ugliness in his artistic expression. The rejection of gandrung dancers and musicians towards the identification of kendhang kempul as an art of Using since the early emergence of the art development of gandrung in the mid-1980s is a clear example. In terms of arts, Djoko Supaat Slamet is considered the first regent to pay attention to society and the Using culture through his various policies,

All songs

instructed as original Banyuwangi (at least rhythmic / music and Using language) are reproduced on a large scale, even songs that have long been buried both by time and due to politics, except for Genjer-Genjer, are traced and re-excavated for then reproduced and socialized. Using artists who were categorized as communists in

the Linguistics Program of the UKM Language and Literature Department UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

(Lekra) was given the same space for creativity as other Using artists who were not Lekra. Supaat’s ideas of presenting Using in the cultural arena in Banyuwangi where the community and its culture had long been drowning and cornered in an unfavorable position received wide acclaim from Using scholars. Some of them even welcomed him with very concrete cultural actions. The songs claimed to be original Banyuwangen were reproduced and widely circulated to match the production of songs in Using language but were not original Banyuwangen which were produced in Genteng, Banyuwangi (the local term called them Kendang Kempul songs). Some of Using senior songwriters such as Andang and Endro Wilis (both former Lekra activists) were encouraged to make songs unique to Banyuwangen for mass production. The gandrung show that tends to start leaving its signature songs is forced to re-include his old songs in every stage. Senior gandrung observers are urged to reformulate the standard rules of gandrung with all the songs that have been its characteristics. The enthusiasm of the educated Using to welcome Djoko Supaat Slamet’s policy was mainly due to their experience so far which gave birth to the collective awareness of the Using people on the average of structural and cultural pressures on them in the midst of the common life between the two major cultures surrounding them, Java and Bali. The Using community has so far held an unfavorable position in front of Balinese and Javanese. For the Javanese and Balinese, the Using people are exclusive people, like to be alone and reluctant to socialize openly, are angry without reason, and have a strong tradition of witchcraft. The stereotypical and even stigmatic nicknames such as witchcraft for the Using people are very popular among Javanese people in southern Banyuwangi as well as in Jember and Bali. “Be careful to be friends with the Using people” is advice that always comes from Javanese parents who see their children or their families related to the Using people as shown in the following song. likes to be aloof and reluctant to socialize openly, angry without reason, and has a strong tradition of witchcraft. The stereotypical and even stigmatic nicknames such as witchcraft for the Using people are very popular among Javanese people in southern Banyuwangi as well as in Jember and Bali. “Be careful to be friends with the Using people” is advice that always comes from Javanese parents who see their children or their families related to the Using people as shown in the following song. likes to be aloof and reluctant to socialize openly, angry without reason, and has a strong tradition of witchcraft. The stereotypical and even stigmatic nicknames such as witchcraft for the Using people are very popular among Javanese people in southern Banyuwangi as well as in Jember and Bali. “Be careful to be friends with the Using people” is advice that always comes from Javanese parents who see their children or their families related to the Using people as shown in the following song.

MARRIED Stolen Indeed they have unfortunately Rich link yo he found the cover of Linguistics SME Department of Language and Literature UNJ

232

Seminar on Language and Literature, 2015

taping of the men slapped courtship Jare and women have and that many

reject good gediku reasons people very old who loves him will male and female law ju were semayanan Malay wedding with stolen

The plug came upto stayed War cangkep discuss the matter highlighted the religion finally received a wife come

married stolen custom Forex Ping wrote in shares of casual theft and wisnganggo rules sharp klewang be ruling

According to Andang CY, which signifies the Banyuwangen songs, is the cengkoknya by emphasizing the accentuation of the Banyuwangi dialect. Cengkok in classic tembangtembang is different from cengkok or a Malay accent. The cengkok that can identify a song can be called a Banyuwangi song or not. According to him, the prominent characteristic of the Banyuwangi song is the cengkok and the songs are pelog. Andang CY firmly refused if there were Malay songs sung in the Using language but did not show cengkok accents, these songs were more popularized in the drum kempul performance. Song lyrics by Andang CY and BS. The most popular Noerdians include: Phetetan Flower, Bracelet Alit, Umbul-Umbul Blambangan, and Ulan Andhung-Andhung (with Endro Wilis).

The song Umbul-Umbul Blambangan was created in 1974

describing Banyuwangi as an area with fertile natural conditions. At the time of the regent Samsul Hadi (2000-2005) the song was set as a compulsory song by the people of Banyuwangi Linguistics Program UKM Department of Language and Literature UNJ

233

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

based on the decree issued which coincided with Harjaba Banyuwangi on December 18, 2005. Similarly, in the government of Regent Ratna Ani Lestari (2005-2010) also set the song Banyuwangiku Permai Banyuwangiku Damai and Mars Banyuwangi Jaya as a compulsory song that is played on every Harjaba.

BLAMBANGAN FLAGS Blambangan flags 3x Blambangan flags, eman Oi-flags-oi-Blambangan 2x

Blambangan-Blambangan Tanah Jawa pucuk wetan Those who want to get bored-those who want to get bored Isun mentions your name Blambangan-Blambangan ….

Along with the development of art in Banyuwangi, which indicates that as a group representation, the art gradually changes. For example, the art of angklung which was originally placed in the paglak (rice fields) has now shifted towards the formalization of the stage art performed in buildings. This change also occurs in musical accompaniment instruments that are adjusted to the capacity of the building. The shift in the performance space shows that the function of art, which was originally a daily expression, has become a market-oriented art. Meanwhile, the preservation of traditional arts as an effort to reinforce the identity of Banyuwangi undoubtedly invited the government and elite artists to intervene in trying to put angklung on the stage. Social changes in the Banyuwangi community such as population growth and mobility, rural modernization (capitalization), the expansion of pop culture, and political life played an important role in giving birth to two things. First, the Using-Banyuwangi community slowly began to leave something that had been formed (meaning, value and thought) and began to formulate it in a new form. Second, the strengthening of the (capital) market for the Linguistic Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ

234

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

235

Banyuwangen songs sung in the performing arts became purely commercial entertainment.

Conclusion

The Using songs that were present were based on different situations and reflected the historical journey of the social-political life of the Banyuwangi people. In various cross-cultural expressions, the struggle for local, national and global interests competes and continues to dynamically interact with each other to be articulated as a cultural movement. The Padha Nonton song that must be performed when Jejer Gandrung suddenly experienced a reproduction of meaning when the song was recorded, marketed, and played all the time. As a product, a new culture is a form of integration and harmonization created through government and capital policies in bringing together modernity and locality in a continuous space of negotiation.

Reference

Anoegrajekti, Novi. 2010. Estetka Literature and Culture: Understanding the Signs. Jember: Unej Press. Barker, Chris. 2000. Cultural Studies: Theory and Practice. London: Sage Publications. Budianta, Melani. 2008. “Cross-Cultural Aspects in Multicultural Discourse,” in Discourse Studies: in a Multicultural and Multidisciplinary Context. Jakarta: FIB UI. Darusuprata. 1984. Babad Blambangan. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University. Eriksen, Thomas Hylland. 1993. Ethnicity & Nationalism: Anthropological Perspeectives. London and Boulder, Colorado: Pluto Press. Hall, Stuart. 1993. “Cultural Identity and Diaspora,” in Patrick Williams and Laura Chrisman (eds).

Colonial

Discourse

and

Postcolonial

Theory.

New

York:

Harvester / Wheatsheaf. Hayati, Titik Nur. 2008. “The Social Meaning of Tembang in the Middle of Changes in Banyuwangi Society,” in Gandrung Ethnography: The Battle of Identity. Jakarta: Desantara Women’s Study. Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Position UKM UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

Herusantoso, Suparman. 1987. Using language in Banyuwangi. Dissertation. Jakarta: Postgraduate Program, University of Indonesia. Kusnadi. 1990. “Osing: A Cultural Figure of the Periphery People,” in the Literary Bulletin. Jember: University of Jember. Pigeaud, Th. G. Th. 1932. “Aanteekeningen Betreffende Den Javaaschen Oosthoek” TBG LXXII: 215-313. Spradley, James P. Ethnographic Methods. 1997. Yogyakarta: Tiara Wacana. Stoppelaar, jw 1927. Blambangan Adatrecht. Wageningen: H. Veenman & Zonen. Wayudi, M.Miftah. 2008. “Tembang: From Rice Fields to Buildings,” in Gandrung Ethnography: The Battle of Identity. Jakarta: Desantara Women’s Study.

Linguistics Program of Language and Literature Unit of UNJ

236

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

237

PLATINUM LEARNING MODELS IN OPTIMIZING THE PERFORMANCE OF THE BRAIN21

Endry Boeriswati22

Introduction Indonesia will get a gift from an explosion of population at its productive age. The explosion of the productive age can be a gift if the population has the competence that is able to create the nation’s competitiveness. Therefore there needs to be a strengthening of education for elementary school students in 2025 which will fill the job market. The 2013 curriculum for elementary schools in particular has anticipated a demographic bonus that must be filled with competitive smart human resources, so that it has implemented it through a learning approach. The learning that has been done so far has not optimized the work of the brain much. This brain plays a role in the processing of logic, words, mathematics, and sequences which are dominant for academic learning. The right brain that deals with the rhythm of music, pictures,

21

Presented at the Seminar Between the Nation, the National University of Malaysia and the Jakarta State University.

22

Lecturers at the Postgraduate Study Program, Jakarta State University.

Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Position UKM UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

developed in learning. The principle of learning that is able to optimize the potential in the brain is called brain based learning. Brain based learning is a learning principle that comes from an understanding of the brain. According to Jensen (2008: 11-12), brain based learning is learning that is aligned with the way the brain is designed naturally for learning. Brain Based Learning, brain-based learning, is an individual capital in learning, namely utilizing the power of the brain to learn. The application of the principles of brain based learning in learning must pay attention to several components as suggested by Spears and Wilson (2007) as follows; (a)

Orchestrated immersion, namely the learning environment that is formed

to incorporate students into a learning experience. (b) Relaxed alertness, which is an effort made to eliminate fear when in a challenging environment. For example, by playing music so that students will feel more relaxed. Music is also very important for learning is because music is actually related and affects physiological conditions. Also as a stimulus to strengthen and generate a positive and cheerful mood, as a counterweight to left brain activity. In addition, learning games can also reduce tension that can hinder, relieve stress, get people fully involved and improve the learning process. (c) Activate processing: Students combine and internalize information by processing it actively. Information linked to previous learning. This stage is arranged before learning begins by the teacher, who prepares students in the process of connecting new information with the knowledge that has been acquired so that the new information is more attached. This is related to the cognitive view that learning is forming cognitive structures in memory that retain and organize information about various events in a situation (Atkison, Atkison, Halgard, 1991). Semiawan (1994) adds that learning is characterized by mental involvement which includes the level of intelligence, cognitive structure, assimilation, accommodation. Bransford as quoted by Djiwandono (1989) argues that what is important in learning is how people understand and remember information.

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

238

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

If we consider that learning is based on information processing, in developing teaching materials, we must pay attention to brain functions related to information processing. Learning and memory are two important things in the process of everyday life. Learning can be measured through memory mechanisms. It is related that learning is a process to acquire new knowledge and abilities and memory is a process that stores knowledge indefinitely. The learning process forms the basic structure of information processing learning theories. This theory has suggested that the processing and storage of information occurs between stimulus and response which is an internal process. This process occurs when students learn (Bell_Gredler, 1986). The basis of this opinion is the working system of the brain. We know that the structure of the human neural network consists of millions of neurons which are interconnected. The human brain has about 200-300 billion cells, all of which form a working harmony to regulate all responses and body movements. In neurons, neurons consist of one cell body in which there is a cytoplasm and a cell nucleus. From the cell body, there are two kinds of nerve fibers, namely dendrites and axons. Dendrites function to send impulses to the nerve cell bodies, while axons send impulses from the cell body to other tissues. Axons are usually very long. In contrast, dendrites are short. Each neuron has only one axon and at least one dendrite. Both of these nerve fibers containing plasma cells. Brain cells are connected by a thin network of synapses and can stop growing if the brain is not trained to think (decreases brain performance). However, if our brain is accustomed to practicing thinking such as reading, writing, analyzing something, imagining, creatively looking for breakthroughs, working hard, never giving up, and so on, it will be able to strengthen the synapse network. This certainly really supports the performance of the brain to produce a great and useful work. Synapse is a thin membrane which is a connective network between brain cells. These organs can strengthen if trained to think and will weaken if not exercised. On the other hand, the synapse network can be broken if not trained or passive, so that the relationship between brain cells is disrupted or no longer productive. It is in this structure that patterns of knowledge, memory and learning are formed. So if we want learning that is able to process and produce more powerful knowledge, then the learning process must be able to trigger more brain work. The quality of the brain’s ability to absorb and process information depends on the number of neurons that make up the units (Jalal, 2000). Furthermore, Jalal explained that the Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ

239

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

240

the human brain is a hologram, which can record, absorb, and store, produce, and reconstruct information. The ability of the brain which is influenced by the activity of these neurons is not spontaneous, but is influenced by the quality and frequency of stimulation received by the senses. The human brain will make changes when a person learns. When a person learns something or receives a stimulus, the synapses (connections between neurons) and blood cells will support the formation of neurons and increase the number of synapses present. The more complicated or the number of synapses that form in the brain indicates that the person often learns new things or receives frequent stimulation. If there are many synapses in the brain or look complicated, this indicates a good connection between nerve cells in the brain.

receiving less stimulation or learning new things. If a person often learns new things and receives stimuli well, his knowledge will increase and the synapses that are

formed

will increase

.

Conditions

this

are

often

associated

with

Intelligence. Indeed, there are so many kinds of intelligence in the human brain that we don’t realize that we are actually intelligent creatures. Because of his unconsciousness, some experts argue that humans generally only use 10 percent of their brain power. On this basis, how to learn can use a larger brain capacity so that learning outcomes will be better. Basically, learning is the process of receiving new information. In order for learning outcomes to become meaningful knowledge, the information that appears during learning can be translated by the brain into knowledge. Translating information from the senses / sensory organs is the function of the five senses in capturing information. In essence, the eye does not understand what it sees. Ears do not understand what it is hearing. The nose and tongue cannot distinguish rotten from fragrant or bitter from sweetness, whereas the skin is unable to perceive pain well without a brain. All data from the senses are interpreted by the brain. This implementation in learning, namely information that appears in learning so that it can be translated by the brain into meaningful information, requires a stimulus to the brain so that it can and quickly catch it. Atkinson and Shiffrin in Grdler (1986) call this process the recording of sensation which will be followed by temporary storage and long-term storage. All data from the senses are interpreted by the brain. This implementation in learning, namely information that appears in learning so that it can be translated by the brain into meaningful information, requires a stimulus to the brain so that it can and quickly catch it. Atkinson and Shiffrin in Grdler (1986) call this process the recording of sensation which will be followed by temporary storage and long-term storage. All data from the senses are interpreted by the brain. This implementation in learning, namely information that appears in learning so that it can be translated by the brain into meaningful information, requires a stimulus to the brain so that it can and quickly catch it. Atkinson and Shiffrin in Grdler (1986) call this process the recording of sensation which will be followed by temporary storage and long-term storage.

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

In terms of the entry of information into memory, it has contributed to learning. As described above, only memorable information that can be processed goes into memory. If learning is unable to move the brain to actively capture messages, learning becomes meaningless. Therefore, for learning to be meaningful it requires means such as methods and media that are easily captured by the brain. The theory of memory can be used in mood learning which consists of mood congruent memory and mood dependent memory. Mood congruent memory means that the same material will be remembered more if it is adjusted to the learner’s mood while learning (Matlin, 2005). So, someone with a pleasant mood will be easier to remember a material than when our mood is not pleasant (Matlin, 2005). On this basis, learning should be fun. This mood congruent memory condition triggers brain cells to work faster. Mood dependent memory means that learners are more able to remember material from the past if it is according to the current mood conditions modified during past events (Matlin, 2005). Many studies have shown that environmental manipulation such as exposure to pleasant or unpleasant music (Eich and Metcalf, 1989, in Rouby, et al, 2002) or variations in indoor lighting (Baron, Rea, and Daniels, 1993, in Rouby, et al., 2002) can have an influence on emotional states. Likewise, exposure to pleasant and unpleasant scents has been shown to have an impact on mood. This is implemented in a learning method and a pleasant learning atmosphere for students. One of the thinking skills is higher order thinking. Higher order thinking skills are a thinking ability that not only requires the ability to remember, but requires other higher abilities, such as the ability to think creatively and critically. The next problem is how to teach explicit thinking skills and integrate them with learning materials, especially Indonesian subjects, which can help students develop their thinking skills. Higher-order thinking skills are as follows: “Higher order thinking occurs when a person takes new information and information stored in memory and interrelates and / or rearranges and extends this information to achieve a purpose or find possible answers in perplexing situations.” Thus, high-order thinking skills will occur when someone links new information with information on the Linguistic Program of the Language and Literature Department of the UNJ.

241

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

which has been stored in his memory and connected or rearranged and developed the information to achieve a goal or find a solution to a situation that is difficult to solve. Based on these thoughts, this study developed a learning model that optimizes brain performance to improve problem-solving abilities. Problem-solving abilities are a result of high-order thinking that students must have from an early age. Therefore, the model developed in this study is how to improve students’ ability to solve problems in elementary schools.

Research Methods The research method used to produce a Platinum Learning Model is Research and Development. The target of this learning model is grade V elementary school students. The object under study is the ability to solve problems through Indonesian subjects. The research procedure begins with a needs analysis, literature study, model syntax development, and model testing. Based on the analysis of needs, which was examined through surveys of primary school teachers, especially grade V teachers, it can be concluded that so far teachers are still teaching a lot by activating informative and factual knowledge. Learning that implements problem solving is difficult to give to students, considering that grade V elementary school students are not required to learn using high cognitive abilities.

Platinum Learning Model The Platinum learning model analogizes banking services. Platinum level banking services are very special services with special facilities so that customers feel comfortable. With the convenience provided by the Bank, customers will trust so that it has an impact on customer work productivity. Likewise learning. Students are teachers’ special customers who must be given special services in learning so that student productivity increases. Special services in the Linguistics Program model of the Language and Literature Department of the UKM UNJ

242

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

Platinum learning promises that students can learn in a fun way and experience the benefits of learning. The foundation of developing the platinum learning model is that learning should provide a pleasant experience. A pleasant experience when learning is created through the learning method. Learning methods that encourage students to try and find out for themselves provide excellent results in learning. This method uses a Project Based Learning approach. Reasons for modifying the Project Based Learning method in the platinum learning model. Project Based Learning is a learning method that guides students to find new things for students in the form of concepts, formulas, patterns, and the like, so that the application of this method can stimulate students to be more active in the learning process. Meyer (2010) suggests that the discovery process in learning will help students understand and analyze the process of creativity and decision making in their findings. The Project Based Learning model that is modified in the platinum learning model combines scientific methods to take the first step in the discovery that is the question used as a hypothesis. According to Discovery Education (2006) states that: “The scientific method is the” tool “that scientists use to find the answers to questions. It is the process of thinking through the possible solutions to a problem and testing each possibility to find the best solution. “Through a thought process, a hypothesis is put forward by the student as a temporary answer to the question posed. A series of searches / discoveries is carried out to test the hypothesis, until the actual answers to the questions that arise at the beginning of the learning process are found. The platinum learning model invites students to become futuristic visionary students, namely students are analogous to being a leader who has four key competencies as quoted from Burt Nanus, namely (1) A visionary person must have the ability to communicate effectively with teachers and other friends in learning. Communication skills students really need, because to know everything that happens in learning, there is a need for a communication process. In addition, students who have the ability to communicate well will foster a good learning climate.

243

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

parties who will enjoy the results of learning, so that students are required to understand and act immediately to anticipate changes in the outside learning environment in the hope that the services provided will be in accordance with the changes that occur. (3) students play an important role in shaping and influencing learning. The competence referred to in this case is the direct involvement of students in all processes of implementing learning activities, so that students will know the extent to which learning activities are carried out in order to achieve learning objectives. (4) students must have or develop past experiences to anticipate the future. Students must have more experience and are expected to be able to become plan evaluators before the plan is implemented as a program in accordance with the experiences they have had. Learning must be able to make students have the ability to think ahead. Bob Johansen in his book Leaders Make the Future: Ten New Leadership Skills for Uncertain World, states that a future leader needs vision, understanding, clarity, and agility or VUCA. The negative aspects of VUCA can be transformed into effective leadership that follows the principles of volatility to produce foresight, uncertainty produces understanding, complexity produces sharpness, and ambiguity produces agility and flexibility in thinking. This thinking pattern can be adopted as a teaching method, so it can produce students who have future thoughts

Linguistics Program of Language and Literature Unit of UNJ

244

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

Image Foresight – Insight – Action way of thinking.

The model above is combined with the Problem Base Learning method to be applied in problem solving learning for fifth grade elementary school students. The purpose of applying this method in the Platinum model is that students must be trained in hypothetical thinking and must answer exploratively with their own experiences. Thomas and Thorne (2005) stated that “Higher Order Thinking is thinking on higher level that memorizing facts or telling something back to the sameone, actually the way the it was told to you. When a person memorizies and gives back the information without having to think about it. That’s because it’s much like arobot; it doeswhat it’s programmed to do, but it doesn’t think for itself ”. High-level thinking skills are skills that can be trained, so that these skills can be given from an early age to elementary school students through Indonesian language lessons in problem solving. According to Ennis (1985: 54), critical thinking is a reflective logical way of thinking or reasoning that is focused on determining what to believe and do. Critical thinking is very orderly and systematic. The regularity of thinking in critical thinking is expressed by MCC General Education Iniatives, which is a process that emphasizes the attitude of temporary decision making, empowers logic based on inquiry and problem solving which is the basis for assessing an action or decision making. Wade (1995) identifies eight characteristics of critical thinking, which include: (a) Formulating questions, (b) Limiting problems, (c) Testing data; (d) Analyzing a variety of information, (e) Avoiding overly emotional considerations, (f) Avoiding oversimplification, (g) Considering multiple interpretations, and (h) Tolerating ambiguity. This model of problem solving developed in the Platinum learning model requires the activation of two hemispheres of the brain, namely the left hemisphere and the right hemisphere in a balanced manner. Based on the work system of the brain as the center of thinking, the brain consists of the left hemisphere and the right hemisphere. Left hemisphere and right hemisphere, or better known as the Left Brain and Right Brain. Each hemisphere has a different function. The left brain functions in matters related to logic, ratio, writing and reading skills, and is the center of mathematics. Some experts say that the left brain is the center of Intelligence Quotient (IQ). Meanwhile, the right brain functions in the development of Emotional Quotient (EQ). For example, socialization, communication, interaction with other humans and emotional control. In this right brain is also the Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ

245

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

Intuitive ability, ability to feel, blend, and body expression, such as singing, dancing, painting and all kinds of other creative activities. The left brain supports a lot of thinking skills

critical, while the right brain supports the ability to think creatively. Between the left brain and the brain are connected by the corpus colosum. The corpus colosum sometimes opens the connection between the left brain and the right brain. The brain will be a reactor when the left and right brain is connected by the corpus colosum in an open state. The ability to think critically and creatively is an indicator of higher-order thinking abilities. The development of critical thinking and creative thinking will not be separated from the development of the performance abilities of the left brain and right brain which require continuous practice that can be done through all learning. To train students to make hypothetical questions, it can be done in the following stages: (1) Visualizing. Students are invited to have a clear picture of what will be achieved and have a clear picture of when it will be achieved, so that in its implementation efforts to achieve learning objectives will be precise in the initial calculation. (2) Futuristic Thinking. Students are invited not only to think about the extent of their current knowledge, but to think more about the extent of the knowledge they want to achieve in the future. (3) Showing Foresight. Students are accustomed to planning that can predict the future. In making a plan, not only consider what you want to do, but consider technology, knowledge and other factors that might affect the plan. (4) Proactive Planning. Students are invited to set specific goals and strategies to achieve these goals. Thus students are able to anticipate or consider potential obstacles and develop contingency plans to overcome these obstacles so that they must always actively follow the extent to which the plan is carried out and know what obstacles are being faced. (5) Creative Thinking. In facing challenges, students must try to think creatively and innovatively in finding new alternative solutions by paying attention to what exists, opportunities and problems.

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

246

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

(6) Taking Risks. Students are trained to dare to take risks and regard failure as an opportunity not a setback, so that when they fail to achieve their goals, they will be the motivator for other friends to stay enthusiastic. (7) Process alignment. Students are asked to know how to connect their own goals with organizational goals. He or she can immediately align assignments throughout learning. (8) Coalition building. Students are trained to realize that in order to achieve learning goals, they must create a comfortable learning atmosphere both when studying alone and in class. (9) Continuous Learning. Students are accustomed to be able to regularly take part in learning both independently and when studying in class. Students are asked to be able to test every interaction, negative or positive, so as to be able to study the situation. Students are trained to identify opportunities for collaboration and take part in projects that can expand knowledge, challenge thinking and develop imagination. (10) Embracing Change. It is adopted that students actively alternative problem-solving

could benefit from these findings.

In the stages above, students will always be actively involved and experience for themselves. When students make observations of problems, students actually have done a visualization stage where students must be able to capture information inherent in the observed environment. This is where the brain works to eat information and send it to long-term memory systematically so that when recalled it can be carried out briefly and is able to assimilate with new knowledge. The visualization stage can be optimized by implementing associative thinking that is able to connect one concept to another. This is the activation of the brain hemisphere which functions to think creatively. Forward thinking, namely the ability of students to make predictions based on known or experienced experiences. This is where students apply their insight and foresight skills. This ability is formed through creative thinking and critical thinking. The platinum learning model requires an assessment that is able to provide feedback to students and is process in nature, so the assessment system used is authentic assessment. Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ

247

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

Conclusion The platinum learning model aims to provide excellent service to students in learning so that students are able to use their knowledge to be applied in all conditions. The knowledge they have can be used to anticipate the life to come. This learning model can be applied to other subjects that are problem solving. The appropriate model is used in elementary schools considering learning in elementary schools uses a thematic approach. Themes can be used as a real context in student life. References Bob Johansen, Leaders Make the Future: Ten New Leadership Skills for Uncertain World, Barret-Koehle Publishers, San Francisco, 2009. Eysenck, Michael W. 2004. Psychology An International Perspective. New York: Psychology Press. Gay, LK. (1981). Educational research:

Linguistics Program of Language and Literature Unit of UNJ

248

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

249

TEACHING SKILLS OF STUDENTS IN MICRO TEACHING STUDENTS23

Dra. Suhertuti, M.Pd. 24

Introduction In accordance with the vision and mission of the Indonesian Language and Literature Department, especially the Indonesian Language and Literature Study Program, PSPBSI graduates are expected to become professional educators. To make professional educators required supportive abilities, one of these abilities is teaching skills. The teaching skills of these students are trained in one of the subjects, namely the micro teaching course. The Micro Teaching course is a prerequisite course with other courses. Students taking the Micro Teaching course are 6th semester students who have passed three other courses, namely: Review of Indonesian Language Curriculum and Textbooks, Planning for Indonesian Language Teaching, and Evaluation of Indonesian Language Teaching. These three courses are expected to equip students in preparing themselves to take the Micro Teaching course. Self-provision as described above is not enough to make prospective teachers professional, all of that must be supported by other knowledge related to the material to be taught to students. Therefore, in the sixth semester the Study Program students

Presented at the Seminar Between the Nation, the National University of Malaysia and the Jakarta State University. 23

24

Lecturers of the Department of Indonesian Language and Literature, Jakarta State University.

Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Position UKM UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

Indonesian Language and Literature Education is required to have passed all courses (MKK 1) which equips him to be able to carry out Field Practice Program / Teaching Activities (PPL / PKM) activities to schools. Before students take PPL / PKM, students have been trained on how to carry out teaching and learning activities in front of the class in the micro teaching course. The teaching practice in this subject is divided into two stages. The first stage, students carry out the teaching and learning process in front of the class and the students are their classmates. The second stage, students carry out teaching and learning activities in front of actual middle or high school students with a total of 10-15 people. This is done to train students to be able to organize what is planned and how to apply it in front of the class to real students. Students who take this lecture are regular students who have never taught. It is in this micro teaching course that they are trained on how to teach according to the steps they have learned before, so that when they get the PKM / PPL course in the following semester they will be more prepared and confident.

Teaching Skills in Micro Teaching All teachers are expected to have teaching skills so that teaching and learning activities can achieve the expected goals. Many people claim that teaching skills are identical to professionals, if so a professional teacher can be said to be a skilled teacher. Teaching is an effort that someone does in a certain way and creates a supportive environmental condition for the learning process to occur. In order for the learning process to run well, good cooperation between the teacher and students is needed. This collaboration can be seen through the interactions carried out in the learning process. Teaching is organizing matters related to learning which can be seen in all kinds of good and bad teaching situations (J. Mursell and Nasution, 2012: 8). From the explanation above, it can be concluded that teaching is not only providing a subject matter to students but there are processes and conditions that occur in these activities. An explanation related to the above opinion was also put forward by Buchari Alma, (2008: 21). “So what is important in teaching is not the material conveyed by the teacher but the process of students learning the material.”

Linguistics Program of Language and Literature Unit of UNJ

250

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

251

Thus it can be concluded that teaching is an activity that requires processes and conditions in delivering material or learning materials to students. This process will be seen in the interactions carried out in teaching and learning activities. Lindgren in Dimyati (1999: 60)

explains,

there are four models of

learning interaction, namely one-way interaction (the teacher as a messenger)

in

two-way interactions (teacher

14) affirms that twenty-first century teachers will be required to master various basic knowledge (academic, pedagogical, social, and cultural) and to become reflective and problem solving professionals. The explanation above strengthens that a teacher must have competences that are whole and thorough. This means that a teacher must have sufficient knowledge, good attitude and wisdom and be skilled in teaching. Not all teachers can teach well, Nasution (2012: 8-13) explains some principles that are generally accepted for all good teachers, namely: 1. understand and respect students. 2. must respect the learning material it provides 3. adapt the teaching method to the lesson material 4. adapt the learning material to individual abilities 5.

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

10. not only teaching in the sense of imparting knowledge to students but also developing students’ personalities. From the description above, it can be concluded that being a teacher is not easy, as previously explained, it must be complete and comprehensive. The teacher must understand the student’s condition, be able to adjust the material and methods to be used, carry out the teaching and learning process by activating all students, directing students to find various sources of information and linking the benefits of learning with student life. Teaching skills are one of the aspects that a teacher must have. However, to equip students to prepare themselves for PKM / PPL, Buchari Alma, et al. (2008: 13) explains that the basic skills concerning: 1.Set induction (skills to open meetings) 2.

By having the five basic skills mentioned above, it is hoped that students as prospective teachers will be able to carry out teaching and learning activities in class when they do PKM / PPL in school. Furthermore, Turney in Mulyasa (2005) reveals eight teaching skills that play a major role in determining the quality of learning, namely the skills to ask questions, provide reinforcement, vary, explain, open and close lessons, guide small group discussions, manage classes, and teach small groups and individually. . The eight teaching skills can be described as follows: 1.

Questioning Skills Questioning skills really need to be mastered by the teacher to create effective learning

and fun, because in almost every stage of learning the teacher is required to ask questions and the quality of the questions asked by the teacher will determine the quality of the students’ answers. Questioning skills are divided into two, basic questioning skills and advanced questioning skills. 2.

Skills for Strengthening the Linguistic Program of the UKM Language and Literature Position UNJ

252

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

Strengthening is a response to a behavior that can increase the likelihood of the behavior recurring. Strengthening can be done verbally and nonverbally with the principles of warmth, enthusiasm, meaning and avoiding the use of negative responses 3.

Skills for Variation These are skills that teachers must master in learning, to overcome

students’ boredom, to be enthusiastic, diligent, and full of participation. Variations in learning are changes in the process of activities aimed at increasing students’ motivation to learn and to reduce boredom and boredom. 4.

Explanation Skills Is to describe verbally about something, circumstances, facts, and data in accordance

with the time and applicable laws. Explaining is an important aspect that teachers must have, considering that most learning requires teachers to provide explanations. 5.

Skills to Open and Close Learning. These are two routine activities that teachers carry out to start and end learning

so that these activities contribute meaningfully to the achievement of learning objectives that need to be done professionally. 6.

Skills to Guide Small Group Discussions Is an organized process and involves a group of people in face-

to -face interactions to draw conclusions and solve problems. Small group discussions are one form of learning activity that is often used. 7.

Classroom Management Skills Classroom management is a teacher’s skill to create a good learning climate

conducive and control it in case of disruption in learning. 8. Small Group and Individual Teaching Skills This is a form of learning that allows teachers to pay attention to each student and establish a closer relationship between teachers and students as well as between students and students. The same opinion is also explained by Syaiful Bahri, (2005: 99) that basic teaching skills are skills that teachers absolutely must have in this case. Furthermore, it is explained in detail (pp. 99-163) Linguistic Program of Language and Literature Unit of UNJ

253

Seminar on Language and Literature 2015

254

Basic teaching skills that must be mastered by teachers are as follows:

1.

Basic Questioning Skills Things that must be considered are wording, structure, concentration, shifting,

distribution, giving of time, warmth and enthusiasm, prompting, changing cognitive level demands, and what needs to be avoided: repeating own questions, repeating student answers, answering questions himself, asking for answers in unison. 2.

Advanced

Questioning Skills include taxonomic variations, tracking questions, giving time, increasing interaction between students, 3. Strengthening Skills Things related to applications, reinforcement patterns, reinforcement

components, (verbal,

gestural, activity, approaching, touch, sign reinforcement), reinforcement model (whole group, postponed, partial, individual), usage principles (warm and enthusiastic, avoid negative reinforcement, varied, meaningful) 4.Crafting Varying

Skills

Includes teaching styles, (voice, emphasis, time, eye contact, limb movement / gesturing, changing positions), using media and teaching materials, (viewing media, listening media, tactile / touching / manipulating media), and interactions between teachers and students 5. Explanatory Skills Includes the purpose of providing explanations, the reasons for the importance of giving explanations, the components of explaining skills (analysis and planning: message content; message recipients; 6. Classroom Management Skills Include the skills of teachers to create and maintain optimal learning conditions and restore them in case of disruption in the process of educational interaction, the problem is the problem of teaching and management. the problem is the attempt memmbantu teaching students in achieving the specific objectives of teaching

in

directly, it is a

matter

of

business management

to

create

and

maintain conditions such that the educational interaction process can take place effectively and efficiently. The principles of its use, warmth and enthusiasm, challenges, variety, flexibility, emphasis on positive things and cultivation of self-discipline 7. Skills to Lead Small Group Discussions Program Linguistics UKM Language and Literature Position UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

These skills are related to other skills such as questioning skills, strengthening skills and opening and closing lessons. 8. Small Group and Individual Teaching Skills These skills will increase the understanding of teachers and students involved, as well as understanding in organizing the educational interaction process. Based on the description above, it can be concluded that teaching skills must be possessed by all teachers, because these skills are basic skills for teachers. Furthermore, the teacher must be able to develop it according to the abilities possessed and the conditions of the students where the teacher teaches. Teaching skills that must be possessed by prospective teachers as described above, are: skills in opening and closing lessons, explaining skills, questioning skills, skills provide variety, skills provide reinforcement, discussion guiding skills, and class management skills. These are the skills that will be carried out by students in the micro teaching course. Micro teaching is one of the courses given to sixth semester students in the Indonesian Language and Literature Study Program with a load of 2 credits. This subject has prerequisites, namely students must pass the Indonesian Language Curriculum and Textbook Study course which is given in the third semester, Planning for Indonesian Language Teaching in semester four and the fifth semester of Evaluation of Indonesian Language Teaching. The four courses above are group courses of Work Behavior, which equip students of the Education Study Program in the Indonesian Language and Literature Department before they go to the Field / Practice Teaching Activities (PPL / PKM). Micro teaching lectures (micro learning) aim to prepare, train and foster basic teaching skills of students as prospective teachers in accordance with the competencies required in PP 19 of 2005. These competencies are pedagogical competence, personality competence, social competence and professional competence. Teaching skills in the micro teaching process are carried out by students of the education study program who will become teachers (prospective teachers). This activity is carried out in about 25-30 minutes and the number of students is 10-12 people ..

asked to prepare learning devices that will be used in the

teaching and learning process .

Linguistics Program of UKM Language and Literature Position UNJ

255

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

256

Micro teaching is a practical teaching activity carried out by students in front of their classmates. This is in accordance with Parera’s (1986: 46) explanation that micro teaching is a teaching-learning activity in a group of students themselves with a group of 8-10 students. Based on this explanation, it can be concluded that micro teaching is one of the teaching training activities for students in front of their peers who are prepared as students. Mc. Laughlin and Moulton in Dadang (2012: 22), “Micro teaching is as performance training method to isolate the component parts of the teaching process, so that the trainee can master each component one by one in a simplified teaching situation”. In essence, micro learning is an approach or learning model to train teacher teaching performances / skills through part by part of each of these basic teaching skills which is carried out in a controlled and sustainable manner in a learning situation. From this explanation, it can be concluded that micro teaching is a process of teaching training for prospective teacher students according to basic teaching skills regularly and continuously carried out in the teaching and learning process. The teaching and learning process carried out in front of friends (peer teaching) cannot be carried out optimally even though it has been prepared beforehand that friends must behave as SMP / SMA students. However, this activity can also provide experience for students (prospective teachers) on how to directly and properly practice the basic teaching skills they have learned. Meanwhile, the micro teaching process carried out for this research is the teaching process at a later stage after peer teaching. This is so

students experience the actual process of carrying out teaching activities

by directly practicing basic teaching skills in front of SMP / SMA students, even though only 10 to 15 students are enrolled. From the explanation above, it can be concluded that teaching skills in micro teaching are teaching skills in small groups and a limited amount of time by displaying the skills to open lessons. explanation skills, questioning skills, class management skills, variety skills, reinforcement skills, and discussion guiding skills, and lesson closing skills. A. Stages in Micro Teaching The stages in implementing micro teaching

in each of these classes are as

follows:

Linguistics Program of UKM Language and Literature Position UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

257

1. Each student must make a Learning Program Plan (RPP) and other tools before the teaching and learning process is carried out in front of the class and hand it over to the lecturer. 2. Each student will appear according to his serial number according to the predetermined schedule and recorded with a camcorder to be seen again if needed 3. Each student is observed by two peers and a supervisor with an observation instrument that has been prepared and will be used during the guarding process. 4.

This micro teaching activity is carried out in one of the lecture halls which is air conditioned and soundproof, so that the recording can be done properly.

5. After all students have finished their practice, the recordings can be viewed again by the lecturer and peers if needed. 6. Once the instrument students and professors gathered to discuss to discuss the results of their appearance and lecturers provide input and advice to the mistakes made in micro teaching is not done when they PPL / PKM

Based on observations of teaching skills in

micro teaching

that

If done by students, it can be said that all students have been able to carry out basic teaching skills in micro teaching according to the knowledge they already have, but not all students have done it optimally. From several aspects of skills that must be present in teaching skills, there are several aspects that still cannot be maximized.

B. Observation Results on Micro Teaching Activities To make it clearer, the following will describe in detail the teaching skills observed in micro teaching. 1. Skills to Open Lessons Based on the results of the observations that have been made, the skills to open lessons consist of the following aspects: a) checking the readiness of space, learning tools and media, b) checking student readiness, c) making apperception Obtaining the average score and percentage There can be concluded that most (74.65%) students have been able to carry out activities to open lessons well, (25,

Linguistics Program of Language and Literature Unit of UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

258

35%) who are still not optimally able to open lessons well, especially do apperception according to the material being taught and forget to convey the learning objectives. 2. Explaining Skills Aspects

observed in this skill are: a) linking the material with

other relevant knowledge, b) relating material to the realities of life, c) achieving communicative goals, e) using linguistic elements, f) using sociocultural elements. Based on the observations obtained, it can be concluded that 75.2% of students have been able to do it well. 3. Skills in giving variations. The skills in giving variations consist of the following aspects: a) showing skills in the use of learning resources / learning media; b) produce interesting messages, c) involve students in the creation and use of learning resources / learning media. Based on the results of observations collected and analyzed, 77% of students participating in micro teaching

have been able to use the media well and 23% have not

do it optimally 4. Classroom Management Skills Based on the results of observations analyzed on class management skills which include the following aspects: a) Implementing learning according to competence, b) implementing learning according to the level of development, c) carrying out learning coherently, d) mastering the class, e) carry out contextual learning, f) carry out learning that allows the growth of positive habits, g) carry out learning according to the time allocated, h) emphasize the use of Indonesian as

an

introductory material for

learning,

i)

emphasize skills

learning

listening, speaking, reading and writing in a natural and integrated manner. From the observations it can be concluded that most of the students 76.4% of the micro teaching participants were able to manage the class well. 5. Questioning skills, guiding discussion and giving reinforcement These three skills include aspects, a) fostering

active student participation in

learning, b) responding positively to student participation, c) facilitating teacher-student and student-student interactions, d) showing an open attitude to student responses, e) shows a conducive interpersonal relationship, and f) fosters student joy and enthusiasm in learning.

Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

259

Based on the results of the observations obtained in the micro teaching activity, it shows that most of the 77.8% students have been able to apply these three skills well.

6. Closing Skills

From the results of the observations obtained and analyzed on the skills to close the lesson which includes the following aspects: a) monitoring the progress of learning, b) making a final assessment according to competence, c) reflecting or making a summary by involving students, d) carrying out follow-up actions by providing directions, activities, or assignments as part of remedies / enrichment, can be concluded that most of the 75.2% students participating in the micro teaching have been able to apply the skills of closing lessons well and some other students have not been able to do it to the maximum possible because they have not been able to make good use of time. E. CONCLUSION

Based on the results of observations that have been carried out and analyzed, it can be concluded that the teaching skills of students of the Indonesian Language and Literature Study Program in micro teaching are good. This can be seen from the majority of students (76%) out of 44 students who have been able to carry out basic teaching skills well during the micro teaching activity. The results obtained in the

basic teaching skills are skills

opening lessons, 74.6%, explaining skills 75.2%, skills giving variety, 77%, managing classes 76.4%, questioning skills, guiding discussions and giving reinforcement, 77.8% and skills closing lessons 75.2% . All skills are well done. The obstacles found in the performance of basic teaching skills carried out in micro teaching by sixth semester students were on each individual, such as lack of focus, nervousness and forgetfulness.

References De Porter, Bobbi, Mike Henacki. 2002. Quantum Teaching. Jakarta: kaifa Alma, Buchari. 2008. Professional Teachers Master the teaching methods and Skilled. Bandung: Alfabeta BR Hergenhahn and Matthew H. Olson, 2008. Theories of Learning: Jakarta: Kencana Prenada Media Group Linguistic Program UKM Language and Literature Position UNJ

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

Dadang Sukirman. 2012. Learning Micro Teaching. Jakarta: Directorate General of Islamic Education. Ministry of Religion, Ministry of National Education, 2006. Education Unit Level Curriculum, Jakarta: BSNP. Dryden, Gordon, Jeanette Vas. 2000. The Learning Revolution. Jakarta: Kaifa Dimyati, and Mudjiono. 1999. Learning and Learning. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta Ministry of Education and Culture of the Republic of Indonesia, 2013. Indonesian Language Self-Expression and Academic. Jakarta: State Polytechnic of Creative Media. Mulyasa, 2005, Becoming a Professional Teacher. Bandung: PT Remaja Rosdakarya _______, 2013. Curriculum Development and Implementation 2013. Bandung: PT Remaja Rosdakarya. Mursell, J and Nasution, S. 2012. Teaching Successfully. Jakarta: Earth Literacy. Ngaimun Naim. 2009. Become an inspirational teacher. Jogyakarta: Parera Student Library, Jod Daniel. 1986 Asking and Explaining Skills. Jakarta: Erlangga. Richard I. Arends, Learning to Teach, Learning to Teach: Yogyakarta, Student Library Syaiful Bahri. 2005. Teachers and Students in Educational Interaction: Jakarta, Rineka Cipta Jakarta State University. Academic Guidelines, Jakarta: FBS UNJ

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

260

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

261

THE ROLE OF LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE EDUCATION AS A HUMANITY INSTRUMENT25

Siti Ansoriyah, M.Pd.26

Introduction Education according to the SISDIKNAS Law no. 20 of 2003, is a conscious and planned effort to create an atmosphere of learning and the learning process so that students can develop their potential actively and have self-control, intelligence, skills in society, religious spiritual strength, personality and noble character. The Big Indonesian Dictionary explains that education comes from the word “educate” and gets affixes in the form of the prefix ‘pe’ and the suffix ‘an’ which means the process or method of educational actions. So the definition of education according to language is the change in behavior and attitudes of a person or group of people in an effort to mature humans through training and teaching. According to the Father of Indonesian Education, Ki Hadjar Dewantara,

25

Presented at the Seminar between the Nations of the Malaysian National University and the Jakarta State University. Lecturer at the Department of Indonesian Language and Literature, Jakarta State University.

26

Linguistics Program of Language and Literature Department, UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

262

and happiness to the fullest. Meanwhile, humanities education is an educational material that reflects human wholeness in helping humans to become more human, namely actualizing the existing potentials, so that finally a complete human being is formed, who has emotional maturity, moral maturity and spiritual maturity. In this case, one of them concerns the problem of humanities education in Indonesia which is considered a failure. This failure is marked by the lack of (not) polite and polite people who are educated, and especially the uneducated. Student behavior both in school and university circles continues to deteriorate. This paradigm shift for the younger generation has also occurred in various parts of the world. This indicates that the achievement of both cognition and affection is not optimal. (Sudarwan, 2006; 9). Wildawsky in Sudarwan argues that juvenile delinquency is caused by the complexity of contemporary social, cultural, political and social life. The crime variable in the youth environment (especially students) itself is too risky to be reduced only as a failure of humanities education. (Sudarwan, 2006; 10) However, experts in humanities education need to look at or examine how the real proof of the care and safety of future generations. Even though those who should be responsible are not experts in humanities education, but experts in that field should try to get a more objective answer. The statement that the social behavior of social life is getting poorer the objective interpretation needs to be addressed positively, by trying to build a good image for the world of humanities education. Humans live full of mysteries and dynamics of each. Even though there have been so many studies on humans, there are still many human secrets that have not been revealed. The discussion requires various approaches in various fields of science, namely religion, philosophy, and science. In addition, humans need help from others to understand themselves, especially through education. Religion In addition, human beings need the help of others to understand themselves, especially through education. Religion In addition, human beings need the help of others to understand themselves, especially through education. Religion

explained

that

humans were

created

by

Allah

in

all its

perfection. Humans are given a sense of mind so that with that reason they can get the Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Unit of UNJ

2015 Language and Literature Seminar

263

think. By thinking, humans are able to ask questions and solve problems. With reason too, humans are different from other creatures of Allah. Islam encourages humans to use their potential in a balanced manner. Excessive intellect drives humans to great material progress, but experiences emptiness in spiritual matters, so that humans are trapped in all self-destructive arrogance. In using his potentials, humans must become psycho-physical, cultured, and religious beings to maintain their capacity as the most noble creatures. Al-Quran affirms the quality and value of humans by using three kinds of terms which are interrelated, namely al-insan, an-nas, al-basyar, and bani adam. The view that states that humans are born as tabularasa what education will be, answers educational problems that are philosophical and must be answered philosophically (John Dewey in Sadulloh, 2007; 12). Education requires protective instruments, understanding, common direction in thoughts and actions, feelings of unity, and education for one’s own interests. (Sadulloh, 2007; 60).

There are basically two kinds of educational instruments , first, the actions of educators in carrying out the education and learning process (examples, praise, punishment, warnings, etc.), second, educational facilities or instruments in the form of teaching aids, learning media, and various educational information. In this case the function of language and literature in education is important. He emphasized that Indonesian language and literature are media or a means of fostering humanity. In this case, the problem is how the essence of humanity, the transformation of values ​​in humanity and the function of language and literature as instruments of humanity. Discussion 1. The

Nature of Humanity Humanism comes from Latin, humanist; human, and ism means understanding or flow.

Mangun Harjana said that the notion of humanism is a view that emphasizes human dignity and abilities. According to this view, humans have high dignity, are able to determine their own destiny and with their own strength are able to develop themselves the Linguistic Program of the UKM Language and Literature Position UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

and fulfilling obedience itself is able to develop themselves and fulfill the fullness of their existence to be complete (Mangun Harjana, 1997). As a living being, it is born, grows, matures, reproduces, ages and dies. Uniqueness as a living being (in a positive sense) has biological, psychological characteristics, good potential, intelligent, caring and creative. With the existence of humanism, human beings are aware of the dignity and worth of humans as spiritual beings. Spiritual ethics underlies humans to be responsible for life in the world. As individual, social, religious and cultural beings, humans can express themselves in various forms of art, literature, film, verbal and nonverbal languages ​​which are more concrete than the sciences, even philosophy. Humans as individual, social and religious creatures, sometimes humans must defend individual rights and obligations but cannot reject the realities of social life. Human self-respect determines how to think and behave. A person has a conception that he is noble in the eyes of others, he will tend to carry his glory in his daily behavior. In humans, answers to various problems are buried but they are not aware of it. Humans need other people to help express, give birth to ideas that are inside and outside of themselves. Whereas humans as social beings, humans cannot live alone, they must unite with society. The awareness of living in society generates the spirit of life and activities with others so that there is a sense of humanity, association, friendship, feelings of mutual affection and love. Humans as religious creatures, which is contained in the letter Al-Hujuraat verse 13, reveals that humans were created from male and female, made into tribes, nationalities to know each other. Surely the most noble person beside His Robb is a godly person. The verse states that humans as social creatures as well as religious creatures, meaning that humans must live together and interact, not destroying other societies and cultures. Humanity is not static but is in continuous process. This humanity has an actual subject for dynamic human knowledge and continuously perfects the Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ.

264

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

265

further process quality. Humans are a unity of various elements (biological, psychic, psychosocial, creative, sense, intention, etc.) which unite and process, from the lowest process to the highest and most complex processes. If the initial stage is disturbed, then it will be disturbed. Conversely, a higher stage will raise a lower stage. Thanks to rational abilities, humans are driven to discover new renewal, morals, intelligence, caring, and creativity. The question that often arises is what is human life for? akseology addresses the issue of value, meaning, meaning, function and benefits. Philosophically, humans live to improve the quality and meaning of life itself,

(1)

biological needs: breathing, eating, drinking, sex, etc. (2) Security needs: personal security, work, family, health, etc. (3) The need for esteem (the need to love and be loved) friendship, family, intimacy. (4) The need for self-respect: respected, valued, recognized, accepted its existence. (5) The need for self-actualization: creativity, morals, spontaneity, inner satisfaction, etc. In addition, humans have four needs, namely to live, to learn, and to leave legacy (Covey, 2004: 64-93). (1) to foster the quality of life, humans need intelligence, (2) to develop mentally, humans learn so that they have mental intelligence, (3) to love, humans have the power of the heart (feelings) to produce emotional intelligence (4) to inherit life, humans learn spiritual power so as to produce spiritual intelligence, with this intelligence humans can create, think creatively and innovatively. (b) Serving God To serve God means carrying out all His commands and staying away from all His prohibitions, based on one’s own religious beliefs. Serving means not UNJ Language and Literature Unit Linguistics Program

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

ignoring the interests of the world, but living life in the world as well as possible, for example: working, doing good to creatures, working, worshiping according to God’s provisions. 2. Humanity Affection Various problems are the richness and complexity of human affective (Leahy, 1989: 82) towards nature, it is not enough to just look at it, but further people want to explore it, pay attention, move, understand, express and so on. Likewise, humans can reach the complex and abstract, to the level of love or hate, awareness of responsibility, justice and abstract expectations. A. Building Humanity Based on religious norms, education laws, and language laws that function as sources of law, affirms that people who have succeeded are people who can build good, intelligent, caring and creative personalities (1) Good personality Based on psychology, Gordon Allport stated that personality as an organization (various psychological and physical aspects) is a structure and at the same time process. So, personality is something that can change. Allport explicitly said, personality regularly grows and undergoes changes. (Wikipedia.com) meanwhile the word good means intelligent, polite and courteous language, and has a commendable behavior. Behavior that is based on a good paradigm will be easily accepted by other people, communities or other nations. This means that this behavior will make it easier for him to mutually cooperate with other people, communities or other nations.

Linguistics Program of UKM Language and Literature Position UNJ

266

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

Able to assess themselves realistically; able to assess yourself for what it is about the strengths and weaknesses, physically, knowledge, skills and so on.

able to realistically assess the situation; can face the situation or condition of life that he is experiencing realistically and is willing to accept it naturally, does not expect that life condition to be perfect.

Able to evaluate the performance obtained realistically, can evaluate the results obtained and witness it rationally, not to be arrogant, arrogant or have a supriority complex, when obtaining high performance or success in life. If he fails, he does not react with frustration, but with an optimistic attitude.

Accept responsibility, that is, have confidence in his ability to overcome the problems of life he faces.

Independence, having an independent nature in the way they think, and act, able to make decisions, direct and develop themselves and adapt to the norms that apply in their environment.

Can control emotions, feel comfortable with their emotions, can deal with situations of frustration, depression, or stress positively or constructively, not destructive (destructive)

Goal-oriented, can formulate goals in every activity and life based on careful consideration (rational), not on the basis of force from outside, and trying to achieve goals by developing personality (insight), knowledge and skills.

Outwardly oriented (extroverted), respectful, empathetic towards others, has concern for situations or environmental problems and is flexible in thinking, appreciating and judging others like himself, feeling comfortable and open to others, not allowing himself to be used for become victims of others and sacrifice others, because of his disappointment.

Social acceptance, willing to participate actively in social activities and have a friendly attitude in dealing with other people.

Having a philosophy of life, directing his life based on a philosophy of life that is rooted in his religious beliefs.

Linguistics Program for Language and Literature Department, UNJ

267

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

Happy, life situations are colored with happiness, which is supported by the factors of achievement (achievement), acceptance (acceptance), and affection (affection). Good is also related to ethics and morals, namely the study of good and bad

human behavior. Ethics (Greek Ethos, English, moral) can be defined as the study of what is good and what is bad, about moral rights and obligations, a collection of principles or values ​​relating to morals, the value of knowing right and wrong held by society ( KBBI) Philosophically, ethics is a schematic and methodical study of moral teaching. Ethics as a science seeks to find a rational understanding of what is morally good and bad. Ethics in national education functions to develop abilities and shape the character and personality of the nation with dignity in order to educate the nation’s life, aiming at developing the potential of students to become human beings who believe and fear the Almighty God, have noble character, are healthy, knowledgeable, competent, creative, independent and a democratic and responsible citizen (CHAPTER II article 3) in accordance with the vision of national education, the Ministry of National Education in 2025 will produce competitive Indonesians (insan kamil / insan purna), which means intelligent people comprehensively, namely spiritually intelligent, emotionally intelligent, socially intelligent, intellectually intelligent, etc. Personality indicators both in language and literature can communicate creativity with popular scientific language so that creativity users can understand it, in accordance with the potential understanding of users of their creativity products. (2) Intelligent intelligent personality means the ability to create new creativity based on the ability to utilize (1) self-competence, education, experience, knowledge, insight, expertise, etc. (2) social potential, culture, traditions, customs, social systems, civilizations, etc. (3) natural potential: flora, fauna, natural resources, etc. (4) the current situation: the demands of various needs, challenges, and opportunities faced by the current situation, for example the latest technology, the latest ideas or thoughts, etc., this means that intelligent people will not run out of new creativity. Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ

268

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

(3) Caring Caring Personality, namely willing to sacrifice for others, social, environmental, other potentials. This means that building character can also be interpreted as building morals, ethics (good behavior), intelligence and caring. One example of a caring personality indicator is behaving sincerely to make people happy or help others regardless of who, what, and how. Building character is a synergistic process of understanding and developing self-potential, developing and understanding potential with others, relationships, nature, and developing potential relationships with God, so that it can make itself useful for others, for others, nature and other communities. (4) creative personality Every human being has basic potential that can be developed optimally, namely self-potential, social potential, natural potential, potential for religion and the potential to face the current situation. This can be expanded by creating new creativity that is not only beneficial for oneself but can be beneficial (problematic) with other people or society. Language and Literature Education as Humanity Instruments 1. Functions and Benefits of Learning Language and Literature Language shows the nation, the meaning of the sentence is that the language user is a symbol of his personality and a symbol of his character. People who can think clearly, systematically, are sincere, speak politely, and behave politely can be identified by the language they use. Apart from this, the use of the right language style can reflect in what atmosphere the language is communicated, whether in a relaxed, serious, or official atmosphere.

Linguistics Program of Language and Literature Unit of UNJ

269

Seminar on Language and Literature 2015

The functions of Indonesian language and literature can be divided into 2 parts, namely the function of language in general and in particular. In language literature, the general formulation of language functions is 1. As a tool to express feelings or express oneself. Able to express images, intentions, ideas and feelings. Through language can express openly everything that is implied in the heart and mind. There are 2 elements that encourage self-expression, namely: 

In order to attract the attention of others to themselves.

 The

desire to free yourself from all emotional stress

2. As a means of communication. Language is a channel of one’s intentions that generates feelings and allows people to work together. When using language as communication, it means that readers or listeners become the main target of one’s attention. Language that is said to be communicative because it is general. As social beings who need other people as communication partners, humans use two ways of communicating, namely verbal and nonverbal. Verbally communicating is done using language tools / media (spoken and written), while nonverbal communication is done using media in the form of various symbols, signals, codes, and sounds such as traffic signs, sirens after that are translated into human language. 3. As a tool for social integration and adaptation. When adapting to a social environment, a person will choose the language used depending on the situation and conditions at hand. Someone will use non-standard language when talking with friends and use standard language when talking to parents or those who are respected, by mastering the language of a nation makes it easier for someone to mingle and adapt to other nations. 4. As a means of social control. Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ mastering the language of a nation makes it easier for a person to mix and adapt with other nations. 4. As a Social control tool. UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ mastering the language of a nation makes it easier for a person to mix and adapt with other nations. 4. As a Social control tool. UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

270

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

Social control can be applied to self and society, for example textbooks, religious lectures, scientific speeches, participating in discussions and public service announcements. Another example that illustrates the function of language as a tool of social control that is very easy to apply is as a means of reducing anger. Writing is a very effective way to relieve anger. The function of language in particular: 1. Establishing relationships in everyday life. Humans are social beings who cannot be separated from communication relationships with other social creatures. Communication that takes place can use formal and informal language. 2. Creating Art (Literature). Language that can be used to express feelings through artistic media, such as poetry, poetry, prose, etc. Sometimes the language used has connotative or implied meanings. In this case, a deep understanding is needed in order to know the meaning to be conveyed. 3. Studying ancient languages. By studying ancient languages, you will be able to know events or incidents in the past. To anticipate events that may or may occur again in the future, or just to fulfill curiosity about the background of something. For example, to find out the origin of a culture that can be traced through ancient manuscripts or the discovery of inscriptions. 4. Exploiting science and technology. The existence of a soul and curiosity possessed by humans, as well as the mind and mind that God has given to humans, then humans will always develop various things to achieve a better life. Knowledge possessed by humans will

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

271

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

always documented so that other humans can also use it and preserve it for the good of humanity itself 2. Superior Behavior Language and literature builds superior behavior, behavior that in education (learning) is excited or serious about new ideas, fully involved during interaction both thoughts , feelings and actions, being sincerely interested in the object of study, being serious about the object (topic of discussion), being curious about the needs of the reader or listener it faces, taking the initiative to help others and doing more than expected so that people will feel satisfied with their behavior. Willing to open up so as to produce interpersonal friendships, between speakers or writers, and listeners or readers who are not only limited to transactions, has a sense of humor and is open to others, and is relatable, responsive, can respond to situations appropriately, shows proper empathy, has a sincere desire to make other people happy, meet his needs, and help solve his problems. (Bacon & Pugh, 2003: 139-142) in Intermediate “Ethics in Scientific Forum,” 2006: 8). The success of education makes students better. Have commendable ethics and morals and have excellent behavior in the learning process and developing their potential. This will be more meaningful if it can be applied in life in society not only in the scope of school or campus. In essence, a person’s success is determined more by his creative abilities outside of campus. 3. Standard Language Standard language is a variety of languages ​​used based on language rules or laws. A variety of standard languages ​​must be used by students in schools in the learning process, both in Indonesian language lessons and other subjects. Therefore, the language of the students is commonly used as a benchmark for the use of standard languages. On the other hand, unlearned people tend to disobey language rules. Therefore, the variety of school languages ​​is also called the variety of standard languages ​​(Alwi, 1993) Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ. unlearned people tend to disobey language rules. Therefore, the variety of school languages ​​is also called the variety of standard languages ​​(Alwi, 1993) Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ. unlearned people tend to disobey language rules. Therefore, the variety of school languages ​​is also called the variety of standard languages ​​(Alwi, 1993) Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ.

272

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

The personality function (character) of the standard spoken language users will appear when involved in conversations between nations. Through spoken language we can know whether he uses a foreign accent or a standard accent. Involvement in conversations with allied nations such as Malaysia, Brunei Darussalam, or people from certain areas who rarely (never) speak Indonesian, their personality can be identified, where the person is from. In terms of characterization, body posture, skin color is difficult to distinguish, but through the accent / dialect used one can identify whether someone is Indonesian or not (Lopoliwa, 2006). The same thing can be witnessed in discussion meetings, seminars, questions and answers in official activities. Speakers are included in the educated category or not, it can be determined through the use of the standard language variety they use. Otherwise, the use of non-standard language variations (accent or regional pronunciation, subjective interpretation of meaning, foreignness) often creates ridicule, insults, ridicule, it can degrade his character or personality. B. Inhibiting Factor I.

Linguistic Behavior There are several alarming phenomena in language ethics, namely from

Research by Endro Sutrisno and Susi Harliani, language researchers at three leading dailies in East Java (in M. Ali Hisyam) states that (a) the use of language by the mass media is too vulgar so that it often does not pay attention to the ethics of polite and responsible language (for example, Idon ‘t care; that’s how troublesome) (2) the use of metaphors as a critical but subtle language medium, now tends to be abandoned by many media, (3) the use of expressions by the New Order as a wrapper for a paradox and pseudo reality, is beginning to be disliked by the public (for example, corruption – abusing one’s position, being dismissed, detained-secured), (4) the use of silencing rhetoric to expedite the development projects (in the name of) the development that the New Order regime was aggressively promoting began to be criticized by the public,(5) in this dimension (psychology) the media has not infrequently sided with and even not shy away from acting as an agitative and vile “killer” machine, (6) undeniably, raids on domestic civilization with instant cultural products have immediately joined the UKM Linguistic Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

273

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

274

designing community communication patterns in such a free direction (in communication patterns) (7) the panoramic view of language vulgarism, further adding to the agenda of demands that have been loudly voiced by the public as the main consumer of the mass media (M. Ali Hisyam, 2007) 2. Feasibility of Teaching Disability The teacher / lecturer teaches in an attractive manner resulting in students being less (not) enthusiastic about learning. For this reason, the teaching staff should be adequately equipped to be able to teach well. By making it easier to get scholarships to continue education to a higher level, there are teaching trainings, workshops etc. 3. A Touch of Literature Literature lessons that contain moral, ethical, and humanities teachings are not touched by students.

in his work,

using double standards which benefit him by thinking double, speaking double, manipulating policies and authorities for the benefit of himself or his group.

Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Position UKM UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

Conclusion Language and literature education function as humanitarian instruments so that it is expected to be an effective means of building Indonesian people optimally, even though there are often some obstacles or obstacles. To make it happen, a national policy, serious guidance for educators, and adequate funds or infrastructure is needed. Reference Alwi, Hasan, et al. 1998. Indonesian Language Standard Grammar (third edition). Jakarta: Balai Pustaka Berten, K. 1994. Ethics. Second printing. Jakarta: Gramedia. Dingwall, William Orr. 1998. “The Biological Bases of Human Communicative Bihavior.” Florida: Harcout Brace Collage Publishing Hisyam, M. Ali. 2007. “Media, ethics and language vulgarism.” Downloaded 6-4-2015 Hardjana, Mangun. 1997. Isms from A to Z. Yogyakarta: Kanisius. Kridalaksana, harimurti. 1975. “Procedures for Standardization and National Language Development” in Teaching Language and Literature. No. 3 pp 7-14. Lapoliwa, Hanz. 2002. “Indonesian Standard Pronunciations”. Language and Literature Forum. Intermediate Language Center, Suwarsih. 2006. “Ethics in a Scientific Forum.” Jakarta: Directorate of Higher Education. Maslow, Abram. 1970. Motivation and Personality. New York: Harper & Row, Publisher Moeliono, Anton. 1975. “Characteristics of Standard Indonesian Language in Teaching Language and Literature. No.3. pp 2-6 Poedjawijata. 1982. Ethics: Philosophy of Behavior. Jakarta: Bina Literacy. Sadulloh, Uyoh. 2007. Introduction to Educational Philosophy. Bandung: Alfabeta. RI Law 2003, No. 20 on Education. Intermediate Language Center, Suwarsih. 2006. “Ethics in a Scientific Forum.” Jakarta: Directorate of Higher Education. Maslow, Abram. 1970. Motivation and Personality. New York: Harper & Row, Publisher Moeliono, Anton. 1975. “Characteristics of Standard Indonesian Language in Teaching Language and Literature. No.3. pp 2-6 Poedjawijata. 1982. Ethics: Philosophy of Behavior. Jakarta: Bina Literacy. Sadulloh, Uyoh. 2007. Introduction to Educational Philosophy. Bandung: Alfabeta. RI Law 2003, No. 20 on Education. Intermediate Language Center, Suwarsih. 2006. “Ethics in a Scientific Forum.” Jakarta: Directorate of Higher Education. Maslow, Abram. 1970. Motivation and Personality. New York: Harper & Row, Publisher Moeliono, Anton. 1975. “Characteristics of Standard Indonesian Language in Teaching Language and Literature. No.3. pp 2-6 Poedjawijata. 1982. Ethics: Philosophy of Behavior. Jakarta: Bina Literacy. Sadulloh, Uyoh. 2007. Introduction to Educational Philosophy. Bandung: Alfabeta. RI Law 2003, No. 20 on Education. Uyoh. 2007. Introduction to Educational Philosophy. Bandung: Alfabeta. RI Law 2003, No. 20 on Education. Uyoh. 2007. Introduction to Educational Philosophy. Bandung: Alfabeta. RI Law 2003, No. 20 on Education.

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

275

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

THE IDEA OF LINGUISTIC IMPERIALISM AND DIALEK NEGERI SEMBILAN: WHAT, WHY AND HOW

Idris Aman, Mohammad Fadzeli Jaafar & Norsimah Mat Awal

WHAT Linguistic imperialism is an idea that refers to the transfer of one dominant language to another human being. Traditionally, such transfers required military power, but in modern times, transfers are more likely to occur through economic power. Since language is part of culture, linguistic imperialism is often manifested in the context of cultural imperialism as well. In addition, the dominant cultural aspects are usually also transferred through language. The idea of ​​linguistic imperialism was put forward by Robert Phillipson a scholar of applied linguistics in his two books published in 1992 and 2010. The idea of ​​Phillipson linguistic imperialism was based on the notation of social theory of cultural hegemony. He analyzed the rhetoric of the British Council in promoting English to the rest of the world. This theory criticizes the history of the spread and dominance of English as an international language against the background of the post-colonial era in India, Pakistan, Uganda, Zimbabwe etc. (Phillipson 1992; 2010). Although Phillipson’s idea was criticized, we wanted to take advantage of it loosely, especially in relation to the impact of the power of cultural influence. In our opinion, in the context of Malaysia, the idea of ​​linguistic imperialism is appropriate to be applied to some extent with the situation experienced by the Negeri Sembilan dialect. Why the state is a state (state) on the west coast of the Malay Peninsula. The people of this state have received cultural influences from outside, namely Minangkabau, Sumatra. Hendon (1966: xi) named “colonists from Sumatra” to the Minangkabau immigrants. To this day, a large number of residents of Negeri Sembilan still practice the perpatih customary social and cultural system originating from Minangkabau, Sumatra, such as the value system, family, politics, economy, customs, and lining (Nordin 1982). As a result, there is a misunderstanding about the Negeri Sembilan dialect. Some people think that the Negeri Sembilan dialect is also a stereotype of the Minangkabau dialect. Mohd Pilus UKM Linguistic Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ As a result, there is a misunderstanding about the Negeri Sembilan dialect. Some people think that the Negeri Sembilan dialect is also a stereotype of the Minangkabau dialect. Mohd Pilus UKM Linguistic Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ As a result, there is a misunderstanding about the Negeri Sembilan dialect. Some people think that the Negeri Sembilan dialect is also a stereotype of the Minangkabau dialect. Mohd Pilus UKM Linguistic Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

276

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

(1978: 586) for example, notes “The current Negeri Sembilan dialect is a cultural aspect that is heavily influenced by the Minangkabau dialect.” Asmah (1985: 295) wrote “the dialect that covers the area of ​​Negeri Sembilan is a dialect brought from Minangkabau.” In our opinion, this stereotype is also widespread among outsiders of Negeri Sembilan. The situation is similar to the misconception about the property inheritance system among the people of Negeri Sembilan. Such a phenomenon seems to show that the Negeri Sembilan dialect is experiencing linguistic imperialism or hegemony of the Minangkabau language. Is that really a stereotype? Is it true that the Negeri Sembilan dialect is experiencing the phenomenon of linguistic imperialism of the Minangkabau language due to the dominant influence of Minangkabau culture? Does Negeri Sembilan not have its own linguistic identity? In our view, this question needs to be investigated and the answers sought scientifically and empirically. The research hypotheses are: a. Negeri Sembilan dialects differ in phonology, lexical and specific morphosyntax from the Minangkabau language b. Negeri Sembilan dialect is ‘free of imperialism’ Minangkabau language c. Linguistics is a strong cultural trait that maintains the identity of Negeri Sembilan, even though other cultural traits are ‘colonized’. The objectives of the study are: a. Identify and describe the phonological, lexical and morphosyntactic differences of Negeri Sembilan dialects with Minangkabau language b. Based on Objective 1, formulate the status of the influence of the Minangkabau language on the Negeri Sembilan dialect c. Based on Objectives 1 and 2, describe and explain the idea of ​​linguistic imperialism and identity issues in the context of the Negeri Sembilan dialect. HOW This study is a sociolinguistic study related to the phenomenon of ‘linguistic imperialism’ and identity by making the Negeri Sembilan dialect a subject matter. As a sociolinguistic study, then it requires field research by involving the speakers of the language as informants. The basis of research is for testing and validation. Informants To achieve the objectives of the study, three categories of informants were involved, namely Negeri Sembilan dialect speakers, Minangkabau speakers in Malaysia, and Minangkabau speakers in their home district – Padang, Sumatra. The criteria for the informant selected must be a permanent resident, male and female in the area and aged 40 years and above. However, gender, age and socioeconomic status variables were not taken into account in the analysis. A total of 30 informants tried to be obtained based on the criteria stated above. Breakdown of informants by category of at least 15, 7 and 8 people respectively. Based on the views of Chambers & Trudgill (1980: 59) and the objectives of this study, the number of informants does not need to be large because this study emphasizes the use of real language. In addition, the number of linguistic units tested also appeared several times. The use of the actual language is then tested according to the hypothesis. The Hypothesis Proof Test Method is performed through the use of the informant’s actual linguistic variables in three linguistic styles, that is, say word lists, lexical tests, and chat. Observations within the three language style ranges are important to ensure that actual usage behavior is obtained in a semi-formal, as well as authentic context (Labov 1972, Chambers & Trudgill 1980, Idris 2014). The word list is based on the latest Swadesh word list published in 1971 (wikipedia). The Swadesh word list that has 100 words translated into Malay but with innovation with a unique sound estimate Negeri Sembilan dialect based Idris et al (SMEs in Linguistics Program Language and Literature Department UNJ The word list is based on the latest Swadesh word list published in 1971 (wikipedia). The Swadesh word list that has 100 words translated into Malay but with innovation with a unique sound estimate Negeri Sembilan dialect based Idris et al (SMEs in Linguistics Program Language and Literature Department UNJ The word list is based on the latest Swadesh word list published in 1971 (wikipedia). The Swadesh word list that has 100 words translated into Malay but with innovation with a unique sound estimate Negeri Sembilan dialect based Idris et al (SMEs in Linguistics Program Language and Literature Department UNJ

277

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

278

press) (see Appendix A). This list of words is used to test and validate aspects of pronunciation, in addition to testing lexical aspects. Informants are asked to say the words listed one by one in their respective dialects / languages. The lexical word list is 100 unique words and archaic dialects of Negeri Sembilan. This list was innovated from the list of Norsimah et al (2013) and Idris et al (in press). The word list of Norsimah et al (2013) is a list of archaic words of the Negeri Sembilan dialect, while Idris et al (in press) is a family nickname in the Negeri Sembilan dialect. This lexical list formed is used to test the existence and understanding of lexical aspects. This lexical test is only for Minangkabau informants in both areas. Informants were asked if they knew of the lexical existence and knew its meaning. Conversational language style is used to allow the speaker to trigger a complete sentence or utterance. Topics of conversation revolve around informants’ views on the weather, daily activities or the special places where they live. In addition, to get more natural data, informants are also invited to tell stories. The topic of the story is related to an unforgettable experience. These two approaches are used specifically to obtain morphosyntactic aspect data as well as complement pronunciation and lexical aspects. See Figure 1. Say the Word List The topic of the story is related to an unforgettable experience. These two approaches are used specifically to obtain data on morphosynthetic aspects in addition to completing the designation and lexical aspects. See Rajah 1. Say a List of Words The topic of the story is related to an unforgettable experience. These two approaches are used specifically to obtain data on morphosynthetic aspects in addition to completing the designation and lexical aspects. See Rajah 1. Say a List of Words

Talking / Storytelling

Lexical Test Language Style

Figure 1: Testing Language Style Research Process The research process begins with a familiar introduction and statement of intent. Then, the researchers asked the informants to mention in their own dialect / language a list of words. Furthermore, for Minangkabau speakers, they were also asked about the existence and understanding of the lexical list. Finally, the informant was invited to chat and tell a story. All use of the actual language is recorded audio. Analysis Procedures Data analysis begins by listening to the language use of each informant from the recordings of the three language styles one by one. For word list style, pronunciation coding tables (Table 1) are provided respectively for three categories of informants. To facilitate the coding of the realization of each informant’s name, one pronunciation of the norm (N) for each dialect is identified through observations of data and literature. During the hearing process, the norm pronunciation is marked /, while the non-norm pronunciation (B) is marked 0 in the coding form. Non-norm sound is also transcribed in the form. Then the phonological realization subgroup of the list is identified. The general pattern of a sound realization is calculated based on regularity. Further, a comparative analysis of pronunciation aspects between dialects is conducted and discussed. Table 1: Lexical Pronunciation Coding Form & Realization My Pronunciation NB fast NB twigs N Then the phonological realization subgroup of the list is identified. The general pattern of a sound realization is calculated based on regularity. Further, a comparative analysis of pronunciation aspects between dialects is conducted and discussed. Table 1: Lexical Pronunciation Coding Form & Realization My Pronunciation NB fast NB twigs N Then the phonological realization subgroup of the list is identified. The general pattern of a sound realization is calculated based on regularity. Further, a comparative analysis of pronunciation aspects between dialects is conducted and discussed. Table 1: Lexical Pronunciation Coding Form & Realization My Pronunciation NB fast NB twigs N

NS / Minangkabau dialect of Malaysia / Padang, Indonesia * Informant 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

9

UKM Linguistic Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

10

Fri

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

279

B ….

For the second test, a lexical coding form is provided (Table 2). The lexical status is coded W for existence and coincides with the meaning in the Negeri Sembilan dialect and X for non-existent / ignorant, and 0 for exist but different meanings. Information status is marked with / in the relevant field. For status 0, other meanings are also recorded in the coding form. The general pattern of lexical existence is calculated based on percentage values. Normal threshold value is used for interpreting the findings. Table 2: NS Lexical Lexical Coding Form & Meaning of ‘baling’ is ‘rice container’ …

Status WX 0 WX 0 WX 0

1

2

Minangkabau Informant Malaysia / Padang, Indonesia * 3 4 5 6 7 8

9

10

Fri

For the third exam, each informant’s conversation was transcribed word for word. Informant and utterance categories are coded systematically. Each utterance is then analyzed into several morphosyntactic analyzes, such as morphological realization, lexicalization, and sentence structure. Then, the data of each aspect of linguistics is grouped according to two main categories of informants, namely Negeri Sembilan dialect speakers and Minangkabau language. The findings from the analysis are then elaborated and explained. EPILOGUE We are of the view that the basic tenets of this research are scientific and empirical procedures. Thus, the research method applied as described above is believed to be able to provide answers and enlightenment (insight) to the hypotheses of this study. Research NOTES FRGS / 2/2014 / SSI01 / UKM / 01/1

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

References Asmah Haji Omar. 1985. Lineage Malay. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. Chambers, JK & Trudgill, P. 1980. Dialectology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Hendon, RS 1966. The Phonology and Morphology of Ulu Muar Malay (Kuala Pilah District, Negeri Sembilan, Malaya). New Haven: Yale University. Idris Aman, Mohammad Fadzeli Jaafar & Norsimah Mat Awal. (in press). Negeri Sembilan Dialect: Uniqueness, Attitude and Understanding. Bangi, Selangor: UKM Publishers. Idris Aman. 2014. Social dialects. In Idris Aman & Mohammed Azlan Mis (eds.). Language Variations. Bangi, Selangor: UKM Publishers. Hlm. 39-55. Labov, W. 1972. Sociolinguistics Patterns. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Mohd Pilus Yunus. 1978. Negeri Sembilan dialect and dialect of Malay: A Comparison of Angle phonology. Language Council. 8. 586-597. Nordin Strait. 1982. Perpatih Indigenous Social System. Kuala Lumpur: Utusan Publications & Distributions Sdn. Bhd. Norsimah Mat Awal, Idris Aman & Mohammad Fadzeli Jaafar. 2013. Attitude, Understanding and Identity of Negeri Sembilan Malay Dialect Speakers. Pertanika Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities. 21 (S): 99-118. Phillipson, R. 2010. Linguistic Imperialism Continued. New York: Routledge. Phillipson. R. 1992. Linguistic Imperialism. Oxford: OUP.

SMEs Linguistics Program Language and Literature Department UNJ

280

Seminar Language and Literature in 2015

saying ‘Parasites’ and Reason Malay: Semantic Analysis inquisitive

Nor Hashimah Jalaluddin

The introduction of language and culture is a reflection of the common sense of its society. That is why the phrase ‘know the language’ appears which means know how to use the language in the right place and time. The relationship between thought and language is described by Asmah Haji Omar (1986) as “human beings use language symbols to record their thoughts and experiences”. This is in line with the opinion of Nor Hashimah Jalaluddin (2003) who said that through communication, we can know his attitude and thoughts. Language culture is closely related to life, and humans have the ability to rationally perceive nature and transmit ideas in other forms of language. One of the symbolic systems used by the community of speakers to convey their thoughts is through figurative language. Figurative language is a language whose meaning is not one hundred percent carried by the meaning of the words that establish it, which if the words are defined one by one according to the meaning of the dictionary. Thus in figurative language, a word, phrase or sentence has a different meaning than the literal meaning of the words that establish it (Asmah Hj. Omar, 2005). Figurative language is found in all languages ​​in the world including ethnic languages ​​which mostly use natural and cultural elements as the core of the UKM Linguistic Program of the Department of Language and Literature UNJ phrases or sentences have different meanings than the literal meaning of the words that establish them (Asmah Hj. Omar, 2005). Figurative language is found in all languages ​​in the world including ethnic languages ​​which mostly use natural and cultural elements as the core of the UKM Linguistic Program of the Department of Language and Literature UNJ phrases or sentences have different meanings than the literal meaning of the words that establish them (Asmah Hj. Omar, 2005). Figurative language is found in all languages ​​in the world including ethnic languages ​​which mostly use natural and cultural elements as the core of the UKM Linguistic Program of the Department of Language and Literature UNJ

281

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

analogy. The elements of nature can be linked as a discipline of knowledge on moral values ​​and ethical principles on human relations and the environment. One of the community’s allegorical medium is through proverbs.

Although considered a metaphor proverb off but it is not so with the Malay language. We find that knowledge is constantly evolving as well as proverbs. In linguistics there are three adequacies that must be adhered to to ensure that the study is appropriate, namely observation (observatory), descriptive (descriptive) and explanatory (explanatory). Often linguistic studies are complemented by sustainable theories. The same goes for BM research. There needs to be a good theory to explain the phenomenon of language convincingly. The question is whether we are enough with the bribery theory given by the west. There is no need for us to move in our own mold. This was once asserted by Azhar (1993) that we have our own mold to evaluate our own language. Zimmermann (2012) says:

A scientific theory is not the end result of the scientific method; theories can be proven or rejected, just like hypotheses. Theories can be improved or modified as more information is gathered so that the accuracy of the prediction becomes greater over time. In this case we find that there is an existing theory we can improve by highlighting what we have found in our language research. We have to observe, collect data, record, test, construct hypotheses, test again and finally form a theory. It may not have reached the stage of creating new theories but changing the approach so that it is more compatible with the nature of our language is reasonable. Here the construction of knowledge can be done. What is the purpose of the change? None other than to ensure the foundation of knowledge continues to occur so that it is always fresh.

in planning, work mechanisms, etc. as a basis for

implementing something (Dictionary of the Hall Edition 4: www.prpm.dbp.gov.my). In the context of language research these elements are important for the preservation of the language itself. Why the need for preservation? It is to keep the language alive and relevant. How in the context of figurative language can we generally breathe new life to continue to be relevant to study?

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

282

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

This paper will focus on proverbs that I claim are not dead yet. Proverbs will be analyzed according to an inquisitive semantic approach. Inquisitive semantics is a semantic approach that combines the data, theory, cognitive and philosophy of the proverb itself (Nor Hashimah 2014). From here will Terserlahlah minds of the Malays. Inquisitive semantics is an improvement from the script semantic approach (which interprets meaning based on observations and documents prescriptively), semantic resonance (interpreting meaning based on data, theory and cognitive). What is a proverb? A proverb is a sentence or group of words that is organized and contains a specific meaning or meaning. The order he said was short, but fit the meaning he wanted to convey. A pleasant arrangement of words, this wise and precise meaning has been the talk of the town since down the line. The nature of the Malays are gentle and courtly cause they express feelings through words simbiolik, beautiful and organized. Proverbs come from the observations and life experiences of the common people and scholars (Sapinah Haji Said, 2013). In this paper proverbs will be processed according to the cross-reference framework (RRS 1986) sub-concept in Relevancy theory (1985, 1995)

Parasite Plants Living organisms that consume food from other organisms are known as parasites (Mokhamad Isma’il, 2009). Parasitic plants are defined as plants that depend on the life of part or all of their life as a source of energy for other plants. This plant will indirectly cause the plant on which it is riding (the host plant) will experience a lack of energy due to having to share with the plant that acts as the passenger. This parasitic plant has a houstorium whose roots act to penetrate the layers of floem and xylem on the tree on which it rests. Like the proverb “give calves to thighs” is a suitable parable for the relationship of parasitic plants that act as passengers with this host plant.

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

283

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

284

full source of energy to the host plant is referred to as “obligate parasite” (true parasite). Facultative parasites usually still have photosynthetic organs that function normally as parasitic plants. Examples of plants in the category of facultative parasite is “mistletoe” .Sample for obligate parasites of plants (true parasites) also is a

rope

daughter

(Cuscuta),

parasites

and

lotus

(Rafflesia)

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parasitic_plant).

Parasitic plants and Malay proverb proverb Most times it will not run out of natural and cultural elements as the proverb itself born of observation and experience life of a society that created it. Among the natural elements that are often found in proverbs is to use plants as objects of allusion. What will be alluded to is sometimes closely related to the plant itself, either through the nature, category and general habits of the plant. What is interesting here is, how the old people who processed the proverb can use

certain elements

found

in the plant

and

interpret it in the form of words for a specific purpose. What is to be revealed in this study is a proverb that uses parasitic plants as a symbol and object to refer to a concept or a message to be conveyed. Nor Hashimah (2014) has proposed an inquisitive semantic approach in interpreting the meaning of proverbs. Example; Small palms, nyiru I tadahkan –

Want to get as much as possible; very

pleased (www.prpm.dpb.gov.my)

UKM Linguistic Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

Description according to inquisitive semantics (combining data, theory, cognitive, and the intellect of its speakers).

i.

The proverb means to receive something greater or very honored to receive. This is the meaning in the first stage – like the meaning of a written script.

ii.

Explain the cognitive of the speaker – why the palms and palms. The palms are the physical limbs that can be used to hold a gift in small quantities. Why milk. Nyiru is like a small tray used to serve, stuff or even serve. It has many uses. Compare the palms with the palms. The palms are smaller in size than the nymphs although both can function to swell. So even though the gift is small, the recipient is still happy. It can be associated with image size; i.e. the big ones are good the small ones are not good. It also describes the feelings of the recipient.

This analysis is considered incomplete. It stops at the cognitive level. Cognitive and mind are two different things. Cognitive is more of an abstract process in the mind after the production of output in the form of concrete thinking. This concrete thought we call common sense that reflects the intellectuality of the speaker. We should be able to associate

the SME Department of Linguistics Language and Literature UNJ

285

Seminar Language and Literature 2015

286

by reason of the Malay community. Why milk is chosen as an object to replace the palm of the hand. iii.

This third step is called inquiry semantics related to the ‘explore’ method. We can then look for the answer ‘what why, how’ until the speaker’s common sense stands out. Nyiru is a tool for spitting. Usually you received in the community is rice. The purpose of mending is to separate the rice from the empty after the rice is pounded.

After receiving, the

husk (rice husk) will be separated from the rice. iv.

The relationship with the Malay common sense: rice have fuzz departure. Empty / husk is hard and clay and inedible. Even so, this husk is not thrown away just like that, but is used as a burning element such as burning a pumpkin. It is a good burner. This can be analogous to the way we receive people. What is given will be ‘received’, filtered, pondered so that what is to be received is completely clean. There may be gifts that have the element of ‘miang’ that can hurt, there are hard and clay that can be harmful. So many considerations must be made before receiving a gift from someone.

v.

What is the philosophy behind it? This proverb teaches that one should think / consider first before accepting any gift. Not everything that comes is good or bad. The husk is a burner but the burn is covert by only emitting smoke but at the same time will destroy what is burned. It can be associated with the proverb ‘fire in the chaff’. Silent burning just by emitting smoke can be likened to something that has an implicit meaning. That is where we can relate the function of sowing earlier.

vi.

So neat is the selection of objects between palms, nyiru, husks and evil intentions are neatly summed up based on human observation with nature. The previous societies were more environmentally friendly, friendly with nature and indirectly made the world an eco-safe system to occupy. The composition of the husk is as follows: UKM Linguistic Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

287

The above analysis example proves that language study is not just a surface study. There are many levels of analysis that can be made so that it can be linked to science and thus make this study multidisciplinary. When society and policy makers can be introduced to this kind of method, then they feel that there is indeed knowledge behind this proverb and other figurative language. Figurative language is not created casually but a perfect blend of knowledge including including the eco-system of the object discussed earlier.

This is the way of research that contains elements of

engineering that can preserve BM as a language that remains relevant (Nor Hashimah 2015). UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

Next we examine the examples of proverbs and parasites. Among the parasitic plant found in the Malay proverb is willow and parasites. The following is the proverbial data obtained from the database http://malaycivilization.ukm.my/.

1. Dedalu Proverbs Dedalu fire perched on a tree: perched on a stem, dead stem, perched on a twig, broken twig. Affected Values; affected Meaning

Bad people, wherever they go, will bother good people

Proverbs Like a fire that lands on a tree Affected wood; affected Value Meaning Bad people, wherever they go, will bother good people

Proverb willow trunk Meeting Value Meaning Not to be parted saying willow fire Hitching The Meaning of Life ride but spoil other people If you look at some of the proverbs that makes “willow” as an object of representation, what is interesting here is the wisdom of the Malays in the old days to process concepts ‘ride’ carried by this plant and make it a proverb that refers to the meaning of “ride and harm others” as described through the proverbial fire. Not only that, this proverb also refers to the “value” that shows the value of intimacy (close) as described by the proverb “dedalu di batang”. The proverb that uses dedalu as an object also leads to the meaning of “affected” as highlighted through the proverb “Dedalu”

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

288

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

289

fire perched on a tree: perched on a stem, dead stem, perched on a twig, a broken twig ”and“ Like a fire extinguisher perched on a tree ”. If viewed from the aspect of meaning, the proverb means bad people when associating with good people, the good will surely be ruined. As mentioned earlier, the dedalu tree or known as Salix tetrasperma Roxb is a plant that is categorized as a type of parasitic plant. This plant usually lives on the branches of trees and can not live without its host. This parasitic plant has more than 320 species worldwide. This dedalu tree is often seen riding on fruit trees such as rambutan trees, jering trees, guava trees, mango trees and pulasan trees (Hean Chooi Ong, 2007). This plant also rests on the trunks of other plants with the root part entering the root trunk and absorbing water and food from the tree. In many situations, the existence of this dedalu tree will cause the tree branches to dry and eventually the tree will die if at a serious level (http://animhosnan.blogspot.com). Also see the meaning and concept of “willow” is featured in the Malay proverb, also based on the corpus of data. The following are the concepts and meanings brought by “dedalu” based on the concordance search results of the corpus data: 1. the existence of this dedalu tree will cause the tree branches to dry out and eventually the tree will die if at a serious level (http://animhosnan.blogspot.com). Also see the meaning and concept of “willow” is featured in the Malay proverb, also based on the corpus of data. The following are the concepts and meanings brought by “dedalu” based on the concordance search results of the corpus data: 1. the existence of this dedalu tree will cause the tree branches to dry out and eventually the tree will die if at a serious level (http://animhosnan.blogspot.com). Also see the meaning and concept of “willow” is featured in the Malay proverb, also based on the corpus of data. The following are the concepts and meanings brought by “dedalu” based on the concordance search results of the corpus data: 1.

The concept of ‘riding’

i.

… we are seen increasingly barren by the grip of outside influences, especially Western culture exactly the rider who tries to ruin the lifestyle of their generation. | Freedom, Western influence threatens the next generation…

ii.

… .It can live easily and too fast in size, just like dedalu it can live aboard the government influencing the fertility rate of the population ..

iii.

They are dedalu trees whose life only rests on large and fertile trees. | The tragedy of September 2 reveals the corruption of Umno ..

iv.

They are like dedalu who lives on a tree, expecting food courtesy of others, “so … | Basic…

v.

The others are just dedaludedalu | TUNGGUL-TUNGGUL GERIGIS

yang

grow

UKM Linguistics Program UNJ Language and Literature Department

because it

wants to

ride.

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

vi.

290

They sat in the village, like dedalu which grows creeping on the trees. | SIRNA

The concept of ‘selfishness’

2. i.

The loving Jumali used to turn into dedalu and no longer know the household. | WOMEN’S WEEK 24 – 31 MAY 1996 The concept of ‘teaching’

3. i.

“Do not | SIRNA

to

make

them

like

dedalu

..

4. The concept of ‘taking advantage’ i.

If evaluated, the group can be considered as dedalu in an association, because they only like to inhale honey, otherwise they are not willing to … | Lamp Meeting is expected to discuss leadership issues

5. The concept of ‘destroyer’ i.

The branches or twigs that he touches will eventually die when this tree grows. | DO GOOD TOGETHER … WITH 300

Source: http://sbmb.dbp.gov.my/korpusdbp/Researchers/Search2.aspx The thickened lexical such as riding, sucking honey, dying, spoiling, influencing, hoping that the food courtesy can be cross-referenced with dedalu. These lexical and phrase are effects of the dedalu way of life. One will not be able to understand the example of the corpus without referring to the context and meaning of the environment in dedalu. So with the cross reference made we can interpret how dangerous this dedalu tree is that can destroy the host tree. In RRS, we can relate sentences or utterances that have no antecedents in the same sentence by using context. The contextual background is very helpful to the listener in processing the information to be conveyed. By referring to the lexical that precedes or follows the dedalu, we can use it to understand why such a character is associated with dedalu. For a clearer explanation, we use inquisitive semantics.

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

First, I showed the level of script and resonance semantic approach and followed by inquisitive semantics along with ertno-science explanation for the parasite. Example: Like a fire brigade perched on a tree. i.

Script semantics: means about someone who likes to ride and ultimately

harms those who have to ride (this I call simple meaning); ii.

semantic resonance: cognitively, the riding tree will grow and eventually

dominate the main tree. This can be attributed to our observations of the environment. iii.

inquisitive semantics: why choose dedalu? Dedalu is a kind of overlapping tree

contains a houstorium whose roots act to penetrate the layers of floem and xylem on the tree on which it rests. As a result, the tree had to be overturned and died due to the symptoms of the parasite earlier. This can be reinforced by the corpus example above. An example of this flora can be associated with everyday life. The above corpus data all refer to the way of life of a society that likes to ride and ultimately harms people who have to ride. If you look at this dedalu tree, it likes trees that can produce fruits such as rambutan and mangosteen. This can be analogous to a lush and useful tree. So people like this dedalu will suck the pleasure of the person being ridden and eventually harm. This is a useful lesson. Not just dedalu, this proverb can also be associated with other proverbs such as enau in the bush releasing their respective shoots, give calves to thighs. Next we can associate with the life of the Malays who are resisting negative values. Philosophy here organizing life in a positive direction and Islamic (Tenas Effendy, 2008). Living begging is strictly forbidden in accordance with the teachings of Islam. That is why we are encouraged to be like ‘paddy’ which has many virtues and uses as above

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

291

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

292

Figure: Dedalu tree and parasite concept.

Teaching selfish

ways Taking advantage

Hitching

Destruction

Figure 4.0 The value of a willow reflected in the corpus of data DBP

Cover

Reviews parasitic plant usually discussed by science, especially the science of agriculture. Nevertheless, these studies are under the same cocoon and are still in the discipline of science. However, this study has revealed the plants of the UKM Linguistic Program of the Department of Language and Literature UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

293

parasites from another angle i.e. language. What is clearly shown is the intelligence and understanding of the community to link the properties that exist in this plant and process them in the form of proverbs. The wisdom of the community coupled with an aspect that is emphasized decency easier allegorical Malay community in expressing a desire. Use of

parasitic plant “willow”

by the Malays

discussed above may indirectly prove creative thinking Malay community before being poured for not telling the truth, have weighting that can describe the Malay common sense that has been constituted by the underlying science.

REFERENCE Asmah Haji Omar, 1986. Natural Language and Malay Thought. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. Asmah Haji Omar | 1996. “Linguistic Relationship Factors and Non-Malay Linguistics In Progress” in. Dewan Bahasa Jun 1966. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. Asmah Haji Omar | 2005. Culture and figurative language. Journal of Malay Civilization, in penerbit.upsi.edu.my/website_ejurnal/jurnal%20site/ [achieved 20 April 2015]. Azhar M.Simin. 1993. Syntax of Discourse Yang. Kuala Lumpur: DBP Hassan Ahmad. 2003. Metaphors Malay: How thoughtful Malay create meaning and form epistemology. Monograph Series of the Academy of Civilization Studies. Bangi: Academy of Civilization Studies. Hean Chooi Ong.2007. Fruit: Food and Medicinal Benefits. Kuala Lumpur: Utusan Publications & Distributors Sdn. Bhd http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parasitic_plant http: //malaycivilization.ukm.my http://sbmb.dbp.gov.my/korpusdbp http://animhosnan.blogspot.com Nik Safiah Karim. 1992. Some question sociolinguistic Malay. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. Nor Hashimah Jalaludin. 2003. Language in business, a semantic and pragmatic analysis. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. Nor Hashimah Jalaluddin, 2014. Semantics and Intellect. Bangi: UKM Publishers. Nor Hashimah Jalaluddin, 2015. Language Preservation and Engineering: Embracing Treasures Weaving Innovation in the National Seminar on Linguistics, February 21-22. Sapinah Haji Said. 2013. Dictionary Malay proverb. Johor Bahru: Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn.Bhd. Tenas Effendi. Wisdom 2008. Malay language. Lecture by Raja Ali Haji. Kuala Lumpur: Malaysian Linguistic Association Kim Ann Zimmermann. http: //www.livescience. com / 21491-what-is-a-scientific-theorydefinition-of-theory.html [achieved Jan. 12 2015] Linguistics Program of Language and Literature Department, UKM UNJ

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

The Use of Terms for God in Malaysia and Indonesia: A Sociolinguistic Study of

Norsimah Mat Awal, Andre Wehrli & Idris Aman

INTRODUCTION The understanding of the concept of god is something very complex for any religion and the terms used to refer to god are also varied. For Muslims in Malaysia and Indonesia, the label or term used to refer to the One God is specific, namely Allah, for example, ‘There is no god but Allah’. For most Christians in Indonesia also use the Lord Jesus. Generally, the terms ‘God’ and ‘Lord’ are translated as God. For Bible translations such as the New Translation (1974) and the Good News Bible in Indonesian daily (1985) the word God is used to translate the Greek kyrios (Werhli 2014). However in Malaysia, especially Muslims dragged by controversy when the Roman Catholic Church to act using the term Allah to refer to God in their weekly publication The Herald Malay-language version. Following this, the Ministry of Home Affairs (KDN) banned the Roman Catholic Church from using the term Allah in their publications. The Catholic Church is not satisfied with the ban and led by Tan Sri Murphy Pakiam acted UKM Linguistics Program UNJ Language and Literature Department

294

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

filed a judicial review application seeking a declaration that the decision of the Ministry of Home Affairs (KDN) to prohibit the use of the word Allah in the publication of The Herald is invalid. The case has dragged on for too long and finally on January 21, 2015, the Court of Federal Germany has rejected the application submitted by the Roman Catholic Church to use the word Allah in their weekly Herald’s Bahasa Melayu ((Utusan Online January 21, 2015). The results of these reached unanimously by a panel of the country’s top five judges led by Tan Sri Abdull Hamid Embong who convened with Tan Sri Ahmad Maarop, Tan Sri Hasan Lah, Datuk Ramly Ali and Datuk Azahar Mohamed. we think of an in-depth study and research on the use and understanding of the terms ‘God’ and ‘God’. Therefore, a study has been conducted on the use and understanding of the term for god.

STUDY METHODOLOGY This study uses various methods to obtain data through interviews and text analysis. The purpose of the use of various methods is to obtain information for real daily use and further strengthened by examining the use in formal situations that is text analysis that is sermon text. a.

Interviews

To obtain data for actual use, interviews were conducted in four areas that have been identified, namely two areas in Malaysia and two areas in Indonesia. The two areas selected should represent the majority Muslim area and the other area should represent the majority of Christians. Because the questions asked in the interview is said by their understanding of the term ‘God’ and ‘God’, then kritiria in the selection of informants is that they should use the Malay language in their daily communication. The determination of this condition turned out to cause problems for the UKM Linguistic Program of the Department of Language and Literature UNJ

295

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

296

in search of informants Christians in Peninsular Malaysia using the Malay language in their daily communication. The following places have been selected for conducting interviews: Malaysia i. Sepang Area (Selangor – Muslim majority area) ii. Kuching (Sarawak – Christian majority area) Indonesia i. Palembang (South Sumatra Province – Islamic majority area) ii. Manado & Tomohon (North Sulawesi Province – Christian majority area) The total number of informants interviewed was 48 people which is 12 people for each area. Of the 12, the details are 6 males and 6 females; 6 Muslims and 6 Christians; 4 people under 31 years old, 4 people between 31 and 43 years old and 4 people 43 years old and above. The following table details the informants for all 4 areas: Table 1:

Gender

20 – 30 years

31- 43 years

43 years and over

Islam

Male

1 informant

1 informant

1 informant

Female

1 informant

1 informant

1 informant

Male

1 informant

1 informant

1 informant

Female

1 informant

1 informant

1

Christian informant

The interviews conducted with the informants were semi-structured. To avoid bias in the answers they provide, the terms ‘God’ and ‘God’ were not used at the beginning of the interview. Instead the informant was asked questions such as “who created the heavens and the earth?” and “To whom do you prostrate / pray?” Such questions are expected and expected to produce answers such as ‘God’ or ‘God’. After that, the informant was asked to provide the name used to refer to

the UKM Linguistic Program of the Department of Language and Literature UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

297

entities worshiped when they pray. This aims to get as many labels as they give to refer to god. After answering a few questions, the next step is to ask the informants to pray to God. The purpose of asking them to pray is to get real information about the name or label they use to refer to god. b.

Text Analysis Text

analysis is divided into 3 sources namely: i. Friday Sermon ii. Sermon delivered on Sunday at church iii. Transcription of inter-religious dialogue recordings The total number of texts analyzed was 8 texts, one sermon and one sermon from each area studied. The details are as follows:

Table 2: Sermon Sources and

Location Sermons Location

Islam

Kristian

Malaysia

Selangor

1 sermon

1 sermon

Sarawak

1 sermon

1 sermon

South Sumatra

1 sermon

1 sermon

North Sulawesi

1 sermon

1 sermon

Indonesia

For all the sermons, the transcript is from the recording of the sermon. As for the sermon, one transcript is from a radio broadcast and 3 more sermons are transcribed from existing recordings. Subsequent text analysis is obtained from the transcript of 2 interfaith discussions or dialogues. Both discussions were held in Indonesia. The first talks were held in 1970 in Sumenep, Madura. This discussion has been transcribed and the researcher did not obtain the original recording and therefore the validity of the transcript UKM Linguistic Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

cannot be determined. The discussion was between a kiai (Islam) and a Christian. For the second inter-religious discussion or dialogue was held in 2004 in Jakarta. The transcript of the dialogue is based on the video recording of the dialogue. A total of 6 people took part in the dialogue; 3 Muslims consisting of uztad and uztazah and 3 Christian priests. It is said that the 3 uztad and uztazah are former Christians and the 3 Christian priests are former Muslims. Therefore, all of them have a deep view and knowledge of both religions namely Islam and Christianity. Meanwhile, there is no recording of inter-religious dialogue in Malaysia that we can make as part of the study data.

c.

Book Analysis Services

data sources latter is examining the translation of the books of the Koran and the Bible in Malaysia and Indonesia, which have been translated into languages other than English. Subsequently these translation books have been compared with the original books in Arabic, Hebrew and Greek in order to see the development of understanding and use of terms used to refer to god. The findings from this section are further compared with the findings from the day use section and the findings from the analysis of sermon and sermon texts.

FINDINGS

For the purpose of displaying the data of the study, only the findings regarding daily use will be displayed and discussed. This is because the focus of this paper is on the daily use of informants regarding terms used to refer to god. UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

298

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

299

The first question asked in the interview was “Who created the heavens and the earth?” which aims to get the most spontaneous answers from the informants. The results show that the informants use either God or God or both. The overall analysis shows that the term God is most often used by informants, used by 30 informants, namely 9 Muslims, 21 Christians. While for 18 informants, the first term they use is Allah which is 15 Muslims and 3 Christians. For the 3 Christian informants who use God, they also use the term God and this shows that the term God is the main choice term of Christian informants to refer to God of the universe.

Table 3: First Choice of the Term God Location of

Religion

21 – 30

31 – 43

L

P

Sumatra Islam

Allah

Allah

Selatan

Christian Christianity

God

Sulawesi

Islam

Utara Selangor

Sarawak

Total

L

44 and above

Total

P

L

P

God

God

God

God

2/4

God

God

God

God

God

5/1

God

God

God

God

God

God

2/4

Christian

God

God

God

God

God

God

5/1

Islam

God

God

God

God

God

God

3/3

Kristian

God

God

God

God

God

God

6/0

Islam

God

God

God

God

God

God

2/4

Kristian

God

God

God

God

God

God

5/1

6 / 2

5/3

5/3

5/3

5/3

4/6

30/18

For Muslim informants their first (first) choice is Allah. However, there are 9 Islamic informants who choose God as their main choice to refer to the One True God. This shows that Muslims also often use God to refer to the One God. Another conclusion that can be reached is that Christians are more likely to use God spontaneously to refer to the One. The next display is the choice of Muslim and Christian informants on terms that refer to god. Details of the information are as follows: UKM Linguistic Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

300

Table 4: Choice of Terms Based on Location, Religion, Age and Gender

Religion Location

Sumatera Islam Selatan Kristian Sulawesi Utara

Islam Kristian

Selangor

Islam Kristian

Sarawak

Islam Kristian

Total

21 – 30 LP God Both God Both God Second Second- Second Two Second- Second Two Second- God Two Second- Second Two Second- Second Two 1/2/5 1/0/7

31 – 43 LP Second- God two Second- God two Second- God two Second- God two God God Both Both God

God

1/1/6

4/3/1

Both God

44 and above LP Second- Both two Second- God two Second- Both two Second- Both two Second- God two God Both God Both Second- Both two 1/1/6 1/1/6

Total 0/2/4 3/0/3 0/2 / 4 1/0/5 0/3/3 3/0/3 0/1/5 2/0/4 9/8/31

Based on Table 4, the informants who chose to use one of the terms were consistent in their use. This indicates a very high consistency rate for the overall rate of use based on religion. 9 informants who only use God are Christians, while 8 informants who only use God are Muslims. There are no Muslim informants who will only use God and so it is with Christian informants. There are no Christian informants who only use God. However, 31 informants used the two terms, God and God. They consist of 16 Islamic informants and 15 Christian informants. When compared to the first option, there is a tendency among those who choose God as their first choice to convert later to God but not the other way around. Meanwhile, all 9 of the nine Islamic informants who use the term God as the first choice will also use the term Allah. But only 7 Islamic informants who choose Allah as their first choice will also use the term God for further use. All 3 Christian informants who chose the term Allah as the UKM Linguistic Program of the UNJ Language and Literature Department But only 7 Islamic informants who choose Allah as their first choice will also use the term God for further use. All 3 Christian informants who chose the term Allah as the UKM Linguistic Program of the UNJ Language and Literature Department But only 7 Islamic informants who choose Allah as their first choice will also use the term God for further use. All 3 Christian informants who chose the term Allah as the UKM Linguistic Program of the UNJ Language and Literature Department

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

the first use / selection was found to also use the term God at the next use, while the remaining 12 Christian informants would use the term God after the term God. The pattern of use of the terms God and God as shown above may be influenced by the religion practiced by the majority of the population in an area. Data analysis shows that the term Allah is more often used in Christian-majority areas than in Muslim-majority areas. For example in North Sulawesi and Sarawak, 9 Christian informants used the term Allah. Meanwhile, in the Muslim-majority areas of Selangor and South Sumatra, only 6 Christian informants use the term Allah.

CONCLUSION The speakers of Indonesian and Malay language using a variety of terms to refer to God. The most commonly used terms are God and God. Muslims generally do not use these two terms along with other terms as is commonly done by Christians such as God, God Jesus and God the Father. The followers of Islam, in addition to the term Allah, also often use the 99 names of Allah. Thus this different pattern of usage can to some extent illuminate the situation regarding the objection to the use of the term God by Christians.

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

301

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

302

REFERENCES. JAKIM. 2011. Kalimah Allah (online). default / files / kalimah_allah.pdf [07-05-2015]

http // www.islam.gov.my / sites /

Ng, KW 2010. Allah can’t be substituted with Tuhan in Bible Translation. http://www.sinchew.com/node/33523 [24-02-2012] Ngoh, J. 1994. Towards cross-cultural cognitive compatibility in the Malay translation of soteriological terms. Singapore: National University of Singapore. Messenger

Online. The Word of God: Court Rejects Church Review. http://www.utusan.com.my/berita/mahkamah/kalimah-allah-mahkamah-tolak-semakangereja-1.50561 [07-05-2015]

Wehrli, A. 2014. Terms for God in Indonesian and Malay: A Sociolinguistic Study of Form, Meaning and Reference. Unpublished PhD Thesis. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Wehrli, A, & Norsimah Mat early. 2014. Second person reference in Indonesian Christian payer. Gema Online Journal of Language Studies. National Lantern Foundation. 2008. Kitab Suci Indonesia Literal Translation. Jakarta: Yayasan Lentera Bangsa.

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

Language Selection in Employment in Government Offices

Nur Syafiqah binti Muhammad Situl and Mohammed Azlan Mis

Introduction

The phenomenon of language selection also occurs in the multi-racial society in Malaysia and living together, working and living daily together. Holmes (2001) asserts that language selection also occurs when a person works in an office because they will work and deal with various people of different backgrounds, such as age, rank, gender and so on. For communication purposes, a mutually understood intermediate language needs to be selected. In the office, one has to choose a suitable language to communicate with colleagues or those who deal in the office. One needs to know what language to choose when interacting so that the information to be conveyed is understood and communication runs smoothly. This situation is very important to government employees as they deal with and communicate with clients of various races dealing in the office. Certainly, in Malaysia which has a variety of languages ​​in the community requires the need for one language to be used between government employees and customers.

National language policy has been established that the Malay language should be used in all official transactions in government offices. The use of the national language for the UKM Linguistic Program of the Department of Language and Literature UNJ

303

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

304

official business of the Federal and State Governments is provided in Service Circular

No.

9

of

2011,

“ LANGUAGE

USE GUIDE

NATIONAL IN CIVIL SERVICE. Formal business includes department meetings, briefings, communication between other government offices, communication with the public dealing in the office and as the medium of instruction in the office. There are some questions about what language government employees choose when communicating with clients dealing in government offices. Are the Malay language as the main language of communication among government employees? Therefore, this study will examine the language choices of government employees, especially support group staff when they communicate and deal with customers from various races. Some new information will be obtained as this study involves various language, racial and gender backgrounds. Specifically,

Background research

National Language Act 1967 stipulates that the Malay language is the official language and national language of Malaysia. Malay language must be used for official purposes, namely in official ceremonies, administration, communication between state and society and as a language of instruction in schools and universities. This order is also defined in the 1971 Amendment of the Constitution under Article 152: 4 stating, “The national language shall be used for official purposes” (2) except as provided in this act and subject to the protections contained in Article 152 (1) of the Constitution in relation to any other language and the language of any other race in Malaysia the national language shall be used for official purposes ”.

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

“152. (6) In this Article, “official purpose” means any purpose of the Government, whether Federal or State Government, and includes any meaning of a public authority “. Therefore, it is concluded that the government officials have had language policy, namely the use of the Malay language to any official business. However, since the declaration of the National Language Act 1967, no judgments made about the order of the Malay language in official transactions in government offices. In addition, information related to language selection in government offices is very little done by language researchers at present. Asmah (1985) once studied the National Language Policy in government offices, but the study was done long ago and conducted in Sarawak.

Information related to the selection and use of key languages ​​used in government offices is less disclosed. The extent to which the selection and use of languages ​​other than English or other languages ​​that are selected and used in government offices. Setting National Language Policy of the government offices has led to the assumption that the researcher language other languages ​​other than English is selected and used as the main language of communication in their communication. Other language researchers assume that government offices will adhere to established language policies. Other language researchers are more focused on language selection and use in private offices, in business and language selection in community groups. Among the linguists who study the selection and use of language in the private sector is Nik Safiah Karim (1995),

Although the Malay Language Policy setting must be used in dealings with the government, other language that can be understood between speakers and listeners were also used. The diversity of races found in Malaysia causes various languages ​​to be selected and used in a communication. This also happens when government employees communicate with customers of various races. Customers of the Malays, Chinese, Indians and others will deal in government offices. Therefore, it is possible languages other than Malay language is used in government offices when government employees of SMEs Linguistics Program Language and Literature Department UNJ

305

Seminar Language and Literature 2015

communicate with customers. Through this study will be able to analyze things that happen either language Malay language is still the main use or have used any other language or languages ​​other than English is increasingly less used.

The importance of research findings such as these, it is important to look at the trend of ethnic Malays, Iban, Chinese and Melanaus in Sarikei who live together in interacting with each other in the conduct of everyday by selecting the language of communication between them. This study is important to look at the tendencies of government employees when interacting and dealing with clients who deal in government offices. There is a lot of new and interesting information will be obtained about the study of language choice in government offices to know more and can be referred to as useful resources and guides in the future. This study of language choice in government offices, especially in Putrajaya, can illustrate the choice of language in government offices in other areas in Malaysia.

The results of this study can determine whether the Malay language still in use and to be a priority or not by government employees when engaged in official government business, as stipulated in the National Language Policy and Public Service Circular. In addition, the findings of this study can also find out the factors of a language is selected when dealing in government offices.

Field of Study This field of study is about the study of language choice that is, one of the sociolinguistic parts. According to Asmah Haji Omar (1982), sociolinguistics is a branch of linguistics that studies language in social and cultural contexts. The diversity of communities or races that exist in Malaysia causes a society to use various languages ​​in their communication. In employment, especially in government offices, language selection also occurs. Aspects of language choice are studied because this study found that the use and choice of appropriate language is very important in a job

UKM Linguistic Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

306

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

because the information can be conveyed smoothly and well if the choice of language used is appropriate.

Referring to the attention that has been given by language scholars who examine language choice, it is possible to know some appropriate approaches and methods to be highlighted in this study. Among the main approaches and methods of language choice research by language scholars is related to the concept of domain. The use of domains in the study of language choice is a method that can show the choice of language chosen more specifically and specifically in a society. Therefore, to determine the choice of language Malay community must be based on the domain in order to study it more effective. There are two domains in this study, namely the domain at the customer service counter and telephone communication.

Good language skills are very important to those who need to communicate and deal with a multilingual society. Good communication needs to be done so that the information to be conveyed will be able to be conveyed clearly and easily understood. Language selection is one of the factors in the effectiveness of ongoing communication. Several studies in the domain of employment and those conducted in offices have been touched upon by previous researchers. Among them are the study of Asmah Hj Omar (1985), Nik Safiah Karim (1995), Shanta Nair (2000), Marlyna Maros (2000), and Kamisah Ariffin (2007).

Selection and use of the Malay language in the office is examined based on oral and written communication. Oral communication such as meetings, discussions, briefings and interviews. Communication through writing such as writing annual reports, memos, minutes of meetings, correspondence and others. The communication that takes place is mostly only involving fellow employees in an office. However, the communication that took place with the customer received less attention from the researchers although there are researchers who made a study of the use of working language with customers, but the study was done but it was only folus in the private sector, that is in business. UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

307

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

The study of languages ​​that refers to who speaks what language to whom and when a key determinant of the choice of languages ​​used by the Malays in government offices. Categorization by Fishman (1972) has presented his opinion on how humans outline guidelines when communicating. By answering these questions, one can choose the appropriate language as they communicate. This is very clear to connect a language used by a person for the purpose of communicating between multilingual community groups.

Study Theory The study of language selection in government offices is based on domain theory. Domain theory was pioneered by Fishman (1972). According to him, this domain theory is based on the situation of language selection in a language community. In this case, Fishman’s description focuses on the study of the relationship of linguistic aspects to social categories. Fishman (1972, 1972a) has defined domains as,

Regardless of their number, in terms of institutional contexts and their congruent behavioral co-occurrences. They attempt to summate the major clusters of interaction that occur in clusters of multilingual setting and involving clusters of interlocuters. Domains enable us to understand that language choice and topic, appropriate though they may be for analyzes of individual behavior at the level of face-to-face verbal encounters, are, as we suggested above, related to widespread socio-cultural norms and expectations. (Fishman 1972: 442). Based on the definition presented above, it is clear that some aspects such as topics, relationships and roles as well as places have a relationship with the selection of a specific language. Topics, relationships, roles and places are important factors that contribute to the formation of a domain (Mohammed Azlan 2010, 2012). Fishman (1972a) also presents ‘who speaks what language to whom and when’ in the domain theory of language selection studies. Who speaks refers to language users or respondents. In this study, respondents were divided into several parameters such as race, gender, age, and level of education. What language refers to what language is chosen when communicating while to whom refers to the interlocutor, which is the person invited by the UKM Linguistic Program, Department of Language and Literature UNJ

308

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

309

speak. In this study, interlocutors were customers who came to deal in government offices and staff in those offices. When refers to the situation or background where the communication takes place, that is in the government office.

In this study, only one aspect in this domain theory will be used, namely the relationship and role based on the speaker domain. This speaker domain is a communication situation that takes place involving several parties of different gender, age, race, level of education and language proficiency.

Language Selection Malay Malay respondents include information data background related to gender, race, age, education level and language proficiency. Data language option also includes a selection of Malay language according to the study domain. A total of 280 respondents Malay answered questions in the questionnaire. The situation of language choice in this study is when respondents communicate with clients from various races in government offices.

1. On the Customer Service Counter language options at the customer service counter is divided into four interlocutor, namely the customers of Malay, Chinese, Indian and ethnic groups in Sabah and Sarawak while dealing in government offices.

Table 1 Language Selection Malay respondents Domain Customer Service Counter interlocutor Malay

China

India

Malay

144

53

55

Sabah and Sarawak 72

Malay or English

47

160

158

142

507

45

Malay or mixed language

82

26

26

33

167

15

Language Selection

Total

%

324

29

Total preferred language domain at the customer service counter in communication Malay respondents was 1120, ie a) 507 or 45% of Malay or English Linguistics program SME UNJ Department of language and Literature

Seminar language and Literature 2015

310

b) 324 or 29% Malay c) 167 or 15% of mixed language Malay or d) 109 or 9% Malay, English or mixed language e) 13 or 2% chose English. 2. Language Communications Online (mobile) This part is the language of Malay respondents when communicating with clients from various races through the means of communication, ie telephone. Customers who deal in government offices of various races such as Malays, Chinese, Indians, a tribe of Sabah and Sarawak and others. In this domain, interlocutors are not categorized by race in detail. Table 2 Domain Malay Language Society Communications Online (Phone) Language

Total

%

234 44 1 1

83 15 1 1

280

100

Malay Malay or English Malay or mixed language English Total

Findings overall choice language Malay respondents for this domain is the Malay respondents communicate with customers through phone lines, Malay respondents chose four languages, namely: a) 234 of the total 280 people choose Malay b) 44 people tend to choose the Malay or English c) 1 people choose mixed language Malay or d) 1 also choose English Summary language selection Malay respondents

In the domain of the customer service counter, on the whole Malay respondents have chosen three languages, namely Bahasa Malaysia, English and mixed language when communicating with various clients in the customer service counter. Main language UKM Linguistic Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

311

which tend to have when communicating with customers is Malay or English, ie by 45%. Besides Malay or English, Malay people chose the Malay language fully, ie by 29%, Malay or mixed language chosen by 15%, Malay, English or mixed language is as much as 10% and fully in English only by 1 % only. This domain shows that the Malays interchange preferred language when communicating with other people.

Discussion The findings of the selected primary language when communicating with customers is the Malay Malay language, namely by 29% choose the language. Meanwhile, Malay or English as a primary language that was chosen when communicating with clients Chinese, Indian customers, and customers tribes in Sabah and Sar body.

In the domain of communication by telephone, Malay respondents have chosen three languages, namely Bahasa Malaysia, English and mixed language when they communicate with customers over the phone. In this domain, respondents find it difficult to know what customers they are dealing with. In contrast to customers who deal at the customer service counter, respondents can find out the type of customer because they deal face to face. In this situation, Malay fully determined as the primary language when communicating with clients in telephone line with a value of 84% choose the language. In addition to Malay, English or mixed language was selected when communicating with customers via the telephone line. Bahasa Melayu or English by 16% selected.

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

Total 558 551 168 109 14 1400

(%) 40 39 12 8 1 100

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

Conclusion Based on the findings from the language choice factors, it can be concluded that the language chosen by government employees when communicating with customers of various races is the result of the respondents’ own choice and the situation during the communication. In other words, the internal factors of the speaker such as the type of race and association can affect the choice of a language. In addition, the factors where communication takes place, the close relationship between the speaker and the listener can cause the speaker to choose a language that is appropriate and can be understood by all. Overall, the factors that make the language chosen by the community while they are working in government offices is this: 1) Used spontaneously. 2) Is the most widely used language. 3) The language can be used anywhere. 4) Language that is known and understood together. Although this study was limited to the study area in Putrajaya, the community under review there may be similarities and differences of languages ​​by other parts of Malaysia. Nevertheless, the expected Malay dialect is one of the major languages ​​besides Malay language in these communities looked to the community relations from a variety of backgrounds and dialects of the states in Malaysia. This study also shows that a multilingual community can have more than one language choice. Malay community who may have studied the similarities and differences of languages ​​by other parts of Malaysia. Nevertheless, the expected Malay dialect is one of the major languages ​​besides Malay language in these communities looked to the community relations from a variety of backgrounds and dialects of the states in Malaysia. This study also shows that a multilingual community can have more than one language choice. Malay community who may have studied the similarities and differences of languages ​​by other parts of Malaysia. Nevertheless, the expected Malay dialect is one of the major languages ​​besides Malay language in these communities looked to the community relations from a variety of backgrounds and dialects of the states in Malaysia. This study also shows that a multilingual community can have more than one language choice.

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

312

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

Reference

Asmah Haji Omar | 1982. Language and Society in Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. Asmah Haji Omar | 1985. lingo language. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. Asmah Haji Omar | 1985a. Use of Bahasa Malaysia in Government Departments, Statutory Bodies and Local Authorities in Sarawak. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. Fishman, Joshua A. 1972. The Sociology of Language. Rowley, Mass: New Bury House. Fishman, Joshua A. 1972a. The Relation between micro and macro sociolinguistic in the story of who speaks what language to whom and when. Dlm. John B. Pride and Janet Holmes (eds). Sociolinguistics. Harmondsworth: Penguin. Fishman, Joshua A. 1991. Sociology of Languages ​​(trans. Alias ​​Mohammad Yatim). Penang: Universiti Sains Malaysia Publishers. Holmes, Janet. 2001. An Introduction to Sociolinguistics (second edition). Longman: Malaysia. Marlyna Maros. 2000. Language use in the commercial sector: local borders in a borderless world. In H. Wong, S. Nair-Venugopal, Nooreiny Maarof, Zawiah Yahya & JV D’Cruz. (eds.). Language and globalization: Voices of Asia (92-105). Petaling Jaya: Pearson Education Malaysia. Mohammed Azlan Mis. 2010. Lingua Franca in Sarawak: Application of Language Choice Theory. GEMA Online, Journal of Language Studies. 10 (2): 97-114 Mohammed Azlan Mis. 2012. Analysis of Language Choice as a Lingua Franca in Sarawak. Doctor of Philosophy thesis. University of Malaya. Morais, E. 1998. Language Choice in a Malaysian Car-assembly Plant. In the International Journal of the Sociology of Language. Mouton de Gruyter: Berlin New York. Hlmn. 89105. Nair-Venugopal, S. 2000. Language Choice and Communication in Malaysian Business. Bangi: Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Nik Safiah Karim | 1981. Some question Lexis Malay. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

313

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

Nik Safiah Karim. 1995. Survey Report Malay Language in the field of finance and banking. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. Romaine, S. 1994. Language in Society An Introduction to Sociolinguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Wardhaugh, R. 1998. An Introduction to Sociolinguistics. 3rd ed. Blackwell Publishing.

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

314

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

315

THE PERSONALITY OF WOMEN IN ROMAN EARTH BY PRAMOEDYA ANANTA TOER: A PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACH TO LITERATURE27

Edi Puryanto28

Introduction

1. Background of the Problem Literary work is a reflection of real life as a result of reflection on the reality of life that is seen. Literature contains exploration of the truth of humanity. Literature is also the work of creative arts whose objects are humans and their lives, using language as the medium. As a creative work, literature must be able to produce beautiful creations and try to channel the needs of human beauty, besides that literature must be able to convey ideas that are thought and felt by writers about human life (Atar Semi, M., 1993: 8). . Humans are born as individuals who are different from other individuals. He has his own character, temperament, experience, views and feelings that are different from others. However, human life cannot be separated from other humans. Meetings between humans with one another often lead to conflict, both conflicts between individuals, groups and group members as well as between members of one group and members of other groups. Because it is very complex, humans also often experience conflicts within themselves or inner conflicts as a reaction to social situations in their environment. In other words, humans are always faced with life’s problems. Bimo Walgito (1997: 7) 27 humans also often experience conflicts within themselves or inner conflicts as a reaction to social situations in their environment. In other words, humans are always faced with life’s problems. Bimo Walgito (1997: 7) 27 humans also often experience conflicts within themselves or inner conflicts as a reaction to social situations in their environment. In other words, humans are always faced with life’s problems. Bimo Walgito (1997: 7) 27

28

Presented at the Seminar between the Nations of the Malaysian National University and the Jakarta State University. Lecturer at the Department of Indonesian Language and Literature, Jakarta State University.

Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ’s Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

316

explained that humans in facing their life problems cannot be separated from the human soul itself. The soul here includes thoughts, knowledge, responses, audiences and the soul itself. The events or events contained in literary works are brought to life by characters as role holders or actors of the plot. It is through the behavior of the characters shown that an author describes human life with the problems or conflicts he faces, both conflicts with other people, conflicts with the environment, or conflicts with himself. Literary works produced by writers always feature characters who have characters so that literary works also describe the human psyche, even though the author only displays the character in fiction. With this fact, literature is always involved in all aspects of life and life, including psychology or psychology. This is inseparable from the view of dualism which states that humans basically consist of body and soul. So research that uses a psychological approach to literary works is a form of understanding and interpreting literary works from a psychological perspective. This reason is driven because the characters in literary works are humanized, they are all given a soul, have a body, even humans who are called authors may have more psyche than other humans, especially in terms of understanding life and life (Andre Hardjana, 1985: 60) . The romance “Bumi Manusia” is one of the novels by Pramoedya Ananta Toer. A writer who has spent nearly half of his life in prison, 3 years in Dutch colonial prison, 1 year during the Old Order, and 14 years during the New Order. Some of his works were born from these prisons, including the Tetralogy of Pulau Buru (Earth of Man, Children of All Nations, Footsteps, and Greenhouse). “Bumi Manusia” is the first book of Buru’s Tetralogy by Pramoedya Ananta Toer which was first published by Hasta Mitra in 1980. This book was written by Pramoedya Ananta Toer while he was still in Buru Island. Before it was written in 1975, since 1973 even more “Bumi Manusia” is the first book of Buru’s Tetralogy by Pramoedya Ananta Toer which was first published by Hasta Mitra in 1980. This book was written by Pramoedya Ananta Toer while he was still in Buru Island. Before it was written in 1975, since 1973 even more “Bumi Manusia” is the first book of Buru’s Tetralogy by Pramoedya Ananta Toer which was first published by Hasta Mitra in 1980. This book was written by Pramoedya Ananta Toer while he was still in Buru Island. Before it was written in 1975, since 1973 even more

previously

been

told

again

to

his friends.

After being

published, “Bumi Manusia” was then banned from circulation a year later by order of the Attorney General. Before being banned, this book was a success with 10 reprints a year in 19801981. Until 2005, this book has been published in 33 languages. In September 2005, the Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Unit of the UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

This book was republished in Indonesia by Lentera Dipantara. This book covers the period of events between 1898 to 1918, this time is the time of the emergence of ethical political thought and the beginning of the period of the National Awakening. This period was also the beginning of the entry of rational thought into the Dutch East Indies, the beginning of the growth of modern organizations which was also the beginning of the birth of democracy in the pattern of the French Revolution. In the novel “Bumi Manusia” it is told that Minke was the son of a Javanese nobleman who was studying at HBS, a famous school where the majority of his students were totok and indo whites. As a native, Minke’s achievements at HBS are quite proud, even becoming the general champion of the Surabaya branch. Minke has a totok white friend named Robert Suurhof. He took Minke to his friend’s house which is located in Wonokromo. Minke was introduced to the household — Nyai Ontosoroh, Robert Mellema, and Arnelis Mellema. Nyai Ontosoroh was originally Mr. Mellema’s mistress. Robert and Arnelis are their children. After Tuan Mellema lost his authority, Nyai Ontosoroh was in control of all his efforts. Actually, Suurhof took Minke there so that his friend would receive humiliating treatment from the Mellema family. However, what happened was the opposite. Not only received very good treatment from Nyai Ontosoroh, Minke also received very special attention from Arnelis, the woman who was liked by Suurhof. Minke’s relationship with Nyai Ontosoroh and Arnelis is getting closer. In fact, Minke and Arnelis fell in love with each other. Arnelis’ love was so deep that he got sick just because Minke hadn’t visited him in Wonokromo for a while. This relationship caused controversy, starting from the school, Minke’s friends, to Robert Mellema. In order to solve the problems faced by the characters, personality psychology will be used as a tool. Personality psychology is a field of psychology that seeks to study humans as a whole regarding their motivation, emotions, and behavior drivers. Based on the description above, this research takes the title of Female Personality in the Romance of Human Earth by Pramoedya Ananta Toer (an approach to literary psychology). In order to solve the problems faced by the characters, personality psychology will be used as a tool. Personality psychology is a field of psychology that seeks to study humans as a whole regarding their motivation, emotions, and behavior drivers. Based on the description above, this research takes the title of Female Personality in the Romance of Human Earth by Pramoedya Ananta Toer (an approach to literary psychology). In order to solve the problems faced by the characters, personality psychology will be used as a tool. Personality psychology is a field of psychology that seeks to study humans as a whole regarding their motivation, emotions, and behavior drivers. Based on the description above, this research takes the title of Female Personality in the Romance of Human Earth by Pramoedya Ananta Toer (an approach to literary psychology).

Linguistics Program of Language and Literature Unit of UNJ

317

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

318

2. Problem Limitation In order for research to remain focused and not expand beyond the focus of the problem, it is necessary to limit the problem. The problems discussed in this study are limited to the description of the personality of the Nyai Ontosoroh character in the novel Bumi Manusia based on Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic personality theory, the psychological conflicts experienced by the character Nyai Ontosoroh, and the attitude of the Nyai Ontosoroh character in dealing with this conflict.

3. Problem Formulation Based on the background and problem limitation, the following problems can be formulated. 1) How is the description of the personality of the character Nyai Ontosoroh in the romance Bumi Manusia based on Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic personality theory? 2) How is the psychological conflict experienced by the character Nyi Ontosoroh? 3) What is the attitude of Nyi Ontosoroh’s character in dealing with this conflict?

4. Research Objectives In accordance with the formulation of the problem above, the objectives of this study are: 1) Describe the

personality of the

character

Nyai

Ontosoroh

in the

romance of the Earth

Humans based on Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic personality theory. 2) Describe the psychological conflict experienced by the character Nyai Ontosoroh in the romance of Bumi Manusia. 3) Describe the attitude of the Nyai Ontosoroh character in dealing with conflicts.

5. Research Benefits This research is expected to provide benefits, both theoretically and practically, namely. 1) Theoretical Benefits This research is expected to be able to add insight and enrich the knowledge of Indonesian literature studies, especially with a literary psychology approach. This research is also expected to be able to contribute to literary theory and psychological theory in uncovering the romance of Bumi Manusia. Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Position UKM UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

2) Practical Benefits Practically this research is expected to help readers to better understand the contents of the story in the romance of Bumi Manusia, especially the psychological conditions of the characters and the conflicts faced by the use of cross-disciplines, namely psychology and literature.

Theoretical Basis 1. Literary Psychology Approach Literary psychology is part of a writer-oriented approach that fosters a direct relationship between literary texts and author biographies. Facts and events in the writer’s life are juxtaposed with the elements of his literary work to find aspects that connect the author’s biography with the text. In addition, through this approach, readers gain insight into the author’s background as a personal reflection (Klarer, 2004: 90). Literary psychology is an approach that considers psychological aspects and concerns the human mind. Through a psychological review it will appear that the function and role of literature is to present the fairest and most lifelong image of humans or at least to convey that literary works are essentially aimed at describing human life (Andre Hardjana, 1985: 66). Literary psychology as a branch of literature that approaches literature from a psychology perspective. Attention can be directed to the author, and the reader (psychology of literary communication) or to the text itself (Dick Hartoko and B. Rahmanto, 1986: 126). The term literary psychology has four possible meanings, namely (1) the study of author psychology as a type or differentiator, (2) the study of creative processes, (3) the study of types and psychological laws applied to literary works, and (4) studies that study the impact of literature on reader psychology (Wellek, Rene and Austin Warren, 1989: 90). Based on the opinion of Wellek and Warren above, research on the romance of Bumi Manusia leads to a third definition, namely the psychological approach as a study of types and laws applied to literary works. Specifically, it can be explained that the analysis to be carried out is mainly directed at the psychological conditions of the main characters who play a role in the story, to reveal their overall personality.

Linguistics Program of Language and Literature Unit of UNJ

319

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

320

2. Psychoanalytic Personality Theory Sigmund Freud Sigmund Freud was born in Moravia, 6 May 1856. Freud was the first psychologist to investigate the unconscious aspects of the human soul. Freud likened human consciousness to an iceberg, what little is visible on the surface denotes consciousness, while the larger invisible part denotes the unconscious aspect. Within this vast area of ​​unconsciousness there are found drives, passions, ideas and

feelings- juice

that

is pressed,

a

world

in

which

large

and

contain

forces14 vital forces that exercise important control over the thoughts and actions of human consciousness (S. Calvin Hall and Lindzey Gardner, 1993: 60). Freud’s emphasis on the aspect of the unconscious which lies deeper than that aspect of consciousness, makes the flow of psychology which is compiled on the basis of his investigations called inner psychology (Sujanto, 1980: 62). Freud’s teachings above, in the world of psychology commonly referred to as psychoanalysis, which emphasizes his investigation of psychological processes in the human unconscious. It is in this unconsciousness that according to Freud, the life instinct that plays the most role in humans, namely the sex instinct, developed, and during the first years of the development of psychoanalysis, everything that humans do is assumed to originate from this urge. Sex and other life instincts, has a form of energy that supports it, namely libido (S. Calvin Hall and Lindzey Gardner, 1993: 73). The personality structure consists of three systems, namely the id, (das es), ego (das ich), and super ego (das ueber ich). Human behavior is essentially the result of the interaction of substance in the human personality id, ego, and super ego, all of which are always working, rarely one of them is independent or works alone. 1) Id is a biological aspect which is an original system in personality, from which other aspects of personality grow. The id contains things that are carried from birth and which guide the id in its function is to avoid discomfort and pursue pleasure. There are two ways to pursue this pleasure, namely: reflex actions and primary processes, reflex actions such as sneezing or blinking, while the primary process is like when hungry people imagine food (Sumadi Suryabrata, 1993: 145 – 146). 2) Ego is a psychological aspect of personality that arises because of the individual’s need to relate well to the real world. In the proper functioning of the ego sticks to the Linguistic Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

321

principles of reality or reality. The ego can also be viewed as the executive aspect of personality, because the ego controls the path taken, chooses which needs can be met and ways to fulfill them. In its function, the ego often has to unite the contradictions between the id and the super ego. The role of the ego is to mediate

between instinctive

needs and environmental conditions (Sumadi

Suryabrata, 1993: 146 – 147). 3) Super ego is an aspect of the sociology of personality, representing traditional values ​​and the ideals of society as interpreted by parents to their children through commands or restrictions. Super ego can also be considered as a moral aspect of personality, its function is to determine whether something is good or bad, right or wrong, appropriate or not, in accordance with the prevailing morality in society. The main function of the super ego is to

block the

urge of the id, especially

the

sexual

and

aggressive urges

that

society oppose. Encourage the ego to pursue things that are moralistic rather than

realistic,

and

pursue

perfection.

So the super

ego tends to

oppose the id and ego and make ideal conceptions (Sumadi Suryabrata, 1983: 148 149). Such is the personality structure according to Freud, which consists of three aspects, namely id, ego and super ego, all of which cannot be separated. In general, the id can be viewed as a biological component of personality, the ego as a psychological component while the super ego is a social component.

3. Characters and Characteristics The structure to be studied in this novel will only focus on characters and characterizations.

Characters

in

a story of

fiction

is an

element

important

that

liven up the story. The presence of a character in the story is related to the creation of conflict, in this

case the

character

plays a role in

creating a conflict

in

a fictional

story (Burhan Nurgiyantoro, 1995: 164). Talk about characterizations in fictional stories cannot be separated from the relationship with the characters. The term character refers to the actor in the story while characterization refers to the nature, character or character that surrounds the existing character. Characterization is the depiction of a clear picture of a person displayed in the Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Unit of UNJ’s Language and Literature Seminar 2015 322

in a story (Jones in Burhan Nurgiyantoro, 1995: 165). Characterization can also be said to be the process of the appearance of a character as a carrier for the character’s character roles in a story. Characteristics must be able to create the image of a character. Therefore, characters must be brought to life (SoediroSatoto, 1998: 43). Based on the description above, it can be concluded that characterization is the author’s way of describing and developing the characters and characters in a fictional story. This image or character creation is the result of the author’s imagination to appear in the story in accordance with the desired situation. Characteristics in the story can be presented through two methods, namely the direct (analytical) method and the indirect (dramatic) method. The direct (analytic) method is a technique of depicting a story character that provides a direct description, description or explanation.

even his physical

features

.

The method

is not

directly

(dramatic)

is

a technique

the author describes the characters by letting the characters show each other their self, through various activities carried out both verbally and nonverbally, such as behavior, attitudes and events (Burhan Nurgiyantoro, 1995: 166). Each character has its own character. A character is the most active ingredient in driving the storyline because this character has a personality, character, and has three-dimensional characteristics, namely 1) The physiological dimension is the characteristics of the body, for example age (maturity level), gender, body condition, facial features and other bodily features. 2) The sociological dimension is the characteristics of community life, for example social status, occupation, position or role in society, level of education, outlook on life, religion, social activity, ethnicity and descent. 3) The psychological dimension is the psychological background, for example mentality, moral measure, temperament, desire, personal feelings, IQ and level of intelligence for special skills (Soediro Satoto, 1998: 44-45). Characters are related to people or someone, so it needs a clear description of the character. The types of figures can be divided as follows. 1) Based on the role or level of importance. Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ The types of figures can be divided as follows. 1) Based on the role or level of importance. Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ The types of figures can be divided as follows. 1) Based on the role or level of importance. Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

323

a) The main character, namely a character whose storytelling is prioritized in the romance and greatly determines the development of the overall plot. b) Additional characters, namely characters whose appearances are less and if there is only a direct or indirect relationship with the main character. 2) Based on the function of the character’s appearance. a) The protagonist, namely the main character who embodies the ideal values ​​for the reader. b) Antagonistic characters, namely figures who cause conflict (Burhan Nurgiyantoro, 1995: 173 – 174).

Research Methodology 1. Research Methods The method in this study is a qualitative research method. The qualitative research method is a research procedure that produces descriptive data in the form of written or spoken words about the characteristics of an individual, the circumstances or symptoms of a certain group that can be observed (Lexy J. Moleong, 2001: 6). Descriptive data referred to in this research is data collected in the form of words, phrases, clauses, sentences or paragraphs and not numbers. Thus, the results of this study contain data analysis which is to describe, describe, describe, analyze and interpret (Soediro Satoto, 1992: 15).

2. Approach Approach is a way to look at something. The literary approach (approach) is basically theories to understand certain types of literature according to its nature (Soediro Satoto, 1992: 9). The approach used in this research is the psychology of

literature approach .

Andre

Hardjana

(1985: 60)

says

that

in

literature, psychology is an auxiliary science and enters literature in the discussion of teachings and rules that can be drawn from literary works. The psychological approach is used to determine the psychology of Ara in Larasati’s novels related to personality, conflicts faced, and attitudes taken in dealing with these conflicts.

Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Unit of UNJ

2015 Language and Literature Seminar

3. Research Object The object of this study is the psychological aspect which focuses on the personality of the Nyai Ontosoroh character, the conflicts faced and attitudes in dealing with these conflicts.

4. Data Sources The data source in this study is the romance Bumi Manusia by Pramoedya Ananta Toer published by Lentera Dipantara in 2001, printed 17 with a thickness of 535 pages.

5. Data Collection Techniques The data collection technique in this research is library technique, which is data collection using written sources to obtain data.

6. Data Processing Techniques This research uses several stages of data processing techniques. These stages are as follows. a. Descriptive Stage That is, all the data obtained is connected to the problem and then the description and identification stage is carried out. b. Classification Stage Namely classifying the data that has been described according to their respective problems. c. Analysis Phase That is to conduct an analysis of the data that has been classified according to their respective groups based on the theory relevant to the research. d. Interpretation Phase, namely interpreting the results of data analysis to obtain an understanding that is in accordance with the research objectives. e. Evaluation Stage, namely the stage of checking the results of data analysis to examine the truth, so that it can give good results and can be accounted for. Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ

324

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

Research Results and Discussion The story of Nyi Ontosoroh in the Romance of Bumi Manusia Bumi Manusia is a tetralogy book by the famous author Pramudya Ananta Toer. This book was written before 1975 with a time setting between 1898 and 1918. One of the central figures in this book is Nyai Ontosoroh. Her first name is Sanikem. His father was a clerk at a sugar factory in Tulangan named Sastrotomo. The type of man who is crazy for power and wealth. Respected because the only person who can read and write in the village. Sostrotomo dreamed of becoming a paymaster. Unfortunately, to achieve these goals, he does not hesitate to curse and betray. He is able to do anything to achieve his goals. One day a middle-aged Dutch businessman named Herman Mellema came to the house and made a promise. A bud loved ulam arrived. Sastrotomo asked Sanikem to dress up as beautifully as possible in front of his guest. While the mother sobbed in the corner of the room. Sanikem is already suspicious. But he still followed his father’s orders. Seeing Sanikem Herman Mellema tempted. “As soon as possible, take the child to my place. I promise to give you a satisfying reward: bailiff and guilder. Hehehehee… ”he said to Sanikem’s father. Sastrotomo’s happiness also radiated. Soon he will be an honorable person. Respected by traders, foremen, laborers, Europeans and Peranakans. Long story short, Herman Mellema also got Sanikem to be his mistress and Sastrotomo got the rank. although they had to pay a high price by selling their 14 year old daughter. Sanikem was made concubine against her father’s will. This was the beginning of Sanikem’s hatred for his father. This is the beginning of how the grudge adorned his life. Life as a concubine is like a slave who has to satisfy her master at all times. And every time it can be thrown away when the master is bored and doesn’t need him anymore. The Javanese call their concubine in a soft word, NYAI. The term ‘Nyai’ is often associated with negative things. It even refers to people with low morals. Although Nyai gave birth to a child from a European, the Dutch East Indies government at that time never considered the marriage legal. Government And every time it can be thrown away when the master is bored and doesn’t need him anymore. The Javanese call their concubine in a soft word, NYAI. The term ‘Nyai’ is often associated with negative things. It even refers to people with low morals. Although Nyai gave birth to a child from a European, the Dutch East Indies government at that time never considered the marriage legal. Government And every time it can be thrown away when the master is bored and doesn’t need him anymore. The Javanese call their concubine in a soft word, NYAI. The term ‘Nyai’ is often associated with negative things. It even refers to people with low morals. Although Nyai gave birth to a child from a European, the Dutch East Indies government at that time never considered the marriage legal. Government

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

325

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

The Dutch East Indies only recognized the child from this marriage but not the native woman who was made concubine. Herein lies the inhumanity of European law towards other human beings. His status as a Nyai has made Sanikem suffer greatly, because he does not have the human rights he deserves. However, what is interesting is that, being aware of this condition, Sanikem tries hard by constantly learning, so that he can be recognized as a human being. Sanikem argues, to fight humiliation, ignorance, poverty, and so on is only by studying. His resentment towards his parents made him try to get up by learning all European knowledge. He studied commerce, studied Dutch, read Dutch media, studied Dutch culture and law. Because he hopes that one day all this knowledge will be useful for him and his children. “I have to prove to them, whatever has been done to me, I should be more valuable than them, even if only as a nyai. Now that Sanikem is dead, what we have is Nyai Ontosoroh. ” Yes… Nyai Ontosoroh, that is the name Sanikem uses and is known by the people of Wonokromo and Surabaya. Sensuality and expertise in managing the company “Boerderij Buitenzorg” owned by her husband made Nyai Ontosoroh a byword for residents of Wonokromo and Surabaya. An indigenous woman who has a high awareness of her rights, has the courage to express her opinion and is not afraid of mistakes. Nyai Ontosoroh is a woman who dares to fight any oppression that befell her and her family. She is a woman who spreads her enthusiasm through the ages. a woman who does not want to come to terms with her own fate. Nyai Ontosoroh’s personality made Minke write the figure of this woman in a Dutch newspaper. The article is entitled Een Buitengewoon Gewoone Nyai DieIkke, in Indonesian it means An Extraordinary Nyai Who I Know. He was really amazed by this Nyai. Nyai Ontosoroh has a daughter from Lord Mellema, a beautiful and childish face, named Annelies Mellema. But Annelies was raped by her own brother Robert Mellema. The trauma made her soul fragile, difficult to get along with and always took refuge behind her mother’s greatness. Nyai Ontosoroh wants the child to be like him. Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ a woman who does not want to come to terms with her own fate. Nyai Ontosoroh’s personality made Minke write the figure of this woman in a Dutch newspaper. The article is entitled Een Buitengewoon Gewoone Nyai DieIkke, in Indonesian it means An Extraordinary Nyai Who I Know. He was really amazed by this Nyai. Nyai Ontosoroh has a daughter from Lord Mellema, a beautiful and childish face, named Annelies Mellema. But Annelies was raped by her own brother Robert Mellema. The trauma made her soul fragile, difficult to get along with and always took refuge behind her mother’s greatness. Nyai Ontosoroh wants the child to be like him. Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ a woman who does not want to come to terms with her own fate. Nyai Ontosoroh’s personality made Minke write the figure of this woman in a Dutch newspaper. The article is entitled Een Buitengewoon Gewoone Nyai DieIkke, in Indonesian it means An Extraordinary Nyai Who I Know. He was really amazed by this Nyai. Nyai Ontosoroh has a daughter from Lord Mellema, a beautiful and childish face, named Annelies Mellema. But Annelies was raped by her own brother Robert Mellema. The trauma made her soul fragile, difficult to get along with and always took refuge behind her mother’s greatness. Nyai Ontosoroh wants the child to be like him. Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ Nyai Ontosoroh’s personality made Minke write the figure of this woman in a Dutch newspaper. The article is entitled Een Buitengewoon Gewoone Nyai DieIkke, in Indonesian it means An Extraordinary Nyai Who I Know. He was really amazed by this Nyai. Nyai Ontosoroh has a daughter from Lord Mellema, a beautiful and childish face, named Annelies Mellema. But Annelies was raped by her own brother Robert Mellema. The trauma made her soul fragile, difficult to get along with and always took refuge behind her mother’s greatness. Nyai Ontosoroh wants the child to be like him. Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ Nyai Ontosoroh’s personality made Minke write the figure of this woman in a Dutch newspaper. The article is entitled Een Buitengewoon Gewoone Nyai DieIkke, in Indonesian it means An Extraordinary Nyai Who I Know. He was really amazed by this Nyai. Nyai Ontosoroh has a daughter from Lord Mellema, a beautiful and childish face, named Annelies Mellema. But Annelies was raped by her own brother Robert Mellema. The trauma made her soul fragile, difficult to get along with and always took refuge behind her mother’s greatness. Nyai Ontosoroh wants the child to be like him. Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ He was really impressed with this one Nyai. Nyai Ontosoroh has a daughter from Mr. Mellema, with a beautiful face and a child, named Annelies Mellema. But Annelies was once raped by her own brother Robert Mellema. The trauma made her soul fragile, difficult to get along with and always took refuge behind her mother’s greatness. Nyai Ontosoroh wants a child like himself. UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ He was really impressed with this one Nyai. Nyai Ontosoroh has a daughter from Mr. Mellema, with a beautiful face and a child, named Annelies Mellema. But Annelies was once raped by her own brother Robert Mellema. The trauma made her soul fragile, difficult to get along with and always took refuge behind her mother’s greatness. Nyai Ontosoroh wants a child like himself. UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

326

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

Strong in facing every problem. Annelies then had an affair and married Minke. Until one day the incident happened. Conflict occurred at Nyai’s house. Her husband, Herman Mellema was murdered. His status as factory ruler was shaky. She realized that she was a mistress who did not have the slightest right to own the company, including her own son. But he didn’t want to just give up. Then got up against to defend their rights. But whatever power, no matter how strong you fight, Nyai Ontosoroh is only a Nyai. He was completely immobile in the face of Dutch colonial law. That afternoon when the sun shone, the color of sorrow first enveloped Nyai Ontosoroh’s house. They lost before the Dutch colonial court. Annelies Mellema was taken by the Dutch. Minke, her lover, couldn’t do much. Everyone let go of Annelies’ grief. Destiny is irresistible. “We have fought, son, as best we can, as respectfully.” That is the end of the story of the struggle of a Dutch concubine named Nyai Ontosoroh who fought against Dutch colonial justice. This mother was despised not only by Dutch colonial law but also by the indigenous people of the place where she was raised. This injustice made Nyai Ontosoroh lose everything.

1. The personality of Nyai Ontosoroh Nyai Ontosoroh or Sanikem is also presented as a protagonist or main character whose appearance is so impressive because of his neat makeup, clear face, motherly smile, and his makeup that is too simple. He looks cute and young, olive skinned. (Toer, 2005: 32). In general, the personality of Nyai Ontosorod is as follows.

a. Hard worker Nyai Ontosoroh figure, he is a hard worker in managing his company or office. “Are you surprised to see women working?” I nodded. He looked at me as if to read my amazement.

Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ

327

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

328

“It’s good, is not it? All in white? All? It just follows the Dutch custom. (BM: 44) ”

As protagonists Annelies and Nyai Ontosoroh tend to dominate the whole story. Their domination presents other characters who have different characters and roles. b. Feeling (Feeling Not Given Injustice) As a concubine, she feels unfairly treated by Nyai’s husband and feels there is no justice to her. In Dutch law there is a visible Binary opposition, namely the difference between colonized and colonized. Where, Nyai Ontosoroh felt that he had been colonized by Dutch law. “At first I thought that with this recognition my children would get legal recognition as legitimate children. Apparently not, Ann.

Your brother and

kautetap is considered invalid, only recognized as the son of Mr. Mellema and has the right to use his name. (BM: 136) c. Nyai Ontosoroh cared to defend Minke when Mr. Mellema tried to insult Minke. Nyai Ontosoroh did not want his guests to be insulted or expelled by Mr. Mellema. “Shut up!” snapped Nyai in Dutch with a heavy and strong voice. “He is my guest.” “Europe is crazy just like crazy Indigenous people,” sprayed Nyai still in the Netherlands. His eyes lit up with hatred and disgust. (BM: 65) d. Nyai Ontosoroh sternly told about himself to Annelies. firmly with the intention that Annelies will not depend on her husband later.Anelies are very happy to listen to him.In Annelies’ mind actually wants to know if Mama and Papa used to feel what Annelies had felt for Minke.

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

329

….. “I can’t afford to forgive Sastromo’s greed and his wife’s weakness. Once in life one has to take a stand. Otherwise, he becomes nothing. “You’re too harsh, Ma, too (BM: 139) e. Courageous. I used to be his faithful Nya, his tough companion. Now he’s just trash without a price. People who can only embarrass themselves.

That is

in the

offspring of

your papa, Ann. “(BM: 66)

f. Firm After realizing his strength, Nyai Ontosoroh. In the past, I was his loyal, powerful companion. Now he is just trash without a price. A person who can only embarrass

his own offspring.

That’s

your papa, Ann. ” (BM: 66)

g. Obedient Awal being the wife of Mr Mellema, Nyai Ontosoroh never did anything that Mr Mellema didn’t want. Nyai Ontosoroh always obeys everything Mr. Mellema tells her. Although Nyai Ontosoroh doesn’t like to do it, Nyai Ontosoroh tries to make things better. I used to be his loyal Nyai, his strong companion. (BM: 66) h. The Nyai Ontosoroh student is a native. Her husband Mr. Mellema is a European. Even though she hates her husband, she doesn’t hate Europe. Instead, he learned a lot about Europe. All of this was obtained by Nyai Ontosoroh self-taught. Nyai Ontosoroh often reads many books about Europe. “But Mama is not a European hater. He had a lot of dealing with Europeans, even with experts, like Mr himself. Instead, he read the library. Europe. ” (BM: 371)

i. Resignation In a trial, Nyai Ontosoroh expressed her opinion and her heart’s content so far. Nyai Ontosoroh was forced to admit that Annelise was an Indo. At that time, Nyai Ontosoroh couldn’t do anything to Annelies. Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Position UKM UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

“I, Nyai Ontosoroh alias Sanikem, mistress of the late Mr. Mellema, have other considerations in the relationship between my son and my guest. Sanikem was only a mistress. From my concubine was born Annelise. Nobody has challenged my relationship with the late Mr. Mellema, just because he is European. Why is the relationship between my son and Mr. Minke in question? Just because Mr. Minke Native? Why was it not touched on by almost all Indo parents? Between me and Mr. Mellema there is a bond of bondage which has never been challenged by law. Between my son and Mr. Minke there is love that is both sincere. It is true that there is no such bond, nor were my children born, and no one objected. Europeans can buy Indigenous women like myself. Is this purchase truer than sincere love? If Europeans are allowed to act because of the superiority of money and power, why if the Natives are ridiculed, precisely because of love? (BM: 426)

Nyai Ontosoroh who was formerly named Sanikem and was a concubine from Mr. Mellema resigned to the statement he had received j. Loving For the sake of her son’s happiness, Nyai Ontosoroh is willing to do anything. Nyai Ontosoroh wants to see his son happy with the people he loves. Whatever happens Nyai Ontosoroh will still support and provide everything Annelies needs. Nyai Ontosoroh, a mother who loves and cherishes her child more than herself. Annelies once told me: Mama will release whatever she asks for for this party. And he also said: he wants to see as many people around his son, and join in the fun with him. So he will not regret it for the rest of his life. (BM: 452)

2. Psychological Conflict experienced by Nyi Ontosoroh Nyai Ontosoroh experiences inner conflict with Javanese feudal values ​​which have treated her unfairly and European values ​​which view Indigenous people very low – legalized through the laws of the colonial government -, has brought the Nyai Program Linguistics UKM Language and Literature Position UNJ

330

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

Ontosoroh in a new transformation. He consciously identified himself as a Native again, by first removing his inferior feelings towards Europe, which in this case represented by the Dutch. “So is that the kind of son of your legitimate wife?” I roared at sir. “Such is the kind of European civilization that you taught me through the years? You glorify as high as the sky? Day and night? Investigating the interior of the household and people’s livelihoods, insulting, to one day come extortion? … (BM: 106)

From that second, Ann, my respect for your father disappeared. His upbringing of dignity and honor has become a kingdom in me. He was nothing more than a Sastrotomo and his wife. If only there was his weight in facing such a small test, even without him I could take care of my children, could do everything by myself…. (BM: 107)

3. Nyi Ontosoroh’s attitude in dealing with the Nyai Ontosoroh conflict is a representation of the position of women who had difficulty accessing the public space during the colonialism era. However, this cannot be said to be a benchmark that women did not have a significant role in the history of the nation’s struggle. With all its limitations, Nyai Ontosoroh, who represents women from the lower classes, has a role in the nation’s struggle. NyaiOntosoroh presented the problem of building the character of the nation. This was done by Nyai Ontosoroh by building the independence of his life, which was neglected, especially by the powers that surround him – feudal power and colonial power. The independence of life as an individual will have an impact on the independence of this colonized nation from the colonial nation so that the term inlander can automatically be eliminated. “Blessed is he who eats from his own sweat, delights in his own efforts and progresses by his own experience.” (BM: 39) The above quote is Nyai Ontosoroh’s response to the story of Minke trying to make money by becoming a broker for a furniture company, during school time. This illustrates Nyai Ontosoroh’s strong vision of the importance of independence. Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ 39) The above quote is Nyai Ontosoroh’s response to the story of Minke trying to earn money by becoming a broker for a furniture company, during school time. This illustrates Nyai Ontosoroh’s strong vision of the importance of independence. Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ 39) The above quote is Nyai Ontosoroh’s response to the story of Minke trying to earn money by becoming a broker for a furniture company, during school time. This illustrates Nyai Ontosoroh’s strong vision of the importance of independence. Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ

331

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

Dependence on something else weakens one’s character and loses self-esteem. This is represented by the figure of Nyai Ontosoroh’s father, Sastrotomo, who slaves to Herman Mellema’s wishes because of his distrust in his own ability to gain the position as paymaster. This message can be universally interpreted that dependence on something else – represented by the Dutch – will make the Indonesian people will never be independent in the true sense. The independence of Nyai Ontosoroh as an individual made her brave enough to position herself in line with Herman Mellema – a European who is seen from any perspective as a superior being compared to the natives. Likewise, when Mauritz Mellema – the son of Herman Mellema’s first wife from his marriage in the Netherlands – through the power of the Dutch East Indies law tried to seize the property that was cultivated by Herman Mellema and Nyai Ontosoroh, Nyai Ontosoroh with all his might tried to fight against this power which he judged to be discriminatory and not humanitarian. With limited access to the public sphere, Nyai Ontosoroh also tries to build his nation through another hand. The other hand is Minke. Minke is the protagonist in Earth of Humans. That name is not his real name. Minke’s full name is Raden Tirto Adi Suryo. Minke is not a Javanese name, but a nickname, a change from the English monkey (Hellwig, 2003: 89). The debate about whether or not the characters in Bumi Manusia are real can not be separated from the depictions of the characters that are so clear and strong that, as Sumardjo (in Asmara, 1981: 40) says, the stories in Bumi Manusia are similar to biographical paintings. Minke got to know Nyai Ontosoroh through his unexpected acquaintance with Annelies, the son of Nyai Ontosoroh, who later became Minke’s wife. Nyai Ontosoroh’s attitude that is separated from the image or standard of a nyai makes Minke very amazed. “We have fought, son, Nyo, the best we can, with the most respect.” (BM: 405) From this it can be concluded that Nyai Ontosoroh’s role is very big in the struggle in his efforts to build the Indonesian nation. This role of awareness has had a tremendous effect on Minke so that he becomes a young man who realizes the downturn in his nation due to colonialism and with that awareness he fights for his nation. Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ

332

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

Conclusions and Suggestions

From the research results it can be concluded that (1) the personality of women in romance can be found through the character Nyai Ontosoroh, she has the same characteristics as women who are gentle, patient, nrima, wise, surrender, independent, assertive, and strong. (2) The psychological conflicts experienced by characters in the novels reflect injustices such as economic marginalization, subordination, labeling, violence, and double workloads caused by gender differences; (3) The attitude of women in dealing with and dealing with conflicts in the romance of Bumi Manusia, which is represented by the figure of Nyai Ontosoroh is a woman who is advanced, strong, assertive, and independent. Nyai Ontosoroh is a figure who has a strong stance, is resilient and never gives up in fighting, is rational and has a vision of nationality. Nyai Ontosoroh is a symbol of resistance to the arbitrariness of power and to the dignity of a nation. What is quite prominent in the Nyai Ontosoroh script is the process of building a sovereign character that is able to face and fight against power without tearing apart individual or class integrity. Moreover, the character building process is imposed on the context of colonial history, which is still relevant even in contemporary socio-cultural studies.

References Abrams, MH and Geoffrey Galt Harpham. 2008. A Glossary of Literary Terms. Boston: Wadswort Publishing. Atmazaki. 2005. Literature: Theory and Applied. Padang: Citra Buana Indonesia. Andre Hardjana. 1985. Literary Criticism: An Introduction. Jakarta: Gramedia. Atar Semi, M. 1993. Anatomy of Literature. Bandung: Angkasa Raya. Bimo Walgito. 1997. Introduction to General Psychology. Yogyakarta: Andi Offset. Burhan Nurgiyantoro. 1995. Theory of Fiction Assessment. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press. Davidoff, Linda L. 1991. An Introduction to Psychology (translated by Mari Jumiati). Jakartta: Erlangga. Dick Hartoko and B. Rahmanto. 1986. Guide in the World of Literature. Yoyakarta: Kanisius. Linguistics Program of Language and Literature Department of UNJ

333

Seminar on Language and Literature 2015

Escarpit, Robert. 2005. Sociology of Literature (translation). Jakarta: Obor Foundation. Fokkema, DW and Elrud Kunne Ibsch. 1977. Theories of Literature in the Twentieth Century. London: C. Hurst and Company. Hoed, Benny H. 2011. Semiotics and Socio-Cultural Dynamics. Depok: Bamboo Community. Klarer, Mario. 2004. An Introduction to Literary Studies. London and New York: Routledge. Hall, S. Calvin and Lindzey Gardner. 1993. Psychodynamic (clinical) theories (translated edition by A. Supratikna). Yogyakarta: Kanisius. Moleong, Lexy J. 2002. Qualitative Research Methods. Bandung: Youth Rosda Karya. Mursal Esten. 1984. Indonesian Literature and Sub-Cultural Traditions. Bandung: Space. __________. 1990. Introduction to Theory and History Center. Bandung: Space. Sumadi Suryabrata. 1993. Personality Psychology. Jakarta: Raja Grafindo Persada. Usman Efffendi and Juhaya S. King. 1993. Introduction to Psychology. Bandung: Angkasa Wellek, Rene and Austin Warren. 1990. Literary theory (translated edition by Melanie Budianta). Jakarta: Gramedia. Zainuddin Fananie. 2000. Study of literature. Surakarta: Muhammadyah University Press.

Linguistics Program of UNJ Language and Literature Position Student Activity Unit

334

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

335

LITERATURE AND EFFORTS TO REDUCE THE BEAUTY INDEPENDENTS29

Helvy Tiana Rosa30

What is beauty? Concrete or abstract-is that beauty? Is beauty the truth? And does truth mean beauty? When I started my writing career at a very young age in elementary school, I never thought that as a writer I should write beautiful works. At that time I only tried to write works that could be published in the media, which could be published as books. Works that many people can understand and make money for school. The ‘complicated’ questions about beauty above only appeared when I became an editor in a teen story magazine Annida in 1991. Yes, a work of art must not rely on beauty. How beautiful? In accordance with the meaning of the dictionary which is beautiful, beautiful, beautiful and handsome? Then which one is really beautiful? Is there a measure and a formula? Or can it only be felt? Where exactly is that beauty? How do we put beauty in its place? Is everyone’s sense of beauty the same or different? According to Socrates, beauty is everything that pleases and fulfills the last wish. Aristotle believed that beauty is all that is good and pleasant. Id quod visum placet or something that is pleasant to see, said Thomas Aquinas, while Herbert Read in his book: The Meaning of Art, defines beauty as the unity of the form relationships that exist between our sensory perceptions (beauty is unity 29 Aristotle believed that beauty is all that is good and pleasant. Id quod visum placet or something that is pleasant to see, said Thomas Aquinas, while Herbert Read in his book: The Meaning of Art, defines beauty as the unity of the form relationships that exist between our sensory perceptions (beauty is unity 29 Aristotle believed that beauty is all that is good and pleasant. Id quod visum placet or something that is pleasant to see, said Thomas Aquinas, while Herbert Read in his book: The Meaning of Art, defines beauty as the unity of the form relationships that exist between our sensory perceptions (beauty is unity 29

30

Presented at the Seminar Between the Nations of Malaysia National University and Jakarta State University. Author and Lecturer in Literature at the Faculty of Language and Arts, Jakarta State University.

Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Position UKM UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

of formal relations among our sense-perceptions). According to The Liang Gie, broadly the notion of beauty includes many things related to art, nature, morals, and intellectuals. Meanwhile, according to him, beauty in a purely aesthetic sense concerns a person’s aesthetic experience in relation to everything he absorbs. Then how about beauty in literature? Literature is an expression of the human person in the form of experience, thought, feeling, idea, enthusiasm, belief in a concrete image, which evokes fascination with language instruments. In a meeting between the author and Mochtar Lubis, he once said that there are at least three things in it. a literary work of quality, namely: (1) beauty, (2) renewal and (3) truth. These three things are something that is integrated, and cannot be separated. When a person reads a literary work he can feel that “beautiful” enters his mind as well as his soul. He feels something touching about what he reads, the language he uses, the characters, the conflicts he faces, how the character overcomes all problems with all his limitations, and so on. Readers can also find the truth expressed, implied, and even – to borrow a term from the writer Hamid Jabbar – worst, in the work. Thus, beauty is actually a separate imprint in a literary work. The novelty and truth that Mochtar Lubis refers to is even a part that contributes to the beauty of a literary work. The extent to which beauty is part of a literary work is further clarified by Jakob Sumardjo when he discusses aesthetic values ​​in literary works.

Jakob Sumardjo & Saini KM, Literary Appreciation, Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama, 1997), p. 13.

31

Program SME Linguistics and Literature Languages Department UNJ

336

Seminar Languages and Literature 2015

Some writers may feel that these beautiful literary works are often elusive. It is not uncommon for those who embrace the understanding, the more difficult it is to understand the more beautiful the work. And: “The most important thing for us is not understanding, but feeling its beauty!” But is that so? Isn’t beauty a universal language? Then the question is, is there any use in the name of our beauty in writing something if the writing doesn’t arrive because it can’t be understood by the public? Or is it because the writing “didn’t arrive” that we felt the writing was beautiful and handsome? Since the beginning of my work I have believed that literature should be close to society. As much as possible, literature is not as distant from society as possible. Therefore, a good literary work will not make the writer far from his society. WS Rendra’s “Sajak Sebatang Lisong” written in 1977, for example, confirms this; a kind of “proclamation” made by Rendra on his choice later in the poetry “pamphlet”. What is the meaning of art, if apart from environmental pain? What does it mean to think, apart from the problems of life. Previously, in the same poem, Rendra insinuated those whom he called “salon poets”, namely those who “rhyme about wine and the moon, while injustice occurs beside him.” According to Rendra, the existence of these “salon poets” has made literature increasingly distant from society. apart from the problems of life. Previously, in the same poem, Rendra insinuated those whom he referred to as “salon poets”, namely those who “rhyme about wine and the moon, while injustice occurs beside him.” According to Rendra, the existence of these “salon poets” has made literature increasingly distant from society. apart from the problems of life. Previously, in the same poem, Rendra insinuated those whom he referred to as “salon poets”, namely those who “rhyme about wine and the moon, while injustice occurs beside him.” According to Rendra, the existence of these “salon poets” has made literature increasingly distant from society.

Instead of caring about community issues, the “salon poets” are even busy

aesthetic exploration in the verses, as well as being busy arguing about the beauty itself, these things actually make them even more alien and alienated from society. Doing various aesthetic exploration in literary works is really recommended, but as much as possible it does not make a writer on top of a “tower” while the people can only be stunned watching from below. I would like to take an example of the organization I founded, the Forum Lingkar Pena (FLP), which is now playing a significant role in the latest Indonesian literary movements. The members of FLP come from various backgrounds, including students, laborers, farmers to domestic workers (PRT / domestic helper). When I founded FLP in 1997, many circles ridiculed including the Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ

337

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

poet himself. According to them, what FLP did by inviting various groups to write literary works was absurd and ridiculous. For them, writing literary works is not an activity that can be socialized because writers are not random people, but people who are gifted, who are selected. Thus there is no lesson that can make someone a writer. The point is “literature cannot be taught”, especially for the little people such as manual labor, farmers or domestic workers (PRT / domestic helper). I agree that we cannot teach literature to young people with the target that they will become the next Sutardji Calzoum Bachri or Sapardi Djoko Damono, but to a certain extent, writing literature can still be taught. Thus emerged the statements that doubted the aesthetic achievement of the paramuda who were members of the FLP. Some said FLP members were “literary converts” and even dubbed the works of FLP Hong Kong members, the majority of whom were domestic helpers there, as “babu literature” because they were considered less beautiful. One thing that is ignored by those who feel that the works of FLP members are less aesthetic and rely solely on ethical aspects is that the writers of the FLP have made efforts to make beauty no longer synonymous with the distance that stretches between writers and readers. Literature needs to be brought closer to the reading community through various appreciations that are packaged in a variety of interesting activities that bring together writers / writers and readers. A literary work will feel more beautiful when it “reaches” its readers, is able to “dialogue” with readers and brings reflections that are not lost to the times, for the reader as the writer’s true lover. Therefore in FLP literary beauty is interpreted as a beauty that emanates from meaningful works that are enlightening and able to bring benefits to the readers. Thus, the worst the work of the members of this organization should never bring harm to society, because it means breaking the order of beauty they create. For FLP, in the beauty of literary works there is truth and in the truth of a literary work, beauty radiates. Both become a unified whole. Prominent Eastern philosophers and writers;

338

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

wisdom, namely knowledge that can bring the reader to the heart’s enlightenment, (5) like Rumi or Attar, writers must also act as teachers of spirituality and humanity in a society that is hit by crisis and setbacks. and the author, Iqbal thinks that literary works and writers cannot be separated, because these two things are part of the real beauty of creation. Returning to the concept of beauty, contemporary aesthetists argue that making the boundaries of the term ‘beauty’ or ‘beautiful’ is a modern semantic problem, without any single correct answer. Therefore more of them talk about art in terms of aesthetic experiences, because these two things are not abstract notions but concrete symptoms which can be analyzed by empirical observation and systematic analysis. Thus in the 18th century the notion of beauty began to lose its position. Even according to the Polish esthetician Tatarkiewicz, it is rare to find a conception of beauty in aesthetic writings of the 20th century. Various debates about beauty have come to the conclusion that there is no absolute or absolute beauty. Beauty in the end is a word that has many meanings. That the beauty that has many meanings in every perspective of the creators of literary works has its own uniqueness, and beauty will continue to dialogue with the creator and society, with the past and the present, until new discoveries are reached, and so on. I close this simple paper with a quote from Jalaluddin Rumi’s poem who claims to have learned to write in “the beauty of the Supreme” in order to achieve the essence of beauty as a slave; a servant who makes “Great Vision” at the heart of his art: In Your light I learn to love. In Your beauty I learned to write poetry. You always dance in my heart, even though no one sees You, and sometimes I dance with You too. And it is this “Great Vision” that is at the heart of my art. In Your beauty I learned to write poetry. You always dance in my heart, even though no one sees You, and sometimes I dance with You too. And it is this “Great Vision” that is at the heart of my art. In Your beauty I learned to write poetry. You always dance in my heart, even though no one sees You, and sometimes I dance with You too. And it is this “Great Vision” that is at the heart of my art.

32

MM Syarif, Iqbal: About God and Beauty, Mizan, Bandung, 1989, p. 35.

Linguistics Program of UKM Language and Literature Position UNJ

339

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

Finally for me, a beautiful literary work is a kind of trail that continues to burn in the world, and can be a light in the afterlife for us as writers. Hopefully. Allahu a’lam.

Linguistics Program of Language and Literature Unit of UNJ

340

Language and Literature Seminar 2015 2015

PROCESS OF BETAWI DESIGN TEXT CREATION: THROUGH THE ETHNOPUITICS APPROACH OF MELAYU33

Siti Gomo Attas, M.Hum. 34

Introduction

Jakarta is the gateway for various types of ethnic groups who want to try their luck and look for various jobs. As a transit area for various ethnic groups, Jakarta is known to have a multicultural society. According to Lance Castle (2007, p. 11) Jakarta is inhabited by a community calling itself the Betawi people. This society is formed from the melting pot process, which is a mixture of various ethnicities and regions, both from inside and outside Indonesia. This tribe is thought to have existed since the end of the 19th century. So this causes the people of Jakarta to be densely populated with various ethnicities and diverse cultures from the existence of this melting plot. As a society formed from the melting pot process, the position of the Betawi people is no longer marked by their respective ethnic identities. However, The position of the Betawi people has changed into a new identity called the Betawi tribe or the Betawi people. This can be identified by various signifying features, such as the language used, namely Betawi Malay and other signifying features of the tribe. Therefore, the position of the Betawi people has undergone changes that cannot be separated from the two characteristics of these markers.

33

Presented at the Seminar between the Nations of the Malaysian National University and the Jakarta State University. Lecturer at the Indonesian Literature Study Program, Jakarta State University.

34

Linguistics Program of Language and Literature Department, UNJ

341

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

342

Meanwhile, the Betawi people who live in Jakarta are increasingly pressed by the entry of various cities and various government reasons as a manifestation of development. This process of displacement not only moved the indigenous people to the margins, but also drew the roots of the Betawi tradition from the community. This aims to solve all the problems that exist in the capital city. However, this resulted in the loss of the Betawi tradition due to the process of displacement of the indigenous people. Even though from the indigenous community, the true Betawi tradition will continue to be recognized and preserved to the next generation. In addition, data from the Jakarta Culture and Museum Office emphasized that “There is an alarming condition, namely that some Betawi cultural arts are on the verge of extinction. one of them is the gambang rancag ”(Kiftiawati, 2011). This condition should not have happened, if only the duties of the DKI Jakarta Regional Government had been carried out properly. These tasks are to protect, develop and utilize Betawi arts in accordance with the content of Permen No. 49 of 2009 concerning the protection, development and utilization of Betawi arts. On the one hand, Betawi arts must be maintained, but on the other hand, policies in the name of development will continue to be implemented without any policy analysis to maintain the Betawi art which is getting worse and on the verge of extinction. Information from several researchers about the existence of gambang rancag, namely according to Kunst (1934, p. 308) in the book De Toon Kunst van Java, based on the records of this Dutch ethnomusicologist in the 1930s that the Gambang Rancag group was still widely considered. Meanwhile, according to Muhadjir (1986, p.) In the Betawi Cultural Arts Map book, the Gambang Rancag group which in the 1980s still existed in two regions, namely Pasar Rebo District and Cempaka Putih District. The same thing was stated by Atik Sopandi (1989, p.)

in the Gambag Rancag book, that the Gambang Rancag group is still

present in two areas, namely Pasar Rebo and Kampung Irian. Furthermore, according to Ruchiat (2000, p.) In the Betawi Arts Overview book,

the gambang rancag group is located in

three regions, namely Pekayon, Cijantung, and Bendungan Jago. And according to data collection by Yayah Andi Saputra (52 years), interview on 12 December 2014, that Gambang Rancag currently only has one group, namely the Jali Putra Group in Pekayon led by Burhan (45 years),

the Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Unit of the UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar. Literature 2015

343

although since 2005 Firman (36 years) – Burhan’s younger brother has created another new group, namely the Putra Jali Group, having its address at Beji Depok. Based on the data from the research results of the researchers above, it shows that the existence of Gambang Rancag is already on the verge of extinction. On the other hand, the gambang rancag as a narrative folklore is unique, that is, the process of creating a textual design requires the interaction of the speaker with the audience who is in a performance context, especially

to show the form of orality shown through

songs.

the plan that the planner brings, including the contents of the story that is sung and streamed. The term gambang rancag according to Kunst (1934, p. 308), in his book Do Toonkunst van Java, states that: the gambang rancag that lived in Batavia and its surrounding areas which received Chinese influence, was used to accompany the stories being sung (what called syair) about impressive events that occurred in past years, for example the story of Pitung Rampok Betawi, the story of Angkri Hanging in Betawi, the story of Delep Kelebu di Laut, and usually as an opening accompanied by songs such as Jali-Jali, Persi, Surilang, Lenggang Kangkung, Keramet Kerem, and so on accompanied by musical instruments consisting of wooden xylophone, kenong, and drums.

Furthermore, according to Sopandi et al. (1992, pp. 76−77) in the book Gambang Rancag by the DKI Jakarta Culture Office, that: “gambang rancag comes from two words, namely the words gambang and rancag, gambang is the main instrument in the Gambang Kromong orchestra used to accompany singing as a means the appearance of the story in the form of a related poem. Furthermore, the word rancag is Betawi folk tales in the form of rhymes or poems sung by two male singers, with fast rhythms and melodies. ” So it can be said that Gambang Rancag is gambang Kromong music accompanied by songs that tell Betawi folk tales in the form of poetry or poetry and are flavored with jokes or humor.

Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Position UKM UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

Ruchiat et al. (2003, p. 156) that: The definition of rancag or gambang rancag refers to two words, namely the word rancag (according to the words of the suburban Betawi people) or rancak (according to the city / middle Betawi people), which means pantun (rancagan means pantunan). Stories that are sung chanted are called rancag stories, in the form of related poetry and verse. Based on the definition of gambang rancag above, it can be concluded that gambang rancag is a story that is chanted and sung in the form of a song accompanied by gambang Kromong music. In accordance with what was expressed by the senior designer, namely the informant in an interview on January 10, 2012, Rojali (78 years) who emphasized that: When singing a story either in the form of a poem or a poem, skills are required in composing a string of words that come out of the speaker’s mouth and create a form related to the speaker’s culture. Oral xylophone speakers freely assemble words in the form of poems and poems with certain patterns, as a result the audience is captivated by the greatness of the speaker in the weaving of the text assembly (verses and poems).

The method or technique of speaking by the designer in the context of the performance to process words orally and carefully is to show that the creator or speaker needs memory, not memorization. The statement explains the meaning of the word “memorize” which means starting from the writing then recorded in the head, and the word “remember” which means not originating from writing, but has been recorded in the head. The purpose of this statement is to show that the text (pantun and syair) that is spoken has been absorbed by the speaker and has become a part of the lives of the speaker in the cultural locus. Thus, the statement refers to the way the gambag rancag procedure is part of the Betawi tradition which prioritizes the appreciation of the speakers. This picture shows a problem, that is, the imbalance between expectations and reality. This imbalance is in the form of the existence of gambang rancag as a cultural product that is on the verge of extinction. But on the other hand, this art has an aesthetic value and meaning for its people. Therefore, it requires inheritance

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

344

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

which is fast, on the other hand this oral tradition requires special expertise from a creator or designer so that it can be performed attractively according to the xylophone pattern. The approach in this research is through the study of oral traditions, the concept of oral tradition, according to Lord (1976; Sweeney, 1980, and Ong, 1982 in Sibarani, 2013: p. 8) that: oral tradition is not only narrow in terms of fairy tales, mythology , and legends with various messages in it, but also regarding the cognitive system of society, sources of identity, means of expression, religious and belief systems, formation and enforcement of customs, history, law, medicine, beauty, creativity, community origins, and wisdom. local in the community and environment. disclosure of orality is conveyed primarily by relying on memory factors, the storyteller or storyteller does remember, not memorize what he says. Based on the concept of oral tradition, it shows that an oral tradition is very broad, but can be limited to an expression in the form of customs, perspectives, creativity of a community that is conveyed orally or other markers that have form and meaning. Especially for verbal delivery, of course the designer as well as the creator requires the act of observing what is conveyed in the improvised song of the plan. For this reason, this paper also needs to explain the form or act of remembering by using formula theory according to Milman Parry’s (1971, p. 272; in Davidson, 1988, p. 88) is “a group of words which is regularly employed under the same metrical conditions to express a given essential idea” (a group of words that are regularly used in the same metrical conditions to express an essential or principal idea). So the formula appears many times in the story, which may be a word, phrase, clause, or array. To produce this repetition, the narrator takes two ways, namely remembering the loop and creating it through analogy with the repetition of existing words, phrases, clauses, and arrays. Furthermore, after understanding the concept of oral tradition with its oral tradition, of course this research needs to communicate what happens in an oral performance of the oral process, so it is necessary to use the GL Malay poetic model. Koster, in the form of the process of creating oral texts, is part of the Malay Poetic concept, namely ideas, both systematic and unsystematic. The following will describe the process of creating a text for the Linguistic Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ

345

Seminar on Language and Literature 2015

oral gambang rancag in the context of the performance, the method of the process of creating this text is called the Malay poetic approach by GL Koster (2008, p. 34) that there are four approaches, namely: (1) creator, (2) text, ( 3) The universe, and (4) the audience.

Creation in the Process of Creating Oral Text of Gambang Rancag The creator in the oral tradition of gambang rancag is a designer or person who creates the text during the performance and the person who creates the text outside the show (before the performance starts). In this research, it was found that there were two creation processes. The first is the

creation process that occurs in the context of the show, namely at the time

the poet who sings the rancag who transforms folklore into the form of poems and poems accompanied by kromong gambang music. Second, that is the creation before and apart from the show, the process is done by Rojali senior planner outside the show (Rojali has bequeathed play to his two children Word (36 Years) and Jafar (50 Years) and his grandson Jaykandi (27 Years). the poet in the oral tradition can be described as the creator of the poetic texts through the act of remembering. by the Betawi community.What the planner remembers is not limited to literature which means modern, other forms of knowledge that are commonly remembered consist of customs, cosmology, history, and many other sciences. Here is an example of a memorable action event for a planner to get the materials available and valid to speak. As for the rancag text that will be seen as a text that undergoes the process of creation by the speaker is the rancag text of the Pitung, here is an example of a rancag transcript transcript at the show July 18, 2013 held at the Taman Ismail Marzuki Pecenongan Literature Exhibition (TIM). Related poem forms: (1) If the cake came, why did the people’s food come? The food of the people came. If the crossbar crosses why the shells are hung (of course) Put on the ears of all those who are openly UKM Linguistic Program, Department of Language and Literature UNJ and many other sciences. The following is an example of an act of remembering for a designer to obtain materials that are available and legitimate to be told. The draft text that will be seen as a text that has undergone a process of creation by its speakers is the Pitung design text, here is an example of a transcript of a draft transcript from the July 18 2013 show held at the Taman Ismail Marzuki Pecenongan Literature Exhibition (TIM). The form of the rhyme is related: (1) For sumping cake, why do people eat sumping cake, why do people eat? If the crossbar why does the shells hang (emang-emang) Put the ears of everything that is clear. Linguistics Program of the UNJ Language and Literature Position UKM and many other sciences. The following is an example of an act of remembering for a designer to obtain materials that are available and legitimate to be told. The draft text that will be seen as a text that has undergone a process of creation by its speakers is the Pitung design text, here is an example of a transcript of a draft transcript from the July 18 2013 show held at the Taman Ismail Marzuki Pecenongan Literature Exhibition (TIM). The form of the rhyme is related: (1) For sumping cake, why do people eat sumping cake, why do people eat? If the crossbar why does the shells hang (emang-emang) Put the ears of everything that is clear. Linguistics Program of the UNJ Language and Literature Position UKM The draft text that will be seen as a text that has undergone a process of creation by its speakers is the Pitung design text, here is an example of a transcript of a draft transcript from the July 18 2013 show held at the Taman Ismail Marzuki Pecenongan Literature Exhibition (TIM). The form of the rhyme is related: (1) For sumping cake, why do people eat sumping cake, why do people eat? If the crossbar why does the shells hang (emang-emang) Put the ears of everything that is clear. Linguistics Program of the UNJ Language and Literature Position UKM The draft text that will be seen as a text that has undergone a process of creation by its speakers is the Pitung design text, here is an example of a transcript of a draft transcript from the July 18 2013 show held at the Taman Ismail Marzuki Pecenongan Literature Exhibition (TIM). The form of the rhyme is related: (1) For sumping cake, why do people eat sumping cake, why do people eat? If the crossbar why does the shells hang (emang-emang) Put the ears of everything that is clear. Linguistics Program of the UNJ Language and Literature Position UKM

346

2015 Language and Literature Seminar

On the bright one Put your ears to let it be clear Half-eleven we stay here. Want to tell the story of Uwa Pitung (Firman)

(2) If you put a lamp, you say that the shell is hanging Put the shell on the lamp is hanging If you take a banana kepok young (emang-emang-emang) The one here brings the plan Bang Pitung We are told to plan Bang Pitung The one who once robbed in the village of Tanah Merunda (Jafar)

Poetry Form (14)

Talking about the older brother Pitung When the fugitive man realized because Prince Ga came here, not absent Bang Pitung twirling It’s so long that Pitung has entered the inside of the newspaper Who can catch Pitung one hundred million get paid (Firman)

(15)

Brother Pitung when he was fugitive He made up the way he climbed from the wall of the road creeping on top of the tile If Bang Pitung was wise (Jafar)

(16)

Bang Jafar, if his friend Pitung wanted to know that people were wise Two years he didn’t have Pitung in the month of the UKM Linguistics Program Position of Language and Literature UNJ

347

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

348

E, the name Pitung is already famous, you could say everywhere What can catch Pitung from tenabang to urtena. Word Based on the text of verses 1 and 2 above, it shows the use of formulas according to the repetition that occurs between the array before and after the array, but the repetition is not on the same place. In the 1st array, namely: / If the sumping cake is why people’s food /, is repeated in the 2nd line, namely: / the person’s food sumping cake, both 1st and 2nd rows show the repetition as an action to remember

and

prepare the following arrays and to get suitability with the musical accompaniment rancag that has a penthatonic tone on the Betawi traditional scale. The next form of repetition, namely the 5th array is repeated on the 6th and 7th array, namely: / Put the ears all bright / In the light / Put the ears so it’s bright /, from the song spoken by Perancag Firman, during the gambang rancag performance that afternoon, there was a repetition of several lines from verse 1. This repetition was of course aimed at harmonizing the Pitung’s rancag song with the accompaniment of Gambang Kromong music. According to Firman (36 Tahuna) Interview on 21 April 2015, one of the designers stated that: Repetition is one of the characteristics of the plan, namely that the song is “chopped” or “cut into pieces”, it can also mean being re-updated, even though it is actually a rhyme that should be 4 lines, namely two sampiran and 2 contents, four lines are not doubted but it could be more because it has been “chopped”, besides that, the repetition aims to maintain the harmony of the rhythm with the accompanying music and as an act of remembering to prepare mix the next song array. What was stated by the word planner above is in accordance with what the researcher heard from the rancag song sung by the two designers at the time of the performance that the repetition of the line carried out by the two designers was an act to remember the next song. The repetition of the 3rd line of verse 3 which is repeated in the 1st line of verse 4 in the rancag song performed in the Gambang Rancag performance on 18 July 2013 at TIM is a feature of the related pantun,

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

Word by way of continuing the song rancag, there is a connection between the lines of the song rancag they bring. The description of the repetition shows the form of the related verse as an act of remembrance by the two planners known as the formula. This is also seen in some bytes in the rancag text, namely stanzas 3 and 4, stanzas 5 and 6, stanzas 7 and 8, stanzas 9 and 10, while stanzas 11-32 rancag text created by the planner using memory in the form of poetry. In this creation, the planner no longer uses the term formula but has already taken the “ngaleter” action. A slash action is an act of remembering what first appears as a line that will be pronounced at the last part of the created plot. The level of difficulty in the creation by means of “ngaleter”. more difficult than the creation of related verses in verses 1-11. The uniqueness of these two forms of rancag makes rancag text difficult to do by beginners who want to learn to play gambang rancag especially if they want to sing rancag. The harmony of the music as an accompaniment in this show also needs to be noted by the planner, when the text in each line will be repeated and when the text in each line is not repeated.

Text of the Rancag Song in the Gambang Rancag Performance The text in the oral tradition according to Muhammad Haji Salleh (1992: 18) is “gesamtkuntwerk” or the result of combining several art forms, for example the sound of the narrator’s voice, accompanying music, movements, and tools used in various show. It can be said that the oral tradition of gambang rancag also does not only talk about the words spoken by the speakers, but also combines several forms, therefore, especially for the oral literature put forward by Western researchers beforehand, it is deemed necessary to reexamine especially how the representation of what is contained in the oral tradition text. in Indonesia in particular and in general in the Malay world. To be able to manifest texts in the oral tradition requires the concept of remembering, that the memory power of the speaker can provide the tools that enable him to improvise a delivery that can be lengthened or shortened without any preparation. This is the same as what guslars did in Bosnia, Serbia, and Croatia, that the guslars in telling stories did not memorize, but were a process.

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

349

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

350

as composition in performance, improvising the words of the story at the time it is presented. According to Koster (2008: 42) that the storytelling technique lies in the speaker’s memory — not in memorization, but in the speaker’s ability to repeat familiar patterns or schemes from the storytelling tradition. Furthermore, according to Sweeney (1980: 62) that the schemes can be likened to formulic grammar. These patterns are less formal that the speaker remembers and can be filled in with variants following the artistic needs of creating stories. For that, schemas can be developed by story elements, such as plot, theme, character and formula. The following will describe how the elements of the story in the Gambang Rancag provide a scheme so that the story can be created. The plot in the Gambang Rancag performance story will provide a scheme that remains the same. Flow functions to form schemes or to develop a story line. Based on an excerpt from the transcript of the gambang rancag performance at Taman Ismail Marzuki (TIM) on July 18, 2013, it shows that based on the memory of the scaffolding (Perancag I and II) in the Gambang Rancag performance of Si Pitung’s story from a simple plot pattern, it is developed into several verses of poetry and verse. There are several plot patterns that are still described in the transcript excerpt above. The main plot pattern in the story of Si Pitung starts with Pitung robbing, then succeeding in escaping the ema money and silver money of the skipper of Hajj Syamsuddin, Pitung is sought, Pitung is arrested and put in jail in Mester, then disappears from the prison, whoever catches Pitung will be rewarded, Scoot Hena manages to shoot Pitung, Pitung’s intestines are dried, his grave is guarded. From the plot pattern above, it is developed into 32 stanzas, consisting of 13 verses in the form of rhymes as the opening and contents of the plan. The opening of Si Pitung’s story plan is shown in verses 1-3. Meanwhile verses 4-13 are the contents of the story which is described in the tranascript below. Furthermore, verses 14-32 are the form of poetry – which is also the result of the development of the plot pattern which is the content and closure of the story of Si Pitung’s plan. The development of the plot pattern can be seen in the transcript excerpt below. The pattern of plot development by designers I and II in the Si Pitung story design xylophone performance, on the results From the plot pattern above, it is developed into 32 stanzas, consisting of 13 verses in the form of rhymes as the opening and contents of the plan. The opening of Si Pitung’s story plan is shown in verses 1-3. Meanwhile verses 4-13 are the contents of the story which is described in the tranascript below. Furthermore, verses 14-32 are the form of poetry – which is also the result of the development of the plot pattern which is the content and closure of the story of Si Pitung’s plan. The development of the plot pattern can be seen in the transcript excerpt below. The pattern of plot development by designers I and II in the Si Pitung story design xylophone performance, on the results From the plot pattern above, it is developed into 32 stanzas, consisting of 13 verses in the form of rhymes as the opening and contents of the plan. The opening of Si Pitung’s story plan is shown in verses 1-3. Meanwhile verses 4-13 are the contents of the story which is described in the tranascript below. Furthermore, verses 14-32 are the form of poetry – which is also the result of the development of the plot pattern which is the content and closure of the story of Si Pitung’s plan. The development of the plot pattern can be seen in the transcript excerpt below. The pattern of plot development by designers I and II in the Si Pitung story design xylophone performance, on the results Furthermore, verses 14-32 are the form of poetry – which is also the result of the development of the plot pattern which is the content and closing of the story of Si Pitung’s plot. The development of the plot pattern can be seen in the transcript excerpt below. The pattern of plot development by designers I and II in the Si Pitung story design xylophone performance, on the results Furthermore, verses 14-32 are the form of poetry – which is also the result of the development of the plot pattern which is the content and closing of the story of Si Pitung’s plot. The development of the plot pattern can be seen in the transcript excerpt below. The pattern of plot development by designers I and II in the Si Pitung story design xylophone performance, on the results

transcript of recorded

performances at TIM on July 18 using memories from the designer. That the pattern of the Linguistic Program of the Language and Literature Unit of the UNJ

2015 Language and Literature Seminar,

the main lines they remember can be developed. It can be seen in the transcript that the main plot can be developed by adding a few verses to develop the story, at the beginning of the plot the plot pattern only conveys information to the audience that the story of the day.

The audience in the Gambang Rancag Show A text called a show according to Koster (2008, p. 51) is formed by dialogue, movement, and music which is the composition of the artist as the creator as well as by the audience. The artist as the composer of folklore according to Kleden (2008, p. 136) in the form of a show, as a level I discourse, while the creation by the influence of the audience who also changed the show is called a level II discourse. In a lively gambang show, the story that has been composed by the planner into a form of show changes according to the nature of the audience, although the audience accepts all the performances of the planner, but the audience is not passive, noisy, enthusiastic, atmosphere will also determine the length of the story or plot shown. This means that although in the beginning already has the composition of the show, however, there is a possibility that changes in composition may occur as the design shows in front of the audience, the reactions, tastes and atmosphere of the audience. Such performance events are included in level II discourse (Kleden, 2008, p. 137). The following will show how in a show that has involved the audience, there are variations in the story between one show and another. There are efforts by designers to invite to inform the audience what will be conveyed. In the Si Pitung story plan show that took place on July 18, 2013 at Taman Ismail Marzuki which was witnessed by various elements of the audience, especially Betawi culture observers who were present at the show at that time. Perancag started the plan by telling the audience that the story they were going to tell was the story of Uwa Pitung. Perancag uses the word / Put ear everything that is clear /, the audience is invited to concentrate on listening to the stories they will present. There is an invitation for all audiences to focus on the story to be told. This is illustrated in the transcript below.

Linguistics Program of UKM Language and Literature Position UNJ

351

Language and Literature Seminar 2015 For

sumping cake, why are people’s food cakes, sumping, people’s food? If the cross is across why do the shells hang (emang-emang) Put the ears of everything that is bright In the open ears let it be clear. Half of eleven we stay here. Want to tell Uwa Pitung.

From the transcript above, it shows that the oral tradition, which presents all the performance events, is a sign of differentiation between the oral tradition and the written tradition. The role of the audience in the oral tradition also influences the variety of performances in each place where the performance takes place. Whereas other invitation information in the above quotation, namely inviting the audience of the Pitung design to cheer by singing / emang-emangemang /, namely the invitation of the designer to call out the atmosphere of the performance. The more boisterous the song became, the more enthusiastic the designer sang the plan. Including the movement of the planner by raising his hands to the audience to follow the song / emang-emang-emang / harder, as a way to invite the audience to make the atmosphere more excited, I see that the audience is being flaunted repeatedly on each line of the third poem as a sign that the designer must return to invite the audience to continue to be boisterous, this is in accordance with the background of the plot story, the character Si Pitung, which tells of a robber character who is greatly feared by the Dutch , Landlords, and loan sharks in the Partekelir area, he was known to be powerful because his body was immune to stabbing or gunfire. The participation of the audience in the performance of an oral tardsisi performance was also shown when the audience was invited to listen to the continuation of the rancag song which tells the story that after Pitung escaped from jail or prison, Mester Cornelis a company soldier – now his name is Jati Negara, because the master of fugitive counting is difficult to catch – Pitung has high knowledge,

352

2015 Language and Literature Seminar

with fast music accompaniment, due to a change when the story plan was told that Pitung had escaped, there was a change in the rhythm of the planned music from slow to fast, this also brought the atmosphere of the story performance to an increased progress towards the climax of the story, namely the Pitung shot. This atmosphere is increasingly tense in the event of the show because the audience is treated to a performance that tries to bring the audience as if they were involved in watching the event, this happens because the scanners and the audience are fully involved in the events of the show when it is taking place.

The reality in the Gambang Rancag show. The question is whether the story presented in the Gambang Rancag show is true. The answer obtained from the Gambang Rancag speakers was that in general the stories told in the plan were real. This is indicated by the mention of the area where the story took place, the place or setting for the story, and the time the story took place, for example the story of Si Pitung, Si Angri, Si Conat, and Pak Centeng. We can still find the names of the scene, time, and places where it happened, including what the Betawi people themselves believe, about the characters in the story, all of which are considered to have existed (interview with Rojali, 78 years old) , January 12, 2014). The following is an example of an excerpt from a story transcript that is considered true and then manifested by the artist in the form of a planned song as follows. Put a clam lamp hanging If a banana is stuck, take a young one (emang-emang-emang) The one here brings the design Bang Pitung We are told to plan Bang Pitung Who was once robbed in the village of Tanah Merunda (Jafar) (Rancag Pitung (Recording of Pecenongan, 18 July 2013) at TIM Jakarta)

In line with that, the storyteller in the Betawi community who is strong with his oral tradition recounts something he had heard from his predecessor, which he said the first narrator had witnessed, then what he remembered was then retold back to his descendants and society. Problem statement in the story of UKM Linguistic Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

353

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

Shakes are often performed in the oral tradition xylophone smoothly, according to what was stated by Sweeney (1972: 285) that the storyteller in the oral tradition of the Malay defeated act of remembering as a way to create texts that can be accepted by society as legitimate and berkewibawahan. That is why for them and their audience, strengthening the measure to determine the truth or not of a story or play is sought in the question of whether or not the events narrated fit with the proven facts. As for the evidence of the existence of abandoned objects that are connected with the story, we can not deny its existence. The denial that the plot is generally imaginary, because what the plot remembers, as reported by Rojali (78 Years) (interview, January 12, 2014), at the time, he and his co-star Samin (70 years), as a designer began by telling the Japanese colonialism in Indonesia, what was remembered or experienced by improvising out of the mouth of the designer smoothly, the designer just needs to repack it in strains and the rhythm of the rancag song, such as that performed by him and Samin (70 years) – against Rojali’s plan in the 1990s at Dinas. So the truth experienced is represented again in the gambang rancag performance, for ancient planners it was a normal thing by relying only on their memory to improvise the song plan, then the song that presented the story of the Japanese era was beautifully intertwined in an event of the gambang rancag performance. However, can we say that one hundred percent sure that what is said in the oral tradition, such as in a musical song is believed to really happen? Is it sure that every storyteller or designer is merely a reminder to devote and submit to the truth of the oral tradition? In this case we also cannot deny that not all of what is stated by the designer is true. The designer Rojali (78 years) (Interview, 12 December 2013) also admitted that the fictional action was also admitted that the story in the plan must also have fictional elements mixed with reality. Moreover, Gambang Rancag is a show that certainly requires the creation of a re-creation of the original story into a show that requires audience appreciation. From the description of the quote above,

354

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

as a mere fairy tale or as a recitation from the book of Satan only, but there is no denying that the schemes used by planners or narrators to build character and behavior in stories or plays certainly require legitimate status as models of reality— a reality is indeed fading over time. That is what is written in Malay literature in general and oral Betawi in particular is a Doctor rich in it are still a lot of stored recordings of the reality of life Orang Betawi, As in rancag figure Ismail Marzuki, rancag Haji Naman in Pondok Kelapa, rancag Road Kramat Raya, Rancag Keramat Karem and some of the stories packed in the gambang rancag show are believed to have lived in the past.

Conclusions and Suggestions Based on the description of the writing above, it can be concluded as follows: 1) The process of creating text on the creator’s element is very important. The creator or designer with the act of remembering to create two forms of rancag text, namely rhymes related to a non-fixed formula and by creating a verse text using the technique of “ngaleter” by remembering what was initially remembered, then said at the end of the verse. 2) The text element in the process of creation is also an important element of the presence of a gambang rancag show. Through the action of the process of creation, a design text can be formed by improvisation by remembering the storyline scheme. 3) The audience element in the process of creating a textual plan also plays a role in a show whether it can take place or not. The participation of the audience in the show is part of the process of creating a textual design. 4) The element of reality or the reflection of the draft text with the reality in the Betawi community is indeed visible. This is indicated by the evidence of folklore which is still well known to the public, including the places where the story of the text of the plan took place.

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

355

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

Reference

Albert BL 2000. The Singers of Tales. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Agus Salim. Andi 2006. Group Management in Performance Interests: Seadat Tempe Group and Fa Gandrang To lajjokka. (in Tradition Search) Jennifer Linssay (editor) Jakarta: Manage. Attas, SG 2013. Cultural Restoration of Folklore Commemorating Si Pitung as Betawi Local Wisdom. In: Papers of the Asia Foundation Seminar. Yogyakarta: Committee for the International Congress of Asian Folklore III. Castle, L. 1967. “The Ethnnic Profile of Jakarta,” Indonesia, Vol III (April). Ithaca-New-York Cornel University. Bauman, Ricahard. 1977. Verbal Art as Performance. Prospct Heights, Illinois Wafeland Press. Castle, L. 2007. Ethnic Profile of Jakarta. Jakarta: Masup Jakarta. Chaer, A. 2012. Betawi Folklore: Culture and Life of the Betawi People. Jakarta: Masup Jakarta. Dundens, Alan. 1980. Foklore interpretation. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Djamaris, et al. 1985. Old Indonesian Literary Anthology of Islamic Influence. Jakarta: Center for Language Development and Development, Ministry of Education and Culture. Ministry of social RI 1991. Preservation of Oral Traditions of Traditional Wisdom and the Environment. A study of the Preservation of Cultural Values. Jakarta: Directorate General of Culture. Danandjaya, James. 2002. Indonesian Folklore: The Science of Gossip, Fairy Tales, and others. Jakarta: PT Pustaka Utama Graffiti. Kunst, Jaap, 1934. De Toon Kunst van Java, Martinus Nyhoff, Sgravenhage, 1934. First volume p. 308. Kartodirdjo, Sartono. 1984. Ratu Adil. Jakarta: Sinar Harapan. Kiftiawati. March 9, 2011. “Surviving the Heat of Nyi Meh Age, Betawi Mask Flower”. Old Indonesian Literary Anthology of Islamic Influence. Jakarta: Center for Language Development and Development, Ministry of Education and Culture. Ministry of social RI 1991. Preservation of Oral Traditions of Traditional Wisdom and the Environment. A study of the Preservation of Cultural Values. Jakarta: Directorate General of Culture. Danandjaya, James. 2002. Indonesian Folklore: The Science of Gossip, Fairy Tales, and others. Jakarta: PT Pustaka Utama Graffiti. Kunst, Jaap, 1934. De Toon Kunst van Java, Martinus Nyhoff, Sgravenhage, 1934. First volume p. 308. Kartodirdjo, Sartono. 1984. Ratu Adil. Jakarta: Sinar Harapan. Kiftiawati. March 9, 2011. “Surviving the Heat of Nyi Meh Age, Betawi Mask Flower”. Old Indonesian Literary Anthology of Islamic Influence. Jakarta: Center for Language Development and Development, Ministry of Education and Culture. Ministry of social RI 1991. Preservation of Oral Traditions of Traditional Wisdom and the Environment. A study of the Preservation of Cultural Values. Jakarta: Directorate General of Culture. Danandjaya, James. 2002. Indonesian Folklore: The Science of Gossip, Fairy Tales, and others. Jakarta: PT Pustaka Utama Graffiti. Kunst, Jaap, 1934. De Toon Kunst van Java, Martinus Nyhoff, Sgravenhage, 1934. First volume p. 308. Kartodirdjo, Sartono. 1984. Ratu Adil. Jakarta: Sinar Harapan. Kiftiawati. March 9, 2011. “Surviving the Heat of Nyi Meh Age, Betawi Mask Flower”. Preservation of Oral Traditions, Traditional Wisdom and the Environment. A study of the Preservation of Cultural Values. Jakarta: Directorate General of Culture. Danandjaya, James. 2002. Indonesian Folklore: The Science of Gossip, Fairy Tales, and others. Jakarta: PT Pustaka Utama Graffiti. Kunst, Jaap, 1934. De Toon Kunst van Java, Martinus Nyhoff, Sgravenhage, 1934. First volume p. 308. Kartodirdjo, Sartono. 1984. Ratu Adil. Jakarta: Sinar Harapan. Kiftiawati. March 9, 2011. “Surviving the Heat of Nyi Meh Age, Betawi Mask Flower”. Preservation of Oral Traditions, Traditional Wisdom and the Environment. A study of the Preservation of Cultural Values. Jakarta: Directorate General of Culture. Danandjaya, James. 2002. Indonesian Folklore: The Science of Gossip, Fairy Tales, and others. Jakarta: PT Pustaka Utama Graffiti. Kunst, Jaap, 1934. De Toon Kunst van Java, Martinus Nyhoff, Sgravenhage, 1934. First volume p. 308. Kartodirdjo, Sartono. 1984. Ratu Adil. Jakarta: Sinar Harapan. Kiftiawati. March 9, 2011. “Surviving the Heat of Nyi Meh Age, Betawi Mask Flower”. First volume p. 308. Kartodirdjo, Sartono. 1984. Ratu Adil. Jakarta: Sinar Harapan. Kiftiawati. March 9, 2011. “Surviving the Heat of Nyi Meh Age, Betawi Mask Flower”. First volume p. 308. Kartodirdjo, Sartono. 1984. Ratu Adil. Jakarta: Sinar Harapan. Kiftiawati. March 9, 2011. “Surviving the Heat of Nyi Meh Age, Betawi Mask Flower”.

http://langgambudaya.ui.ac.id/betawi/artikel/detail/14/bertahan-dalam-

terik-zaman /. (5 March 2013). Ministry of Education and Culture. 2009. Government Regulation No.42 of 2009 concerning Guidelines for Cultural Preservation. Jakarta: Depdiknas. Linguistics Program of Language and Literature Unit of UNJ

356

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

357

Muhadjir, et al. 1986. Map of Betawi Culture Art. Jakarta: DKI Jakarta Cultural Service. Ong, WJ 1988. Orality and Literacy: The Technologizing of the Word. London: Methuen. Pradopo, Rachmat Djoko. 1987. Poetry Studies. Jogyakarta: Gadja Mada University Press. Pudentia and Effedi. 1996. Around the Research of Oral Traditions. ATL News. Issue 11 / March. Ruchiat, R. 1981. Historical Approach and Socio-Cultural Background of Gambang Rancag. The Betawi Traditional Arts Conservation Project of the Jakarta Special Capital Region Culture Office, p. 3. Ruchiat, et al. 2003. Summary of Betawi Arts. Jakarta: Department of Culture and Public Affairs of DKI Jakarta Province. Rusyana, Y. 1978. Cirebon folklore about the spread of Islam. Collection of Papers on Folklore. Bandung: FKSS IKIP. Rusyana, Y. 1981. Folklore of the Archipelago. The Association of Papers on Folklore. Bandung: FKSS IKIP. Rusyana, Y. 2002. Traditional Prose. Jakarta: Language Center. Saputra, YES and Nurzain. 2009. Profile of Betawi Cultural Arts. Jakarta: Jakarta City Government Tourism and Culture Office. Shahab, YZ 2012. Reproduction and Revalence of Betawi Culture: Challenges and Opportunities in the Era of Nationalization and Globalization. Betawi Cultural Arts Festival, Jakarta City Government Tourism and Culture Office, Sunday December 2 2012, Setu Babakan. Sopandi, Atik et al. 1992. Gambang Rancag. Jakarta: DKI Jakarta Cultural Service. Sweeney, A. 1987. A Full Hearing Challenges and Opportunities in the Era of Nationalization and Globalization. Betawi Cultural Arts Festival, Jakarta City Government Tourism and Culture Office, Sunday December 2 2012, Setu Babakan. Sopandi, Atik et al. 1992. Gambang Rancag. Jakarta: DKI Jakarta Cultural Service. Sweeney, A. 1987. A Full Hearing Challenges and Opportunities in the Era of Nationalization and Globalization. Betawi Cultural Arts Festival, Jakarta City Government Tourism and Culture Office, Sunday December 2 2012, Setu Babakan. Sopandi, Atik et al. 1992. Gambang Rancag. Jakarta: DKI Jakarta Cultural Service. Sweeney, A. 1987. A Full Hearing

Orality and Literacy in The Malay

World. Berkley:

University of California Press. Sibarani, Robert. 2012. Local Wisdom: The Nature, Role, and Methods of Oral Traditions. Jakarta: Association of Oral Traditions (ATL. Teeuw, A. 1994. Indonesia Between Orality and Execution. Jakarta: Pustaka Jaya Compilation Team. 2009. Guidelines for the Study of Oral Traditions (KTL). Jakarta: Asosia Oral Traditions (ATL) Vansina, Jan. 1993 . Oral Traditian. English: Peguin University Book.

Linguistics Program of Language and Literature Unit of UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

358

COMPARING MINANGKABAU CULTURE AND MELAYU CULTURE35

Gres Grasia Azmin36

Introduction Culture in Indonesia is indeed an interesting and endless study. Studies about a culture have often been carried out. However, studies on the comparison of two cultures are not as numerous as studies on a culture. Minangkabau and Malay Riau are

two Indonesian cultures that are both

centered on the island of Sumatra. What are the similarities and differences between the two? In order to focus on the writing, the cultural aspects for comparison are chosen. Aspects that can be studied for comparison between Minang and Malay culture include several aspects, namely language, including the etymology of the words “Minangkabau” and “Malay”; literature; cultural aspects including social and governance systems, customs, the concept of merantau and trade; as well as the natural concept of thought about number 4

Presented at the Seminar Between the Nation, the National University of Malaysia and the Jakarta State University. 35

36

Lecturers of the Indonesian Literature Study Program, Jakarta State University.

Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Position UKM UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

Etymology of Minangkabau and Malay Etymology is the study of the origin of words. Minangkabau and Melayu are not names that just appear without a story behind them. Amir Sjarifoedin (2011) has collected the etymology of the word Minangkabau based on the opinions of several experts, including: 1.Purbacaraka states that the word Minangkabau comes from the word Minanga Kabawa, which means the areas around the confluence of two rivers, namely Kampar Kiri and Kampar Kanan. 2. van der Tuuk states that the word Minangkabau comes from the word Phinang Khab “which means land of origin. 3. Sutan Mh. Zain has another view that Minangkabau comes from the word Binanga Kamvar which means Muara Batang Kampar 4.M.Hussein Naimar states that the word Minangkabau comes from the word Menon Khabu which means the base ground or noble land 5. Slamet Mulyana considers the word Minangkabau to be derived from the word Minang Kabau, which means areas around the riverbank that are covered with kabau plant stems. Of the many opinions, the origin of the name Minangkabau which is famous in the community is that which comes from a legend which states that Minangkabau comes from the word manang which means win and kabau which means buffalo. This story can easily be found in Tambo Minangkabau. Tambo itself means history, chronicle, saga, ancient history, historical descriptions of an area that are often mixed with fairy tales. The beauty of the language of tambo makes the contents of tambo very attached to the memory of the Minangkabau people. On the other hand, the definition of Malay in terms of etymology (http://mbsskl.edu.my/panitia_bm/files/2009/05/asal-usul-bahasa-melayu.pdf) is 1. Derived from the word Malaya, short for hima alaya. Alaya means a place while hima alaya means a snowy place. 2. Derived from the word Malayapura which means Malay city or Malay kingdom.

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

359

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

3. Derived from the ancient Javanese language, mlaju which means to travel or go anywhere. 4. Derived from the name of a river called Sungai Melayu in Malay history books. 5. Van der Tuuk said a Malay word meaning cross, referring to the Malays who crossed or converting from Hinduism and Buddhism to Islam based on some of the above definition can be stated that there are similarities lifestyle of the people of Minangkabau and Malay that is close to water (river or sea) as well as related to land. This means that nature is important to people Minangkabau or Malay. Language and Literature There is a difference of opinion from experts on relations with the Malay language Minangkabau. There are those who consider the language spoken by the Minangkabau people to be part of the Malay dialect because of the many similarities in vocabulary and speech forms in it. On the other hand, there is also an opinion that the Minang language is an independent language, which is different from Malay. Sweeney (1987) states that the existence of the Malay language which developed around the coast, straits, estuaries, islands and headlands in the coastal areas of Southeast Asia, was originally a very simple language with a variety of dialects. Because the movement of human interaction and communication at that time was more focused on the coastal area as the residential area of ​​the Malay people which then became 7 trade routes and stops slowly but surely, cause of Malay used as a lingua franca and then increased to the language of commerce. This fact indicates the identity of the Malay language communicative when the construction trade route between nations (India, China, Arab and European). According to Francois Valentijn (in Sweneey, 1987), there are two types of the Malay language that is both high and low. First, the Java language, the mother tongue and the language pure, is the best, truest and most rave of the Malay language that only SMEs Linguistics Program Language and Literature Department UNJ

360

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

can be understood by nobles such as kings, rulers and priests. Second, a hybrid language or mixed language taken from various nationalities, each according to its language and dialect and mixed with a variety of words. Then the language of the market, is the language used in the market between traders. The division of languages ​​based on levels is not known in the Minangkabau community. The differences between the existing languages ​​are divided based on the local dialect, not on the high or low. The story of the winning buffalo spoken or sung orally in the form of khaba or bakhaba is a story that is well known by the Minangkabau people. Since the introduction of Islam, tambo began to be written with a strong Islamic influence in it. For the Minangkabau community, tambo has an important meaning because in tambo there are two things, namely natural tambo and traditional tambo. AA Navis (1984) in the book Alam Takambang Jadi Guru states that natural tambo usually contains stories of the origins of Minangkabau ancestors since the first king came to the heyday of the Pagaruyuang kingdom. Meanwhile, traditional tambo contains more about customs, systems and government regulations. In the Minangkabau traditional tambo, it is told that the first king who came to Minangkabau was Sri Maharajo Dirajo, Iskandar Zulkarnaen’s youngest son. Two of Sri Maharajo Diraja’s brothers, namely Sultan Maharaja Alif, became king in Benua Rum (in Europe) to France and England and Sultan Maharajo Dipang became king in China and ruled as far as Japan. Thus it can be seen the mindset of the Minangkabau people who aligned themselves with the kingdoms on the European Continent and China-Japan. The same nostalgia is expressed by the Malay community with the slogan that Malay will not be lost on Earth. Both of them show the desire of the two tribes to show their existence on Earth. For both, the important aesthetic element is language. Beautiful language is expressed in various ways, especially in literary works. As the Minangkabau proverb states nan baiak is mind, nan beautiful is bahaso, bahaso indah jo kieh, which means good is mind, what is beautiful is language, beautiful language is figurative. For Both of them show the desire of the two tribes to show their existence on Earth. For both, the important aesthetic element is language. Beautiful language is expressed in various ways, especially in literary works. As the Minangkabau proverb states nan baiak is mind, nan beautiful is bahaso, bahaso indah jo kieh, which means good is mind, what is beautiful is language, beautiful language is figurative. For Both of them show the desire of the two tribes to show their existence on Earth. For both, the important aesthetic element is language. Beautiful language is expressed in various ways, especially in literary works. As the Minangkabau proverb states nan baiak is mind, nan beautiful is bahaso, bahaso indah jo kieh, which means good is mind, what is beautiful is language, beautiful language is figurative. For

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

361

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

The Minangkabau people use figurative language as beauty, and the metaphor that is often used is that which comes from nature because nature tends to be a teacher. For the people of the Malay language is used not only in literature, but in talking in everyday life. Beautiful words in works of prose, poetry, or drama are wrapped in such beauty to convey a message. The element of benefit is given priority for example for the importance of Islamic teachings in Gurindam 12 Raja Ali Haji. As revealed by Braginsky for Malay literature: a beautiful and worthwhile. Social System and Government According to Amir Sjarifoedin, (2011: 5) until 1979, the smallest unit of government in West Sumatra is the country. However, with the enactment of Law no. 5 of 1979 on Village Government, the status of the village was removed and the status of the jorong-jorong was upgraded to a village. The position of Wali Nagari is removed and government administration is carried out by the Village Head. However, with the implementation of Regional Autonomy in 2001, the nagari and its privileges were reinstated. Nagari is led by a Wali Nagari who is assisted by several Jorong heads. Wali Nagari is democratically elected by the nagari children (residents). In a village, the Nagari Adat Density was formed, which is an institution consisting of Tungku Tigo Sajarangan which is a representative of the children of the village consisting of religious scholars, candiak pandai (intellectuals), and niniak mamak (tribal leaders in the village). Important decisions to be taken are always discussed between the Wali Nagari and Tungku Tigo Sajarangan at the Traditional Hall or the Nagari Hall. (Sjarifoedin, 2011: 5). While, in the community, although the form of the empire, the sultan is a symbol of success regalia nostalgic past. The sultanate is respected but not as the head of government. When they recognize any form of government, the community fair principled king, the king is worshiped; the tyrant king, the disputed king. This shows the existence of power in the hands of the people but different from the Minangkabau culture which has long left the form of government in its system of government.

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

362

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

Malay sultanate form regalia looked at regalia sacred and hallowed that symbolizes the greatness and power, even to have magical powers. Some of them are cogan Sirih Besar, drum nobat, long-headed sword made of gold, chain of wings, and others (Junus, 2002: 73). All the regalia used in the coronation ceremony of the Malays. It was kept by the daughter of the King Princess Queen II Fisabilillah, a French nobleman who often remind us of Mother Kanduang in Minangkabau society. Minangkabau social system that was in use matrilinear concept, clearly different from the Malay concept Patrilinea. This matrilinear system is the main difference between Minangkabau culture and other cultures. Customary Values ​​and Life The principles of Minangkabau custom are embedded in the custom of basandi syara ‘, syara’ basandi Kitabullah which means adat is united to the law (religion of Islam) and hukum (religion of Islam) together with the Book of Allah (Al Quran). Thus it can be stated that Islam is the way of life of the Minangkabau people. The Malay community too. However, there are differences in enforcing Islamic law in social life. The Minangkabau people have a stronger Islamic color. Probably because since childhood, Minangkabau boys have lived in the surau so Islam is so close in life. Compared to the Malay community was very open to the habits and beliefs other than Islam. At the Riau Islands such as for example the center of Malay culture, Islam is the religion of the Malays who can coexist in harmony with ethnic Chinese and Sea Tribe. The life goal of the Minangkabau people is to serve and work as seen in the proverb hiduik bajaso, die bapusako which means living meritorious, dying of despair. Minangkabau people think that they do good and work hard for their nephews and their communities. The element of economic importance is also seen in another Minangkabau proverb, namely missing rano dek panyakik, missing bangso indak barameh which means lost color due to disease, Linguistic Program UKM Language and Literature Position UNJ Minangkabau people think that they do good and work hard for their nephews and their communities. The element of economic importance is also seen in another Minangkabau proverb, namely missing rano dek panyakik, missing bangso indak barameh which means lost color due to disease, Linguistic Program UKM Language and Literature Position UNJ Minangkabau people think that they do good and work hard for their nephews and their communities. The element of economic importance is also seen in another Minangkabau proverb, namely missing rano dek panyakik, missing bangso indak barameh which means lost color due to disease, Linguistic Program UKM Language and Literature Position UNJ

363

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

364

lost the nation because they do not have gold. Gold, both for the Minangkabau and the Malays, is very popular. For the aristocracy in Malay, golden yellow was the color of the sultanate. It is a marker of the sultanate’s social strata and regalia. Even until death, the graves of the aristocrats were marked with a piece of yellow cloth tied with a white ribbon which until now can be seen in the graves of the Malay nobility. For Malays (Junus, 2002), gold was once considered ethno-medicine, that is, when someone injures another person, then the wound must be dripped with gold. In addition, the importance of gold for the Malay community is also seen in the Malay proverb following the fact that Tired has planted rice. Gold is also seen by people who are tired of planting rice. Gold is also seen by people. The work ethic of the Minangkabau people is high. With the spirit of wandering, they worked hard. The men in Minangkabau society are indeed more hardened than other tribes. In the past, from the age of 7 they had to leave the house and live in the surau. After receiving a sufficient education, the man must leave, or he will be ridiculed. Another demand for Minangkabau people is that someone is declared as a Minangkabau person if he / she is basuku (bamamak, bakamanankan), barumah gadang, basasok bajarami, basawah baladang, bapandan pakubur, and bat tangkek bath and nephews), have a traditional house, have hay feed, have fields for fields, have pandanus for the dead, and a place to bathe. Of course this is quite difficult to obtain unless the person works hard and works hand in hand with his siblings. One trait that sticks to the Minangkabau people in the eyes of non-Minangkabau people is stingy. Are Minangkabau people stingy? In fact, the meaning can be seen in the proverb basket sabalun habih, sadiokan umbrella sabalun rain which means prudent before it runs out, prepare an umbrella before it rains. People who wander must be careful,

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

frugal, and standby. The interesting thing is that the proverb like an umbrella before ujan is also found in Malay society with the same meaning as the Minangkabau proverb. The concept that also exists in Malay society in life is talkative and amok. Latah and amok according to Junus (2002: 7) can be implemented into a stretch of art. Talking does have a negative connotation, while amok can be negative and positive. An example of a great amok is Amok Hang Jebat, which has paralyzed the city of Malacca. Levels of Adat Customary law for the Minangkabau community (Sjarifoedin, 2011: 71-73) is divided into 4 categories, namely 1. adat nan savanna adat, namely customs originating from nature in the sense that custom is a custom that occurs according to the will of Allah. Adat nan savanna adat occupies the highest position as the main basis for norms, laws, and community rules in Minangkabau. 2. The custom is adopted, which is a custom composed by the Minangkabau ancestors to be applied in daily life. It is usually conveyed in petitih, mamangan, pantun, and figurative language expressions. 3. Indigenous customs, that is, the provisions of customs that are compiled in the country to implement the customs and customs of the country and the customs and customs. Traditional customs are arranged through deliberation and consensus niniak mamak. The customs and customs of each country can be different. 4. customs, is a customary rule in the form of rules that accommodate the will of the natives. There are two processes for the formation of customs, namely (1) based on the origin of the natives, nephews, and the local community (2) based on the phenomena that are developing in the community. Customs are generally related to pleasures such as art or sports. Interestingly, four custom levels was also addressed by Al Ahmadi (172–173) which states that “in the community there are four types of custom (1) the actual custom custom (2) custom diadatkan (3) indigenous customary (4 ) customs. ”The interpretation of each custom is more or less the same that is

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

365

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

1. The actual custom is the custom that is appropriate (ought) in accordance with Islamic law, before entering the religion of Islam, the real custom of custom is the rules exemplified and learned by Datuk Perpatih and Datuk Ketemenggongan from nature, this custom is applied from the law of nature ( natural law or natural law or natural law such as the custom of fire is hot, the custom of water is wet, for example. 2. The custom that is customary is at first it is the actual custom of the custom then it is customary by the consensus of the members of the community until it becomes the law of the community. 3. The most common custom is the custom that is accepted by the community as a habit of daily life without being prescribed in advance. 4. customs are customs that are ceremonial in nature such as coronation, marriage, circumcision,

Thus there is a similarity between the levels of indigenous Malays and indigenous Minangkabau, but should be suspected Al Ahmadi including adherents of that is part of the Malay Minangkabau. This suspicion is based on some proverbs that are exemplified by Al Ahmadi such as not raining on the rain deck, not leaking on the hot deck (2010: 172) or on the saying of penghulu beraja ke mufakat (2010: 173). Diction Course deck is a vocabulary that means “because” that does not exist in English. Then diction traditional department chief who is present in the Minangkabau society is a kind of chieftain, while the Malays, the term means that the leaders of the officer who has the power to marry a Muslim. Going away and Trade Minangkabau and Malay community is a dynamic society. They usually travel outside the village in search of a better (social, economic, or educational) livelihood. For the Minangkabau people, migrating is a must. Meanwhile, the Malays, especially those living on the coast, go to sea to neighboring countries is commonplace. Migrating for the Malay community according to Sweeney (1987) is the stereotype of the Malay community. Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ

366

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

As a livelihood, the Malays and Minangkabau who have migrated will trade. This trade concept has become a stereotype for both tribes. In fact, Malay is able to make its language the official language of instruction in the world of commerce. There are similarities between the Malays and the Minangkabau people, namely that they are both easy to adapt to new environments. Both of these cultures have a formula. Where the earth is on foot, there is langik on the ground (Minangkabau) or where the earth is stepped on, there the sky is upheld (Malay). By upholding this principle, Malays and Minangkabau people are more mentally prepared when they encounter a new environment and can minimize cultural shock. The meaning of Number Four For the Minangkabau community (Sjarifoedin, 2011: 73), the standard of life is a nan ampek form (all four), namely 1.The origin in Minangkabau is 4: Koto, Piliang, Bodi, and Caniago 2. There are 4 custom created customs: the traditional bajanjang up the batanggo down, the babarih babalabeh custom, the baukua jo bajangko custom, and the batiru battaladan custom 3. the roads that must be traversed in life are 4: mandatar roads, mandaki roads, sloping roads, and jalan manurun 4. there are 4 traditional teachings: raso, pareso, shame, and polite 5. there are 4 basic nagari: taratak, hamlet, koto, and nagari 6. kato-kato there are 4: kato pusako, kato consensus, kato kamudian, and kato first 7. There are 4 laws: science law, kurenah law, oath law, and peace law Concept 4 can also be found in Malay society, namely the concept of top, bottom, middle, sea. In addition, in the story of Hang Tuah, the legendary figure of the Malay community, he was always accompanied by 4 friends, namely Hang Lekiu, Hang Kesturi, Hang Lekir, and Hang Jebat. Other than that, concepts or features of the Malays was seen in 4 cases the Malay language, Islam, Empire, and Malay culture. Concept 4 in the same literature, either in the Malay and Minangkabau is poetry and poetry. Poems and poems have 4 lines for each stanza consisting of 2 lines of suffix and 2 lines of content.

Linguistics Program of Language and Literature Unit of UNJ

367

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

Conclusion The Malay and Minangkabau communities are a great nation because a great nation is a nation that respects ancestral heritage. The appreciation of the ancestral heritage is still carried out by the Malay and Minangkabau communities until now. Hopefully forever no withered lost in the earth and the Minangkabau universe continues to develop into a teacher.

References Al Ahmadi, Abdul Rahman. Clumps of Malay civilization. Kuala Lumpur: Ministry of Information Communication and Culture, 2010. Ishak, Mohd. Arof. The Malay Civilatization. Kuala Lumpur: Malaysian Historical Society, 2007. Junus, Hasan. Raja Ali Haji Budayawan at the Gate of the XX Century. New Week: Unri Press, 2002. Junus, Hasan. Because of the Gold in the Flowers of the Ocean. New Week: Unri Press, 2002. Saleh, Muhammad Haji. Malay Literary poetics. Selangor: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, 2000. Sjarifoedin, Amir. Minangkabau: from Iskandar Zulkarnaen Dynasty to Tuanku Iman Bonjol. Jakarta: Gria Media Prima, 2011. Sweeney, Amin et al. Ness and Malayness in Sastra.Jakarta: Desantara, 2007. Sweeney, Amin. A Full Hearing: Orality and Literacy in the Malay World. Barkeley: University of California Press, 1987.

Linguistics Program of UNJ Language and Literature Department

368

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

369

EDUCATE YOURSELF BY READING: HOW TO KNOW THE POWER OF AUTHENTIC LITERATION IN STUDENTS

Liliana Muliastuti

Introduction Japanese people have their own term to describe their “madness” reading books. There, the term Tachiyomi is known. What is Tachiyomi?

Tachiyomi comes from two words:

tachimasu which means “to stand”, and yomimasu which means “to read”. If two words are joined,

be

tachiyomi

(read

while

standing).

Says

this

is

literally

describes the amazing reading culture in Japan. Japanese people love reading so much that they don’t mind doing tachiyomi while jostling on the subway (MRT / subway), during rush hour leaving and returning from work. That is the result of taking the culture of reading seriously from an early age. You know, a nation’s culture of reading correlates with the progress of that nation.

The

International Education Achievement (IEA) survey in early 2000 shows: the reading quality of Indonesian children ranks 29th out of 31 countries studied in Asia, Africa, Europe and America.

It is not surprising that the

Human Development Index (HDI) in Indonesia is also low.

This is reflected in the survey

UN Agency for Development Program (UNDP) in 2012. HDI Indonesia is ranked 121 out of 186 countries. The low reading culture and reading comprehension ability of Indonesian students also lead to the low achievement of learning outcomes. We often hear the words: “Teachers and schools must be able to instill holistic thinking skills in students and teach the Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

370

scientific approach in solving problems. ” The terms “holistic thinking” and “scientific approach”, for example, appear in the 2013 Curriculum. According to the author, there is a leap in thinking here. How can we teach this ability of “holistic thinking” and “scientific approach” if the basic problems are not resolved first. The first fundamental problem is, of course, related to the low reading interest and culture at all levels. Not only among students, the adult reading culture in Indonesia is still low. Second, to quote education expert Abduhzen, we still have problems with efforts to instill an academic culture at all levels of education. As a result, the essence of cultural roots, namely the ability to think logically and systematically, is not sufficiently entrenched. Until today, our world of education faces serious challenges in the effort to systematically build the ability to think at all levels, from the lowest level to the highest level. According to Abduhzen, our education has only filled the mind. Not teaching how to think.

As a result, the intelligence process is not

running at maximum. Students are called “smart” if they are able to answer the questions exactly as taught by the teacher. If the teacher teaches “ABCD”, the student’s answer must be exactly the same, “ABCD”. In fact, memorizing answer keys like this is a basic level thinking process, it has not entered into higher thinking process skills such as the ability to identify and analyze problems. Students are not taught to analyze why the answer should be “ABCD”. The results of the 2012 OECD PISA (Program for International Student Assessment) test, for example, depict that Indonesian students are ranked low for scientific literacy. Previously, the 2003 PISA study showed Indonesia was ranked 38 out of 41 participating countries in the field of scientific literacy. But, said Abduhzen again, if the PISA test results were broken down based on the level of thinking ability, The score for memorization questions (second level thinking skills) of Indonesian students is still relatively good, around 75 percent. “Unfortunately, when given abstract questions, which rely on logic or those that connect science, theory and practice, the scores fall short. Well, there is clearly a problem in the learning methodology. Meanwhile, for the future, the ability to rely on is the ability to think

Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Unit of UNJ’s

Language and Literature Department 2015

High Level Seminar , “said Abduhzen in an interview (www. Kompas.com downloaded on 29 April 2015). Higher-order thinking skills are closely related to analytical, systematic and critical thinking skills. This ability is important considering that our students will face the challenges of their own era, which is certainly very different from the challenges of the teachers and parents today. Therefore, teachers should not teach like the times when they were still students and received lessons from their teachers at school in the past.

Case Study: Indonesian Language Lessons in Schools

The key word that our teachers should remember: education is human engineering. So, good things, such as the habit of being fond of reading and loving books, can actually be instilled in the right ways and according to the times. In school, it is the teacher’s duty to instill in students that books are a window to the world, not to distance us from the world around us. Teachers are the key to successful education in schools. Other things like curriculum are just tools. Indonesian language lessons in schools have been considered the most related to the interest of building a literacy culture. Indonesian language subject teachers, for example, on average face problems with students’ low reading culture, including reading literary works. Complaints that often arise, students only go to the library when they are assigned to discuss literature. The value of Indonesian in schools is not good, even though Indonesian is the national language, and maintaining the existence of the national language is a mandate of the law that is borne by all of us. What is more concerning, students are not skilled in their own national language, whether spoken or written. People associate it with the instant culture of the increasing influence of gadgets. However, that was only one factor. Psycholinguistic studies describe the close relationship of the language we use with the capacity to reason or the ability to think coherently, systematically, and logically. If the spoken and written language is bad, illogical and systematic, this reflects the limited capacity of reasoning. whereas Indonesian is the national language, and maintaining the existence of the national language is the mandate of the law which is borne by all of us. What is more concerning, students are not skilled in their own national language, whether spoken or written. People associate it with the instant culture of the increasing influence of gadgets. However, that was only one factor. Psycholinguistic studies describe the close relationship of the language we use with the capacity to reason or the ability to think coherently, systematically, and logically. If the spoken and written language is bad, illogical and systematic, this reflects the limited capacity of reasoning. whereas Indonesian is the national language, and maintaining the existence of the national language is the mandate of the law which is borne by all of us. What is more concerning, students are not skilled in their own national language, whether spoken or written. People associate it with the instant culture of the increasing influence of gadgets. However, that was only one factor. Psycholinguistic studies describe the close relationship of the language we use with the capacity to reason or the ability to think coherently, systematically, and logically. If the spoken and written language is bad, illogical and systematic, this reflects the limited capacity of reasoning. students are not skilled in their own national language, whether spoken or written. People associate it with the instant culture of the increasing influence of gadgets. However, that was only one factor. Psycholinguistic studies describe the close relationship of the language we use with the capacity to reason or the ability to think coherently, systematically, and logically. If the spoken and written language is bad, illogical and systematic, this reflects the limited capacity of reasoning. students are not skilled in their own national language, whether spoken or written. People associate it with the instant culture of the increasing influence of gadgets. However, that was only one factor. Psycholinguistic studies describe the close relationship of the language we use with the capacity to reason or the ability to think coherently, systematically, and logically. If the spoken and written language is bad, illogical and systematic, this reflects the limited capacity of reasoning.

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

371

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

372

Then where did it go wrong? To the teacher? Curriculum? Or is this the “sin” of all of us, which in the expression of the poet and humanist Taufiq Ismail is called “myopic reading, stuttering writing”? The author once conducted a simple study of the readiness for implementation of the 2013 Curriculum in Indonesian. This subject is related to national identity, culture, and national identity. Indonesian language lessons are also important because they are related to the development of reasoning, orality and literacy of Indonesian children — all of which reflect a culture of literacy. The hope of Indonesian children who like reading literature, for example, is always related to the quality of Indonesian language learning in schools. Learning language is learning to communicate both verbally and nonverbally. Language learning is usually divided into four aspects of language skills: listening, reading, writing, and talk. Aspects of learning materials for vocabulary and sentence structure (grammar), meaning (semantics), and literature are integrated into the learning of these four aspects of language skills. The Indonesian language curriculum has always referred to these aspects in its material, although with different terms. What about Indonesian in the 2013 Curriculum?

Language learning

Indonesia is packaged in a very different way. The author makes a simple study of the syllabus of materials specifically for SMP and SMA / SMK. At these two levels, Indonesian language subjects are not implemented as integrated as at the elementary level. Where are the different packages located? For example, for grade VII or grade I junior high school students, the basic competencies expected in these subjects for the knowledge aspect are (1) understanding text from observations, descriptive responses, expositions, explanations, and short stories both orally and in writing; (2) distinguishing text from observation results, descriptive responses, expositions, explanations, and short stories, both oral and written; (3) classifying the text of the observation results, descriptive responses, expositions, explanations, and short stories both orally and in writing;

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

373

and short stories both orally and in writing; (2) compiling the text of the observation results, descriptive responses, expositions, explanations, and short stories in accordance with the characteristics of the text to be made either orally or in writing. It can be seen that learning Indonesian in the 2013 Curriculum is based on text-based learning. Students are expected to master the structure and content of various texts. Then this knowledge, which is expected to be obtained, among others, by a scientific approach and problem solving, is planned to enable students to write various texts. It seems that the compilers of the 2013 curriculum for the Indonesian language just took the language learning model from outside countries. The author’s question: what about learning other language skills, as well as literature, and grammar? Isn’t language learning not just knowing various text structures? If we pay close attention to the syllabus prepared by the Central Government, learning to analyze the text is combined with the skills to discuss the content of the text, then writing is carried out in the next step. Students are expected to be able to write various types of texts. Literary material is included as a type of text that is dissected based on its structure and as an introduction to material for various types of text. What is worrying is that the grammar material in the syllabus has not been described in detail with clear gradations. For example, the seventh grade junior high school syllabus, learning grammar is dominated by difficult terms and vocabulary that are contained in the text. Is this syllabus enough to guide learning Indonesian grammar?

Are the teachers in the field ready

implementing text-based Indonesian language learning? Meanwhile, to this day we still hear complaints from Indonesian literary practitioners who think that teaching literature in schools has not been successful because the teacher alone is not a literary reader and does not follow the development of Indonesian literature. With a syllabus that emphasizes text-based learning, reading and writing skills are dominant. Each meeting will have a discussion about the characteristics of the text and its structure. Listening and speaking skills become activities that are “tucked in”. Listening is carried out in discussion of the structure and content of various types of texts. There are no longer activities of various types of listening and types of speaking skills. Everything becomes focused on what text is being taught, while speaking and listening activities only become “accompaniment”.

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

Hopefully, students are not shackled in boredom and consequently do not have varied insights regarding listening and speaking skills. Another problem, the text-based application of Indonesian language learning is something new for graduates / undergraduate education who will practice this curriculum. They are the product of language skills-based learning in Indonesian. It is not easy to change the usual learning patterns to new learning patterns. The concept of challenge text, exemplum text, recorded experimental text are just three examples of types of text that have not been discussed in the Indonesian Language Education S1 curriculum. How would they teach this to students if the concept material was “new” to them? Indeed, to help teachers, the government has published student books and teacher manuals written by the team. However, this is ironic because every teacher will use the book as the only guide or reference. They will accept the book out of hand considering that there are no other textbooks that can be referred to. As a result, all material, including grammar that must be taught is limited to what is contained in the book, considering that the syllabus also does not specify the grammatical gradations that must be given. Conditions in the field must also take into account the possibility that not all schools will be able to receive books from the Ministry of Education and Culture. Textbooks that have been uploaded on the internet are also not necessarily accessible to all teachers in the Republic of Indonesia. The meaning is clear, If the implementation of the 2013 curriculum is still confusing until it is decided to be reviewed by the Ministry concerned, no doubt teachers will have to bear the burden. For this reason, we still need quality teachers who can bridge these kinds of problems and are able to play a key role in schools, including in the interests of building a literacy culture in schools. Because once again, the teacher is a key factor in the success of the teaching and learning process in schools. Everything else, including the curriculum, is only a tool. including for the sake of building a literacy culture in schools. Because once again, the teacher is a key factor in the success of the teaching and learning process in schools. Everything else, including the curriculum, is only a tool. including for the sake of building a literacy culture in schools. Because once again, the teacher is a key factor in the success of the teaching and learning process in schools. Everything else, including the curriculum, is only a tool.

The Power of Authentic Literacy Why is it that a culture of reading is so important to instill in children from an early age? Look around us. In our country, there are still many Indonesian children who are less fortunate and have to drop out of

the Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Unit of UNJ

374

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

school. However, even school dropouts still have hope for a better future, as long as they are helped to recognize the “Power of Authentic Literacy”. The Power of Authentic Literacy is awareness to recognize the importance of the influence and strength of literacy culture from an early age. Of course we know that literacy culture is closely related to reading and writing culture. Everyone must be fond of reading. Even more so if their interest grows to become writers. It is impossible for a person to be a good writer if he is not fond of reading. If Indonesian children have realized the importance of literacy culture from an early age, they can educate themselves (self-education) by reading. They can imitate the British writer Doris Lessing, who died on November 17, 2013 at the age of 94 years. Doris dropped out of school at the age of 14, then he educates himself by reading. She became the 11th woman to win the Nobel Prize for Literature, as well as breaking the record for the oldest writer to win the Nobel Prize for Literature. Doris received this important prize in 2007, when she was 88 years old. When giving a speech at the Nobel Prize for Literature award ceremony in Stockholm, Sweden, Doris told about her unyielding struggle to boost her knowledge through the poverty of childhood and adolescence. She also shared stories about the condition of her friends in Zimbabwe who had not eaten for three days, but they still talked about education, about books and how to get them. Dropping out of school and poverty did not necessarily make him stop seeking knowledge. He developed himself by reading the works of great writers such as Dickens, Tolstoy, Dostoevsky, and DH Lawrence. Teachers can also tell about other figures who dropped out of school, but succeeded in becoming figures of international reputation because they did not give up easily and kept reading. Einstein dropped out of school. Likewise Thomas Alva Edison. However, their names endured as great scientists and inventors because of their love for books and science. From within the country, we know that RA Kartini only had an ELS education (SD level) during the Dutch colonial era, and was then prohibited from attending school because of the grip of adat. Adam Malik only had time to enjoy a formal education at the HIS level (also the same as SD now). Chairil Anwar dropped out of school as a teenager and was only registered as a MULO (junior high school level) student. However, they developed into big figures in their respective fields.

375

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

gives a description of a Kartini who is smart, knowledgeable, and loves books. Adam Malik grew from a journalist to become foreign minister and vice president. Chairil Anwar, we know, became a pioneer of the ’45 Generation of Literature who was able to give a new spirit to the Indonesian language used in his poetry. The life of Doris Lessing and these characters is a clear example of how a love of books can make people overcome their limitations. Maybe we can do good things little by little, according to our abilities. Wouldn’t it be better to start lighting a candle, than just curse the darkness? Starting from ourselves, then developing in the smallest unit of society, our families, and the schools where we teach. How to Introduce the “Power of Authentic Literacy” to Students Answering “how” questions is the most difficult task compared to answering “what, who, why, where, when”. Because the reality faced is also not easy. The low reading culture of the community, the limited number of books published, inevitably affects our children at school. Several years ago, the Head of the Center for Social Marketing (CSM) Yanti Sugarda once quoted the results of international research on high school students in 13 countries, including Indonesia. In the United States, the number of books that students must read is 32 books, the Netherlands 30 books, France 30 books, Japan 22 books, Switzerland 15 books, Canada 13 books, Russia 12 books, Brunei 7 books, Singapore 6 books, Thailand 5 books , and Indonesia? Zero books (source: www.republika.co.id, downloaded on 29 April 2015). In Indonesia, oral culture is more dominant than literacy culture. And this condition has been going on for centuries. Since long time ago we have been accustomed to hearing oral literature such as stories of various fairy tales, saga, and customs which are conveyed verbally or verbally told by parents, grandmothers, and community leaders. There is no written learning that can lead to reading habits. Reading habits are influenced by genetic determinism factors, namely parental inheritance. There is no written learning that can lead to reading habits. Reading habits are influenced by genetic determinism factors, namely parental inheritance. There is no written learning that can lead to reading habits. Reading habits are influenced by genetic determinism factors, namely parental inheritance.

A person who likes to read is raised from an environment that loves reading.

This immediate environment will influence a person to get closer to reading, so someone does not like reading because he was raised by parents who never got closer to reading.

Linguistics Program of Language and Literature Unit of UNJ

376

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

377

Of course it is not easy for teachers in schools to face realities like this. However, all passed away to yourself. If the teacher wants to introduce “the power of authentic literacy” to students, first the teacher concerned must first be fond of reading, skilled in spoken and written languages, and love the national language. Because, modeling is the best teacher. The main task of the teacher is to give positive suggestions to students. All students are unique, smart, and special according to their respective interests, potentials and talents. The teacher must create a happy atmosphere in the teaching and learning process in the classroom. Process is very important, and results are the bonus of a process that is carried out correctly and enjoyed by all students. What must be instilled in our teachers is that “love” must take precedence over “smart”. Remember that in TVRI in the ’70s-’80s, there was a legendary program “Like to Draw” which was delivered in a fun way by Pak Tino Sidin. Tino Sidin is a fun drawing teacher that kids love. For him, it is more important for children to like and enjoy the process, rather than rushing to want to be “smart”.

That is the reason,

the show is called “Love to Draw”, not “Good at Drawing”. Tino Sidin also never criticized children’s drawings, he always praised them as “good, good.” That is called positive suggestion. Next, we can do the following actions to cultivate the students’ “authentic literacy power”: (1) Instill in students that reading habits are fun and enjoyable habits. So, don’t overwhelm students by memorizing the names of literary figures and their titles, the main characters of the story, the supporting characters, the plot, and the moral message behind the story. But, get students into the process of how much fun it is to read literature and other books. (2) Always innovating in an effort to foster a literacy culture in students. For example, by not taking comics lightly and not scolding students for bringing comics to school. Readings that are considered light, such as comics or teenagers, can be an introduction to other, more serious, readings. Taro Aso, who was the Prime Minister of Japan, also still takes the time to read comics. The Japanese comic industry grew rapidly until it became known in other countries and

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

378

impact on the animation and television industry. Thousands of people live and work in this creative industry. So, don’t underestimate comics. (3) Cultivate the habit of giving gifts of books and telling the contents of the reading. In elementary school, for example, students can be given the task of writing stories about the upcoming holiday season and presenting them to the class once the holidays are over. (4) Make a habit of reading stories to each other by playing on the designated days. The game element will make it easier for students to like an activity that they initially don’t like. (5) Fill the class with books. So that in their spare time, students can use it to read books. (6) Give students the freedom to choose the reading they like as long as it does not conflict with norms and values ​​in general. For example, In fact, superhero comics that have been adapted into famous films have many interesting elements to discuss. (7) Give appreciation to students who are able to summarize the contents of a reading material and discuss it. A compliment, a bar of cheap chocolate, or a pencil can make students happy. The author experienced it himself. A number of writing students, who have now graduated and become teachers, admit that they always remember that writers used to gift pens or chocolates to students who succeeded in answering the author’s questions. And now they pass the habit on to their students in class. a bar of cheap chocolate, or a pencil can make students happy. The author experienced it himself. A number of writing students, who have now graduated and become teachers, admit that they always remember that writers used to gift pens or chocolates to students who succeeded in answering the author’s questions. And now they pass the habit on to their students in class. a bar of cheap chocolate, or a pencil can make students happy. The author experienced it himself. A number of writing students, who have now graduated and become teachers, admit that they always remember that writers used to gift pens or chocolates to students who succeeded in answering the author’s questions. And now they pass the habit on to their students in class.

Based on experiences in the field, every teacher has the opportunity to have different tricks to foster students’ “authentic literacy power.” Make all the processes

it be

fun for students. Remember, from something local, very limited, we can jump far to the wide expanse of the world, through books and literacy culture. Because books are a window to the world. Through books, we can build civilizations from our own school grounds.

Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Position UKM UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

Reference Hamalik, Oemar. 2003. Curriculum Development, Bandung: Pustaka Setia. Ministry of Education and Culture. 2013. Curriculum 2013. Jakarta: Kemendibud. Compass. Information Literacy is Important in Learning, Wednesday edition, February 21, 2007. Mulyasa, E. 2013. Development and Implementation of 2013 Curriculum: Change and Development of 2013 Curriculum Are Important and Critical Issues. Bandung: Youth Rosda Karya. www. Kompas.com (downloaded on 29 April 2015). www.Republika.co.id. (downloaded on 29 April 2015).

Linguistics Program of UKM Language and Literature Position UNJ

379

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

380

CULTURAL INFILTRATION THROUGH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE

Sri Suhita

Introduction

There are several theories about the relationship of language and culture. Some say that language and culture are two different things, but have a close relationship, so they are inseparable. Language and literature are very much influenced by culture, everything in culture will be reflected in language. On the contrary, there are also those who argue that language greatly influences the culture and way of thinking of the people or society of its speakers. Language is an independent symbolic vowel system, used by members of society to interact (Aslinda, 2007: 11). According to Nababan (1984: 46), if we do not have language, then we will lose the ability to live as social beings. In other words, we will lose our humanity. Language can be studied from two aspects, namely based on its nature and function. The most basic function of language is for communication. The role of cross-cultural understanding in communication activities, both within one community and in multicultural communities, is one aspect that enables communication to run harmoniously and without misunderstanding. Language and cultural context are integral parts in supporting the achievement of the integrative function of language. In order to function language as a vehicle for integration, language and culture cannot be separated even though they can be distinguished. Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ Language and cultural context are integral parts in supporting the achievement of the integrative function of language. In order to function language as a vehicle for integration, language and culture cannot be separated even though they can be distinguished. Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ Language and cultural context are integral parts in supporting the achievement of the integrative function of language. In order to function language as a vehicle for integration, language and culture cannot be separated even though they can be distinguished. Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

Broadly speaking, language is a system of requirements (semiotic) which consists of sign elements and the relationship between these elements. The conditions of language and culture and ethnicity in Indonesia need to be endeavored to create a conducive atmosphere to create a positive attitude towards Indonesian language and culture including literature in it, both through education and guidance. In order for interethnic, intercultural, and sub-cultural communication as a form of language activity for integrative purposes to be achieved, it is necessary to understand the culture between communication participants. For this reason, efforts to increase cross-cultural understanding between ethnic and inter-ethnic groups need to be pursued. One of the efforts that can be made to improve cross-cultural understanding as well as the possession of Indonesian language skills is to eradicate literacy in all its aspects. This is supported by the fact that the level of education provides a better opportunity in developing one’s potential to be able to express himself through Indonesian in everyday life. Eradicating literacy must be interpreted as preparing people to increase their role in society for the sake of improving their standard of life, for obtaining livelihoods, increasing production, having high moral ownership, and having a good understanding of the world of their environment. This is supported by the fact that the level of education provides a better opportunity in developing one’s potential to be able to express himself through Indonesian in everyday life. Eradicating literacy must be interpreted as preparing people to increase their role in society for the sake of improving their standard of life, for obtaining livelihoods, increasing production, having high moral ownership, and having a good understanding of the world of their environment. This is supported by the fact that the level of education provides a better opportunity in developing one’s potential to be able to express himself through Indonesian in everyday life. Eradicating literacy must be interpreted as preparing people to increase their role in society for the sake of improving their standard of life, for obtaining livelihoods, increasing production, having high moral ownership, and having a good understanding of the world of their environment.

The Nature of Culture Talking about society’s problems cannot be separated from cultural problems. Culture has various definitions depending on the point of view of the definer itself. Kroeber and Kluckhohn in Nababan (1984: 49) collect cultural definitions from several anthropologists and divide them into six groups, namely: 1) Descriptive which emphasizes cultural elements. 2) Historical which emphasizes that the culture was inherited socially. 3) Normative which emphasizes the essence of culture as a rule of life and behavior. 4) Psychology which emphasizes the usefulness of culture in adapting to the environment. 5) Structural which emphasizes the nature of culture as a patterned and orderly system. 6) Genetics, which emphasizes the occurrence of culture as a result of human work.

381

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

Regardless of how the collected definitions are formulated, it can be seen from the grouping that culture encompasses all aspects and aspects of human life. If we look at the genetic definition (6), it can be said that any human action with all its results and consequences is included in the concept of culture. The definitions of culture made by Nababan (1984: 49) also show that culture covers all aspects and elements of human life. The grouping of cultural definitions into four groups is carried out by looking at culture as: 1) Organizing and binding society 2) Things obtained by humans through learning / education (nurture) 3) Patterns of human habits and behavior 4) Communication systems used by society for obtain cooperation, unity,

Nababan’s definitions of group (4) explicitly state that all communication systems used by humans, of course, also include language and literature included in culture. That is why Nababan (1984: 49) states that culture is a system of communication and interaction rules that allow a society to occur, be maintained, and be preserved. Communication systems or rules are part of culture, but culture is not only a communication system but also involves other problems, including the three definitions above. Thus, including the rules or laws that apply in society (definition of goal. 1), the results that apply in society (definition of goal. 2), and habits and behavior (definition of goal. 3). In other words, culture is all matters relating to human life, including rules or laws that apply in society, results made by humans, habits and traditions that are commonly practiced, and includes the means of interaction or communication used namely language and nonverbal communication tools other. Koentjaraningrat in Chaer (1995: 216-217) says that culture is only owned by humans, and grows together with the development of human society. He mentioned the term “cultural framework” which has two aspects of resistance, namely the form of culture and the content of the culture. The form of culture is in the form of ideas (cultural systems), the Linguistic Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ habits and traditions that are commonly practiced, and include the means of interaction or communication used, namely language and other nonverbal communication tools. Koentjaraningrat in Chaer (1995: 216-217) says that culture is only owned by humans, and grows together with the development of human society. He mentioned the term “cultural framework” which has two aspects of resistance, namely the form of culture and the content of the culture. The form of culture is in the form of ideas (cultural systems), the Linguistic Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ habits and traditions that are commonly practiced, and include the means of interaction or communication used, namely language and other nonverbal communication tools. Koentjaraningrat in Chaer (1995: 216-217) says that culture is only owned by humans, and grows together with the development of human society. He mentioned the term “cultural framework” which has two aspects of resistance, namely the form of culture and the content of the culture. The form of culture is in the form of ideas (cultural systems), the Linguistic Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ It mentions the term “cultural framework” which has two aspects minus, namely the existence of culture and the content of culture. The existence of culture in the form of the idea (cultural system), UKM Linguistics Program, Department of Language and Literature UNJ It mentions the term “cultural framework” which has two aspects minus, namely the existence of culture and the content of culture. The existence of culture in the form of the idea (cultural system), UKM Linguistics Program, Department of Language and Literature UNJ

382

Seminar on Language and Literature 2015

behavior (social system), and physical / object (physical culture). The cultural content consists of seven universal elements. That is, the seven elements are present in every human society in this world. The seven elements include: language, technological systems, systems of livelihood or economy, social organization, knowledge systems, religious systems, and arts. According to Koentjaraningrat, language is part of culture or in other words, language is under the scope of culture

Language To carry out their humanitarian duties, humans have one important tool, namely language. With language, humans can express what they want to express. Something that has been felt the same and is similar to him, does not necessarily feel similar, because it has not been revealed and expressed. Only with language can humans make it feel real and revealed. Of all the forms of symbols, language is the most complex, subtle, and evolved. Ontologically, the nature of language cannot be separated from human life. The essence of the meaning of language and the existence of language always projects human life, which is unlimited and complex. In the context of human life projection, language is always used in a unique way and has its own game rules. Therefore, there are many language games in human life. It can even be said to be unlimited, and between the game systems one another cannot be determined by a general rule. However, even though there are differences, sometimes there is a similarity. This is difficult to determine definitively and with certainty. Even though a person doesn’t know for sure a certain language game, he knows what to do in a game. Therefore, to express the nature of language in human life, it can be carried out by carrying out a description and providing examples in human life that are used differently. Some people think of language as something we do for others, is a play of verbal symbols based on our senses (imagery). As a mediation system, language not only describes how humans perceive the world and its conceptions, but also forms a vision of reality. Views of the Linguistic Program of the Language and Literature Department of the UNJ

383

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

This refers to the idea that by describing language as the incarnation of thoughts and feelings, namely the human mind, then that language gets a much higher meaning than the sound system or phoneme. Therefore, it is the culture that gives birth to culture and language as the incarnation of mind, which is a complete and perfect reflection of culture. Attention to minority groups has now become increasingly important with intercultural contacts. However, until now it was assumed that intercultural communication was still very difficult. This is because if language as a sound system fails to settle in cultural pockets, then society fails to understand and be understood in the context of intercultural communication. How do members of a society know the communication system in their culture? The answer to this question is that the inclination and capacity for culture is born, but its realization is obtained by education. The human communication system must be studied, every human being must first learn or undergo education before he knows his culture, namely the culture around him where he grew up (Nababan, 1984: 50). Human life as a member of society is not only limited to aspects of moral and spiritual nobility, or things that are static (knowledge, belief, art, morals, laws, customs, abilities and habits). A more dynamic concept, moving on from what humans have created with distinctive methods to gain self-benefit and from generation to generation. Therefore, Van Peursen in Ohoiwutun (2002: 78) concludes that culture is “a story about changes, about human history which always gives new forms to existing cultural patterns”. In terms of culture as a product of society in the traditional sense, language is part of the culture that is passed down from generation to generation. Today’s language is treated not only as an archive describing the past, but especially as a vehicle for changing people’s thinking. For example in advertising language. The persuasive-argumentative styles used by article writers to influence public opinion,

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

384

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

or written. This approach to language relations is in line with the concept of culture from the perspective of community dynamics. The claim or assertion that the most attractive characteristics of language, namely their universality, is as strange as the view that certain basic and structural characteristics of language are a reflection of the culture used or vice versa. As long as the particular language acquired by children is determined by the society in which they are raised, language is generally a purely cultural phenomenon. The unique characteristics of certain languages ​​can be related to the unique characteristics of the people who use them (Tarigan, 1985: 36-37). But can the Indonesian language we know today be cultured? Often we find young people who are not necessarily from the Jakarta area or have a Betawi ethnicity saying, ‘I really thought about it!’ or ‘What a fool!’ The kind of utterances that are often thrown out of the mouths of these children characterize one thing for us, namely the presence of cultural infiltration through language. When this kind of greeting is said not only to peers but also to parents, it is no longer just a matter of language as a cultural tool. But can this be called a new cultural development or a new richness of language for certain people? Or is it just the times? In a larger scope the Indonesian government, led by Balai Bahasa, trying to restore Indonesian cultural identity which originated from the use of good and correct Indonesian. In fact, 2008 is declared as the Year of Language, with high hopes that Indonesian will occupy the position of host in its own country, not forgetting the presence of regional languages ​​and foreign languages. Basically everything returns to each of us, will similar expressions continue to color our daily lives? Will a new culture be formed that put aside the friendliness and beauty of the Indonesian language and be replaced with an explosive expressive language? Language will always characterize the culture of the nation, this is just one element. But will we destroy these elements? Without diminishing respect for the existence of regional languages ​​as diversity and national culture and foreign languages ​​as an addition to science and technology, there is nothing wrong with Indonesian being a beautiful language and showing the true national identity. Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ

385

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

Diverse local communities have long had a clear identity within the frame of primordial sentiments (religion, ethnicity, language, etc.). Language as identity or identity has built expressive values, norms and symbols into social bonds to build social solidarity and cohesiveness. For local people, identity is a dignity and a ‘weapon’ to face outside forces through language and cultural symbols. The values, norms and expressive symbols contained in local identities provide justification for past actions, explain present actions and guide choices for future choices. However, local identities, including language, have long been destroyed or destroyed due to state intervention through receptive approaches and hierarchical state formation. The state builds integration through the destruction of local identities and the exploitation of local resources. The result is inauthentic security, stability, order and integrity. When the local identity was destroyed, the local community became the defendants in this process. Local elites were also accused for failing to build a civilized local identity. Local elites have been politicizing ethnicity sentiments and local issues, as a result, local languages ​​have been eliminated, leading to a process of genocide. According to Gerard Bibang (Hugo, 2008), a language observer from the Netherlands said that language is no different from the flow of human life. From time immemorial language was born, lived, and disappeared with the society that owns it. This is perfectly natural. For example, today the disappearance of languages ​​seems very fast. This symptom, in fact, is one of the consequences of the so-called “Language Wars”. About 6,000 major languages ​​worldwide are threatened with extinction in the not too distant future. The diversity of languages ​​as part of the cultural diversity of humankind is also threatened with extinction. Could it be humans without culture, or culture without humans? Culture is a unique human product. A threat to language is a cultural threat. Cultural threats are threats to humans. Will humans live in a monolingual culture? It would be ideal if there was only one universal language in the world, thus ignoring the diversity of languages ​​that have long been the cultural image of mankind throughout the ages? In this world there are 2,700 languages. English has more than 550,000 words. However, not many people know that each word is formed from a variation of the 26 letters of the Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ

386

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

only, and only has 44 types of sound (Dryden, 2001: 117). English is the language with the most support in the world. Linguists estimate that no language can survive without the support of 100 thousand speakers. Worldwide today, half of the 6,000 or more languages ​​are spoken by less than 10,000 people. A quarter of it is used by hundreds of millions of users. Extinction of language is not a new phenomenon. Since the emergence of various languages, at least 3000 even more, nearly half a million of them have disappeared without a trace. Languages ​​generally survive a relatively short span of time, with increasing rates of extinction. The question is why did languages ​​become extinct when the people who used it were colonized by a more powerful and influential tribe or nation? In Southeast Asia, about 40 out of 600-700 languages ​​each spoken by the speakers is determined by the policies of their respective governments. There are 96% of the languages ​​spoken by only 4% of the world’s population, and more than 80% of these languages ​​are endemic for example tied to one tribe, race, or country. This trend has led scientists to increasingly predict that about 95% of the languages ​​currently alive will become extinct by themselves. Every recent year, 10 languages ​​have disappeared. Some experts even estimate that 50-90% of the languages ​​spoken today will also become extinct in this century. If you want to maintain a language, then the minimum user is 100,000 people. To avoid this process of language warfare, local languages ​​must be allowed to live and develop according to their nature. If not, we contribute to accelerating the killing of local languages. That means, killing the history of civilization and the existence of the people who wear it.

Language and Culture Language as a communication system is a part or subsystem of the cultural system, which is the most important and core part of culture. Language is involved in all aspects of culture. At least by way of having terms for elements from all aspects of culture. Human culture would not have been possible without language; the language that allows the formation of culture. Language is a sine qua non (a must have) for human culture and society. Another link between language and culture is the UKM Linguistics Program, Department of Language and Literature UNJ

387

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

that language as a communication system has meaning only in the culture that is the container (Nababan, 1984: 51). Ohoiwutun (2002: 77–79) says that culture includes all human actions. Language and culture overlap. The reciprocal influence between language and culture can be seen in learning a second or foreign language. Communication patterns that are influenced by culture can clearly be traced through the observation of language tendencies. The above shows how closely the relationship between language and culture is. Through the language of a person or society, we can know culture. According to Koentjaraningrat in Chaer (1995: 217) that language is part of culture. So, the relationship between language and culture is subordinative, where language is under the scope of culture. Besides that, it also has a coordinative relationship, namely an equal relationship, which has the same elevation. Masinambouw’s opinion which is also quoted by Chaer (1995: 217) states that language and culture are two systems inherent in humans. If culture is a system that regulates human interaction in society, then language is a system that functions as a means for the interaction to take place. In other words, culture is a system that regulates human interaction, while language is a system that functions as a means of carrying out that facility. Regarding the coordinative relationship between language and culture, two things should be noted. First, it is said that the relationship between language and culture is like conjoined twins, two closely related phenomena, like the relationship between the sides of a coin: one side is a linguistic system and the other side is a cultural system. So,

language and culture are different phenomena but the relationship is

very close, so they cannot be separated. This is in line with the Masinambou concept. The second thing, which is interesting in this coordinative relationship is the very controversial hypothesis of two linguistic experts, namely Edward Sapir and Benjamin Lee Whorf, which is called the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis or language relativity. In this hypothesis, it is argued that language not only determines cultural features, but also determines the way and way of thinking of humans, and therefore influences their behavior. In other words, a nation that has a different language with the Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ

388

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

other nations, will have a different cultural style and way of thinking. So, cultural differences and human ways of thinking stem from differences in language. If language affects the culture and way of thinking of humans, the characteristics that exist in a language will be reflected in the attitudes and culture of the speakers. The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis in Chaer (1995: 217-220) states that differences in thinking are caused by language differences. This resulted in Arabs seeing reality differently from Japanese people, because Arabic is not the same as Japanese. Whorf emphasized that the reality doesn’t just happen in front of us, then gives the names one by one. What actually happened was the opposite; we make a map of that reality, which is done on the basis of the language we use, and not on the basis of that reality. For example, the kind of color in this world is the same, but why is it that every nation is different, seeing it as something different. The British, for example, recognize the basic colors white, red, green, yellow, blue, brown, purple, pink, orange and gray; but speakers of Hunanco in the Philippines only recognize four colors, namely mabiru ‘black and other dark colors’, sky ‘white and bright colors’, meramar ‘red color groups’, and malatuy ‘yellow, light green and light brown’.

Cultural Infiltration Samsuri sees a clear relationship between language and culture. He stated that language is a cultural tool (Samsuri, 1992: 24–39). Literature is an inseparable part of culture. Language is a medium for literature used by authors to express their thoughts and feelings. The author’s culture that is free and independent influences the freedom to create in the language he writes. Authors can exploit phonetic, morphological, and syntactic properties to convey a single purpose. When faced with the fact that the language is not sufficiently perfect to represent his desires, the author freely exploits aspects of the language. In the last ten years in Indonesia there has been an outbreak of the literary genre with the emergence of chicklit (erature) and teen (ager) lit (erature). This phenomenon affects literary culture in Indonesia, after the chick lit pioneered by Helen Fielding with Bridget Jone’s Diary (1996) became a best-seller in the UK. In 1998 the chicklit began to be filmed. Since then chicklit has spread to all parts of the world, including Indonesia. Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ

389

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

Cultural infiltration also enters political life in Indonesia. This happened before the birth of Balai Pustaka. The Dutch considered the works of Mas Marco Kartodikromo, Semaun, and Tirto Adisuryo to have political content and to voice certain ideological aspirations. This can have a negative impact on the society and image of the Dutch government. Therefore, the Dutch government called their works wild reading written by agitators (Mahayana, 2005: 340). This prompted the Dutch to establish Balai Pustaka, which was used as a political mouthpiece through language, especially literature. The existence of Indonesian for the Indonesian people is a gift from God, because it can eliminate problems with the national language which are very complicated and easily cause regional emotions (Samsuri, 1992: 27). The acceptance of Indonesian as a unified language is not the same as other languages ​​in the world which feel compelled to choose one of their languages ​​as the official language or the national language. The designation of Tagalog as the national language in the Philippines, is accepted indifferently by Filipinos who do not speak Tagalog as their first language. Apart from Tagalog, there are still several languages ​​that have the largest speakers in the Philippines, namely Visaya, Ilokano, Masaringan, and Pampanga. They feel there is an injustice, because they have to learn the national language in addition to their own language. Therefore, many Filipinos prefer to speak English for communication and as an official language. Similar to what happened in Malaysia, which has about seventeen languages. In 1967, only Malay was established as the official language. However, especially the educated prefer English as a professional language. With more English books than those in Malay, it is predicted that English will get a better place than Malay.

Conclusion Language is the result of a cultural process, with the assumption that culture is the result of beautiful human creations, works and initiatives. On the other hand, culture is also a tool. When there are parties who use language to enter other cultures through language, it means that language functions as a tool. Cultural infiltration through language is unavoidable, as long as one community commits or opens up to other parties.

Linguistics Program of UKM Language and Literature Position UNJ

390

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

Infiltration is basically in the form of infiltration or seepage. The existence of infiltration can have good or bad consequences for the target party. However, it is not the infiltration that is bad in nature, the infiltrated material is sometimes incompatible with the national culture.

Alisjahbana, S. Takdir. 1986. New Anthropology. Jakarta: Dian Rakyat. Aslinda and Leni Syafyahya. 2007. Introduction to Sociolinguistics. Bandung: Refika Aditama. Chaer, Abdul and Agustina, Leonie. 1995. An Introduction to Sociolinguistics. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta. Mahayana, Maman S. 2005. 9 Answers to Indonesian Literature; An Orientation to Criticism. Jakarta: Clear. Nababan, PWJ 1984. An Introduction to Sociolinguistics. Jakarta: Gramedia. Ohoiwutun, Paul. 2002. Sociolinguistics: Understanding Language in the Context of Society and Culture. Jakarta: Blanc’s design. Samsuri. 1992. Language Analysis: Understanding Language Scientifically. Jakarta: Erlangga. Tarigan, Henry Guntur. 2008. Psycholinguistics. Bandung: Space.

Linguistics Program of Language and Literature Unit of UNJ

391

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

392

AHMAD TOHARI’S THOUGHTS ABOUT WOMEN IN A GROUP OF OFFICIAL SHORT STORIES WANT TO RETURN: AN ANALYSIS WITH EXPRESSIVE APPROACH37

Venus Khasanah38

Introduction Literary work is an overflow or incarnation of feelings, thoughts and experiences (in a broad sense) of the author. In conveying messages through his works, writers often deliberately highlight certain things, such as the cultural wealth of society, ethnicity, and others. This authoring factor cannot be ignored, although it should not be absolute. Therefore, the thoughts or ideas of the author are generally very useful to facilitate the grasping of the meaning of the literary works that they produce (Pradopo, 2003: 114-115). However, it must be admitted that without the presence of the reader, the meaning of literary works would be meaningless. Thus, the relationship between the two gets the same role and function. This writer-reader relationship is a dialectical relationship between literary works as a system of signs produced by the author and readers who have their own views on the literary works they read. As a member of society, the author is automatically more successful in describing the society in which he lives, the environment he is actually experiencing. Presented at the Seminar Between the Nation, Universitas Kebangsaan Malaysia and Jakarta State University. 37 environment that he really experienced Presented at the Seminar between the Nation, Universitas Kebangsaan Malaysia and Jakarta State University. 37 environment that he really experienced Presented at the Seminar between the Nation, Universitas Kebangsaan Malaysia and Jakarta State University. 37

38

Lecturers of the Indonesian Literature Study Program, Jakarta State University.

Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Position UKM UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

in real. Therefore, like scientists from other disciplines in expressing social phenomena, the author is also deemed necessary to conduct a kind of ‘research’ which is then interpretively imaginatively appointed to works of art, in the form of literary works (Kutha Ratna, 2004: 56) . Therefore, because in this paper the author raises Ahmad Tohari’s thoughts about women in his collection of short stories entitled Rusmi Want to Return, the analysis that will be made also includes how this author expressed his ideas, ideas, and thoughts that were poured out. in his work. Although a similar analysis has often been carried out by many literary researchers, writers still have a special attraction if they have to discuss the works of the author born in Tinggarjaya, Banyumas. Like the author’s review, writings or articles about the authorship of Ahmad Tohari (hereinafter referred to as AT), a man from Banyumas who is popular with the novel Ronggeng Dukuh Paruk, have been widely discussed. In fact, a thesis on AT’s authorship has also been stored in the Gadjah Mada University library since 1995. AT is an author who lives and grows up in the pesantren environment. Therefore, it becomes very interesting to discuss when a santri author writes a story about the life of Ronggeng Srintil which is of course very contradictory so it is not surprising that AT is then more synonymous with Ronggeng Dukuh Paruk. Through this paper the author seeks to conduct an analysis that no longer identifies AT as the author of Ronggeng Srintil, instead, he tried to trace AT’s thoughts about five women with different figures in his collection of short stories (hereinafter referred to as short stories) entitled Rusmi Mau Pulang, published by a publisher in Jogjakarta in 2003. This collection of short stories contains the story of Rusmi Want Pulang (hereinafter referred to as RIP), Night Song (hereinafter referred to as NM), Si Minem with Babies (hereinafter referred to as SMBB), Blokeng (hereinafter referred to as Bkg), and the Drowning Yellow Moon (hereinafter referred to as BKST). In the five short stories, there are five female figures who are told by many authors, namely Rusmi in RIP, Jebris in NM, Minem in SMBB, Blokeng in Bkg, and Yuning in BKST. The writer will analyze these five characters in relation to AT’s thoughts about women.

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

393

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

Therefore, in order to produce a coherent analysis, this paper will begin with a discussion of (1) literary orientation and the approach used in this paper, (2) AT authorship, (3) Rusmi, Jebris, Minem, Blokeng, and Yuning in AT Thought, and closed with (4) Closing Notes. Literary Orientation and Approaches Used In his book The Mirror and the Lamp, MH Abrams in Pradopo (2004: 2) suggests that literary works consist of four related elements, namely universe (nature and life), readers, authors, and the work itself. These four elements became known as literary orientation, consisting of: (1) mimesis orientation, which emphasizes the relationship between literary works and the real world; (2) pragmatic orientation, which views literary phenomena in relation to their function, this includes readability and reception functions; (3) expressive orientation, which views the work as an outpouring of the author’s feelings and mental state; and (4) an objective orientation which emphasizes the importance of literary works as a whole, unified whole. On the basis of these four literary orientations and based on the objectives to be achieved in this paper, the approach used is of course an expressive approach. In this approach, literature is assumed to be an outpouring of ideas, dreams, aspirations, tastes, thoughts, wills, and inner experiences of the author. Of course, the experience has been cooked and deposited for a relatively long time so it is not a raw experience intermittent. This inner experience will be a strong impetus for the birth of literary works. Therefore, This expressive approach will be based more on aspects of the background of authorship, personality, and the things that surround the author’s life (Endraswara, 2003: 30). What must be remembered is that the expressive approach does not merely pay attention to how the literary work is created, but what forms occur in the resulting literary work. Therefore, the area surrounding this approach includes the poet’s self, thoughts and feelings, and his creations. Thus, to analyze AT’s works, of course it is not only limited to how the author is What must be remembered is that the expressive approach does not merely pay attention to how the literary work is created, but what forms occur in the resulting literary work. Therefore, the area surrounding this approach includes the poet’s self, thoughts and feelings, and his creations. Thus, to analyze AT’s works, of course it is not only limited to how the author is What must be remembered is that the expressive approach does not merely pay attention to how the literary work is created, but what forms occur in the resulting literary work. Therefore, the area surrounding this approach includes the poet’s self, thoughts and feelings, and his creations. Thus, to analyze AT’s works, of course it is not only limited to how the author is

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

394

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

produces his work, but all aspects related to the expressive approach as the author has described. Given that the stories featured in the short story collection of RIP feature women, apart from using an expressive approach, in the discussion there will also be a little explanation of the results of thoughts on the basis of a feminist approach. The assumptions related to women are always interesting in the framework of contemporary culture because their rise is related to social problems, from their presence in the household to sociocultural problems as a whole (Kutha Ratna, 2004: 189). What happened to the women who were told by AT in his short stories collection at least illustrates this. The authorship of Ahmad Tohari RIP, NM, SMBB, Bkg, and BKST are five short stories which are manifestations of the world created by the author AT. The manifestation of this fictional world is lifted from social realities that describe the conditions, situations, behavior and attitudes of people in certain areas with groups of people who have certain cultural backgrounds as well. AT is a Javanese who was born in Java and raised in Javanese society. He was born in Tinggarjaya Village, Jatilawang Subdistrict, Banyumas Regency on June 13, 1948. As a Javanese he really understands who Javanese are, what they do, what they practice, and how their attitudes and outlook on life, especially the society where they were born and raised . In addition, AT is also a follower of Islam who is able to interpret Islamic teachings not only as an abstract concept, it is also a guide for daily attitudes and behavior. Moreover, with this attitude and sufficient life experience, AT has proven to be successful in constructing “distinctive” authorship (Dermawan, 1990: 117118). AT’s fame is evident from the many studies people have on his works, in the form of articles, criticisms, essays, theses, and literary scholar theses at home and abroad. Another evidence is the publication of several novels written in English, Dutch, and Japanese. Translation and publication abroad is a sign or a signal that criticism, essays, theses, and theses of literary scholarship at home and abroad. Another evidence is the publication of several novels written in English, Dutch, and Japanese. Translation and publication abroad is a sign or a signal that criticism, essays, theses, and theses of literary scholarship at home and abroad. Another evidence is the publication of several novels written in English, Dutch, and Japanese. Translation and publication abroad is a sign or a signal that

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

395

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

his works have added value that deserves to be studied, both popularly and academically (Yudiono, KS, 2003: 148). In an interview report (Yudiono, KS, 2003: 2-3), it was revealed AT’s confession that the reason why he continued to write was because he still had anger or anxiety towards leaders who had not proven their commitment to the little people. According to AT, leaders consider leadership to be a fortune that comes from above in the form of revelations so that their power is interpreted as privileges whose impact appears as corruption. This is clearly a big mistake that must be changed in the middle of the life of a republic. However, he also realized that he did not have great power to change the situation of society. Therefore, the anger and restlessness is channeled into literary works with the hope of providing some kind of enlightenment among the people to realize a life full of grace and blessings as a consequence of the nation and state. Of course, he felt that hope was still excessive because he was aware of the low appreciation of literature among the public and leaders. This admission indicates AT’s seriousness as an author who is always “pregnant with literature”. This means that he experiences an inner condition that forces him to write literary works so that his soul does not suffer. After giving birth to his work, he himself admitted that he did not think about its social impact on society. More important, he has carried out his obligations as a writer and in fact has enjoyed the form of sustenance that has supported his family life (Yudiono, KS, 2003: 3). This typical authorship of an AT also appears in the short stories that the authors discuss in this paper. This particularity turns out to be more meaningful when the writer finds AT’s view of the figure of women, both as single parents like Rusmi and Jebris in the short stories of RIP and NM, women who suffer because of their husband’s laziness and their young age such as when they are married, such as Minem in the SMBB short story, or women with full love for their husbands, such as Yuning in BKST. Rusmi, Jebris, Minem, Blokeng, and Yuning in Ahmat Tohari’s Thought This special authorship of an AT also appears in the short stories that the author discusses in this paper. This uniqueness turns out to be more meaningful when the author finds an AT view of the female figure, both as single parents such as Rusmi and Jebris in RIP and NM short stories, women who suffer from the laziness of their husbands and their young age such as when married, like Minem in SMBB short stories, or women with full love for their husbands, like Yuning in BKST. Rusmi, Jebris, Minem, Blokeng, and Yuning in Ahmat Tohari’s Thought The typical authorship of an AT also appears in the short stories that the author discusses in this paper. This uniqueness turns out to be more meaningful when the author finds an AT view of the female figure, both as single parents such as Rusmi and Jebris in RIP and NM short stories, women who suffer from the laziness of their husbands and their young age such as when married, like Minem in SMBB short stories, or women with full love for their husbands, like Yuning in BKST. Rusmi, Jebris, Minem, Blokeng, and Yuning in Ahmat Tohari’s Thought women who suffer from the laziness of their husbands and their youthful age as when they got married, such as Minem in the SMBB short story, as well as women with full love for their husbands, such as Yuning in BKST. Rusmi, Jebris, Minem, Blokeng, and Yuning in Ahmat Tohari’s Thought women who suffer from the laziness of their husbands and their youthful age as when they got married, such as Minem in the SMBB short story, as well as women with full love for their husbands, such as Yuning in BKST. Rusmi, Jebris, Minem, Blokeng, and Yuning in Ahmat Tohari’s Thought

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

396

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

In the novel Ronggeng Dukuh Paruk, AT is proven to have succeeded in raising the issue of the existence of women who are treated unfairly. Through Ronggeng Srintil, he has succeeded in providing a discourse on how a woman should be treated. In the following discussion, the writer will describe the characters Rusmi, Jebris, Minem, Blokeng, and Yuning in the five short stories of Tohari. This explanation can simultaneously describe an analysis of how the figure of AT as a writer is able to place himself in the story being told. She is a writer who has succeeded in marrying her fluency in describing the simple mindset of rural communities, but is full of social arrogance that is unique to the problems of rural women. Except for Yuning in BKST, the four women depicted in the story are actually marginalized village women. What he tells is in accordance with his authorship vision which seeks to provide enlightenment and reminder to the public so that they are not easily trapped in arbitrariness. According to him, this vision will be maintained indefinitely with the belief that literary works are a humane communication medium (Yudiono, KS, 2003: 149). 1. Rusmi in the RIP short story RIP’s short story tells of an incident that began with villagers’ gossip about Rusmi’s plan to return home after a long time of wandering. This gossip arises because some people think that Rusmi, a widow whose husband died, works as a prostitute in the city. As a result, Kang Hamim, as Rusmi’s parents, also worried because there was a threat that the people would not accept Rusmi back. Their hamlet does not want to accept Rusmi’s arrival, who is considered a disgrace. In this short story RIP, Rusmi is a picture of a woman who holds her tradition and religion tightly. She is a woman who has to support her two children alone. Some residents, because of their innocence, easily believed the news that the village they were in did not deserve Rusmi’s arrival because she was a naughty woman. Their testimony can be seen in the following quote. She is a woman who has to support her two children alone. Some residents, because of their innocence, easily believed the news that the village they were in did not deserve Rusmi’s arrival because she was a naughty woman. Their testimony can be seen in the following quote. She is a woman who has to support her two children alone. Some residents, because of their innocence, easily believed the news that the village they were in did not deserve Rusmi’s arrival because she was a naughty woman. Their testimony can be seen in the following quote.

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

397

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

“Some say now Rusmi in Jakarta. Or Surabaya. There Rusmi became a female entertainer. It is said that someone once saw Rusmi with a man. And the most exciting is the confession of someone who supposedly heard Rusmi’s story has become a resident of a prostitution complex “. (RIP, 2004: 4)

As a result of this incident, Kang Hamim, Rusmi’s parents were worried. Kang Hamim’s anxiety started to melt away when he complained about his problem to Pak RT. As an elder, Pak RT was finally able to soothe Kang Hamim. It was Pak RT who then tried to make Rusmi’s plan to return home not cause turmoil. One of the methods taken was to leave a message to Ustad Muin about Rusmi’s problems in his Friday sermon. This method proves that Pak RT’s thoughts are the thoughts of a person who is able to practice religious activities in all aspects of his life. The Friday sermon as a tool used is a powerful way to socialize how the human principle should help, live in harmony, be safe, secure, and not have prejudice against others.

“How come Pak RT includes a sponsor’s message?” asked Ustad Muin with a laugh. “Yes, frankly, in our community there is a problem with widows. Rusmi is Kang Hamim’s son. ” … Ustadz, it seems that we are very prone to prejudice, ”interrupted Pak RT. “Indeed, many women who run to the city sacrifice their honor for money. However, is the prejudice against Rusmi correct? ” “If it is not true, then it is a sin for those who are prejudiced,” continued Ustadz Muin. “Yes, we have been negligent and the ransom is not enough to say istighfar.” “Then Ustadz agrees with my proposal?” Describe our duty to widows and orphans in the sermon tomorrow? “Yes. In fact, I will describe it with shame and shame. “(RIP, 2004: 11-12) Linguistics Program of Language and Literature Department, UKM UNJ

398

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

In the quote, it appears that Pak RT was the first to defend Rusmi. In this context, the writer views that as a religious writer in all his life, the figure of AT has tried to provide insight into how society should treat a widow and orphaned child. Many people profess to be very religious, but living real life in society is very different from the life principle of a true religious. This AT figure then put Pak RT as his incarnation. It was Pak RT who finally ended the negative polemic that had developed about Rusmi because it turned out that he was actually getting married at a very short time. Based on the reviews and quotes that the author describes, It can also be observed that in addition to being a picture of a woman who holds tight to her traditions and religion, Rusmi is a figure of a woman who never gives up. Even though her widowhood status was unfavorable, she still struggled against a harsh life. Of course what he did was proof, as found in feminist theory, that the male figure was not always at the center. It was proven that Rusmi was able to get up alone, before finally getting married again. In addition, the AT figure can also be captured as someone who really cares about the lives of others who are being persecuted. As a religious community, it is fitting that what he teaches should be applied in all life in society so that life can be harmonious, harmonious and balanced. 2. Jebris in NM’s Short Story In NM’s short story, Jebris is categorized as a woman whose character is very opposite to Rusmi. Although both of them are widows, Rusmi is proven to be stronger than Jebris because Jebris ends up falling into prostitution. Jebris also proved to be unfaithful to her husband. The title of NM’s short story actually hints at a happy and festive atmosphere in the middle of the nightlife, but the initial sentences actually give off the opposite impression. Told by an omniscient author that in a village there was a rumor about a woman named Jebris who was prostituting herself. This symptom is marked by the Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ Rusmi is proven to be stronger than Jebris because Jebris ends up falling into prostitution. Jebris also proved to be unfaithful to her husband. The title of NM’s short story actually hints at a happy and festive atmosphere in the middle of the nightlife, but the initial sentences actually give off the opposite impression. Told by an omniscient author that in a village there was a rumor about a woman named Jebris who was prostituting herself. This symptom is marked by the Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ Rusmi is proven to be stronger than Jebris because Jebris ends up falling into prostitution. Jebris also proved to be unfaithful to her husband. The title of NM’s short story actually hints at a happy and festive atmosphere in the middle of the nightlife, but the initial sentences actually give off the opposite impression. Told by an omniscient author that in a village there was a rumor about a woman named Jebris who was prostituting herself. This symptom is marked by the Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ but the initial sentences give off the opposite impression. Told by an omniscient author that in a village there was a rumor about a woman named Jebris who was prostituting herself. This symptom is marked by the Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ but the initial sentences give off the opposite impression. Told by an omniscient author that in a village there was a rumor about a woman named Jebris who was prostituting herself. This symptom is marked by the Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ

399

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

Jebris departed every evening for the city on the last public bus and early in the morning returned home by the earliest bus. What Jebris has done is considered to have tarnished the face of the village that has succeeded in building a mosque which is located near the house of Jebris, a divorced widow with one child. One of the people who pay more attention to Jebris is the married couple Sar and Ratib. Sar, whose house is adjacent to Jebris’ house, is very worried, but she cannot do much except complain to her husband because Jebris has been her friend since she was a child. Jebris’ house is located behind Sar and Ratib’s house so that whenever they are going to prostitute, Jebris will stop the transportation in front of Sar and Ratib’s house which is located on the side of the main road. Ironically, in front of Sar and Ratib’s house stood a small mosque. However, it turns out that the surau has not been able to provide awareness about the importance of religious values ​​for Jebris. Jebris is even very celebrated and lacks good character. This incident by AT is described as follows. “Because he doesn’t have his own well, every day Jebris uses the Sar family’s well. In fact, it is not uncommon for Jebris to steal from cleaning the body in Sar’s bathroom. If you want to go peddle yourself, Jebris waits for the bus right in front of Sar’s house because his house doesn’t have an alley to the main road. Then it often happened that Jebris met children who wanted to recite the Koran in the mosque before sunset and met the children again after dawn. So far, Sar can still hold back his anxiety. Sar still supports Jebris with several baskets of rationed rice every month. Sar won’t forget, Whatever Jebris’s circumstances, he was a childhood friend. ….. Jebris often takes Sar’s underwear which is drying. Sar’s heart is always sour when she imagines Jebris’ underwear. And Sar often gets goosebumps when he remembers that one day, the underwear that was attached to Jebris’ body was touched by a stumped bum. (RIP, 2004: 17-18) AT’s negative characteristic of Jebris is described as a bad talent that his mother passed on when he was still alive. Emak Jebris is a seller of gembus, fried cassava cakes in the shape of bracelets. Emak Jebris peddles his wares at the center of the Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ Sar’s heart is always sour when she imagines Jebris’ underwear. And Sar often gets goosebumps when he remembers that one day, the underwear that was attached to Jebris’ body was touched by a stumped bum. (RIP, 2004: 17-18) AT’s negative characteristic of Jebris is described as a bad talent that his mother passed on when he was still alive. Emak Jebris is a seller of gembus, fried cassava cakes in the shape of bracelets. Emak Jebris peddles his wares at the center of the Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ Sar’s heart is always sour when she imagines Jebris’ underwear. And Sar often gets goosebumps when he remembers that one day, the underwear that was attached to Jebris’ body was touched by a stumped bum. (RIP, 2004: 17-18) AT’s negative characteristic of Jebris is described as a bad talent that his mother passed on when he was still alive. Emak Jebris is a seller of gembus, fried cassava cakes in the shape of bracelets. Emak Jebris peddles his wares at the center of the Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ Emak Jebris is a seller of gembus, fried cassava cakes in the shape of bracelets. Emak Jebris peddles his wares at the center of the Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ Emak Jebris is a seller of gembus, fried cassava cakes in the shape of bracelets. Emak Jebris peddles his wares at the center of the Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ

400

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

Street. Jebris likes to accompany his mother in selling late at night, because there is always a male buyer who gives him loose change. She also often hears her mother joking, joking, and even pinching her male customers. One time, her father came when her mother was holding hands with a buyer, but her mother was calm. In fact, his father just lowered his head. When Jebris later married and lived comfortably with her husband who ran a grocery store near the terminal, Jebris’s cheating became bitter, so she eventually became a prostitute. Regarding this oversight, AT also stated that the mistake was considered an inheritance of his mother. “However, one year later, there was a rumor that Jebris was imitating his mother in trading. Jebris is friendly and warm towards the driver, kernet-kernet, and motorcycle taxi drivers. The stall is always lively with drum music and the laughter of young people. Then Jebris was caught missing with Gombyok, a slim and sweet-skinned motorcycle taxi driver. At that time, people said, “No wonder, Jebris imitated the mother of the shabby seller. Don’t you know that gembus can mean various things. ” (RIP, 2004: 21)

In the end, Jebris can also be interpreted as a woman with a lifestyle and determination that is very different from Rusmi. Although both are widows, the authors attempt to provide a contradictory opposition. Rusmi and Jebris can be said to be a manifestation of AT’s imaginary world about human life. Wherever humans live, there is also the black and white side. In this short story, it appears that the author also wants to provide insight that something must be done to save prostitutes. At least this is like what Ratib did. When Jebris was arrested by the authorities, it was Ratib who then released him, and with Sar’s agreement, Jebris was then asked to help take care of the couple’s house. The solution is indeed a dilemma, however, Ratib and Sar cannot escape the fact that Jebris is a street prostitute who is considered to have damaged the reputation of their neighborhood. Jebris is the closest neighbor, even Sar’s playmate and at that moment needs his help.

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

401

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

One criticism that the author seems to want to convey is the depiction of the surau in the vicinity of Jebris’s residence. AT seems to want to convey a moral message that there are still many people around us that we deserve to help. The surau setting is a touch for those who claim to be close to God but cannot apply their closeness to the benefit of fellow humans. In other words, AT wants to convey that what is obtained in religious teachings should be transformed in daily life. AT believes and believes that literary works are another option for preaching or enlightening the human mind so that they always want to carry God’s verses. In addition, AT also wants to illustrate that prostitution is an inevitable social reality. On the one hand society sneers, scorns, and condemning the world of prostitution, on the other hand it is very rare that sincerely take constructive action. 3. Minem in short stories SMBB This SMBB short story tells the life struggle of a young housewife named Minem. At the age of fourteen, Minem has been blessed with a baby from his marriage to Kasdu. Their life is a picture of the life of a poor family who have to live hard work. However, Minem had to find the fact that her husband was not ready to become the head of the household. He is a lazy person. She also had to do various strenuous activities, while her womb was getting bigger. Once upon a time, Minem had to fetch clean water on steep hills. Because the load of pottery filled with water was quite heavy and the road was also steep, Minem finally fell over. As a result, the seven-month-old baby she was carrying was finally born prematurely. When he was about to deliver the news of his son’s birth to his father-in-law, Kasdu was confused. In Kasdu’s mind, imagine the joy of his father-in-law if he heard Minem gave birth to a baby or rather great anger if he found out the birth prematurely due to his laziness taking water in the river. The latter was the one who actually burdened Kasdu’s steps to his in-laws’ house. imagine the joy of her father-in-law if she hears Minem giving birth to a baby or rather great anger if she finds out the birth ahead of time due to her laziness taking water in the river. The latter was the one who actually burdened Kasdu’s steps to his in-laws’ house. imagine the joy of his father-in-law if he hears Minem giving birth to a baby or rather great anger if he finds out the birth ahead of time due to his laziness taking water in the river. The latter was the one who actually burdened Kasdu’s steps to his in-laws’ house.

Linguistic Program of Language and Literature Unit of UNJ

402

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

“The closer to the house of his in-laws, the slower steps of Kasdu. Not because he was tired, but mainly because of the doubts that began to creep into Kasdu’s heart. Once Kasdu stopped walking, he stood there dumbfounded. She was tempted to turn around because she suddenly felt reluctant to face the in-laws who might scold her. But that doubt only momentarily settled in Kasdu’s heart. His feet are back on the way. ” (RIP, 2004: 30)

Apparently they did not question the birth of the baby and how Minem was. What was visible in Kasdu’s eyes was the joy of the mother-in-law who felt she had become a grandmother and the surprise of the father-in-law of hearing Minem give birth to a baby at the age of fourteen. Later, Kasdu heard the whispers of his mother-in-law who admitted that she had given birth to Minem at the age of fourteen. Another thing that the father-in-law said

was his joy in preparing for Minem’s new sister’s wedding

twelve years old. In this section, AT describes a portrait of the ignorance or simplicity of thinking of village people like Kasdu and his in-laws who are in a poor village life environment. In addition, in another section, AT also wants to share the idea that in the household, husband and wife should be able to share their duties fairly. Kasdu’s laziness is a very unfair thing to Minem. In addition, AT also explained how hard the struggle of a woman who is about to give birth, especially for Minem who is only fourteen years old. “Kasdu saw for himself when Minem was on his back with his knees folded. His face was bright red and his breath was gasping. Experienced women instruct Minem how to take a stand when she is about to give birth. From their mouths came the praise of salvation. It was still very deep in Kasdu’s heart how Minem grinned in pain. How he closes his airways, then shrinks the abdominal muscles so that the baby is pushed out. After the little baby came out, Minem didn’t move. His face was so wet with sweat. Minem kept silent. Only his pulse is weak, indicating that he is not dead. “(RIP, 2004: 28-29)

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

403

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

In this quote, AT looks very fluent in photographing a childbirth. It is obvious that AT also gives respect to the struggle of women when they are about to give birth, and Minem is the figure chosen to represent her. Minem is a hardworking woman who has responsibilities towards her family. Her struggle to carry pottery filled with water through the hills was a very risky act for her who was pregnant. If we frame it with the struggles that Rusmi and Jebris have done, Minem is a picture of the same episode from them. The three of them were tough village women and AT seemed very defended. For him, God must be understood by reading the symbols that appear to those who are marginalized, suffering, and sick socially, politically, and educationally.

also realizes the importance of building civility so that it will not be easy to

do actions that can harm others.

4. Blokeng in Bkg Short Story Bkg short story tells the story of the pregnancy of a woman named Blokeng whose life was in the midst of extraordinary poverty. He lives alone in a hut around a garbage dump near the market. At one point Blokeng became gossip because she was pregnant without knowing who had impregnated her, and Blokeng never told who the father of the baby she was finally born with. As a result of this incident, all residents became suspicious of each other, guessing who made Blokeng pregnant. In this story, the Aku (the storyteller) offers a solution that makes the reader need to think about the nature of human dignity. What happened to Blokeng appears to be raised by AT as a criticism of the ignorance of some people who tend to underestimate their fellowmen who happen to have a less fortunate life. Especially when you have problems. AT’s criticism is as shown in the following quote.

Linguistics Program of Language and Literature Unit of UNJ

404

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

405

“The men of my village cringe. Without anyone being excluded, they are confused in the mix of sas-sus. Without exception, because isolating oneself is tantamount to attracting the attention of the public and in turn the accusation of impregnating Blokeng will be merciless. And my village is arrogant. The accusation of bridging Blokeng, apart from all legal or other norms, is considered the least dignified primitive behavior. Because Blokeng is second to none and every woman will feel so embarrassed when compared to him. ” (RIP, 2004: 36)

At the end of the story, the mystery of who is the father of the baby girl Blokeng remains unanswered. However, at least the author wants to convey the message that even women like Blokeng, who may have mental retardation,

should be able to

treated well. The cowardice of men who impregnate her is a symbol of abuse, especially men, in treating women who are physically and mentally imperfect. The picture of Blokeng’s life who lives alone in the shadow of a pile of garbage until he finally gives birth and is only cared for by nature is proof that many of us still see humans from a material point of view. This proves that AT is good at composing stories with village figures and settings who are able to express various humanitarian problems, such as sincerity, love, honesty, hypocrisy, arbitrariness, oppression, and compulsion. All of this can also be seen in the short stories of RIP, NM, and SMBB.

5. Yuning in short stories BKST When compared with the other four short stories, BKST short stories, which are the last short stories in the collection of short stories RIP, are short stories with a slightly different depiction and theme of the story. This BKST short story tells of women who are no longer “suffering” outwardly, such as Rusmi, Jebris, Minem, and Blokeng. As the character who dominates the storyline, Yuning is depicted as the adopted son of the former regent. One time he was involved in a very great debate with the Linguistics Program of the Language and Literature Department of UNJ,

the 2015 Language and Literature Seminar.

his father, Raden Barnas Rahadikusuma. The father wanted Yuning together with her husband Koswara to live in a small house nearby. However, Yuning turned out to reject it. She prefers to accompany her husband to raise pigs in a fairly remote area. Yuning’s refusal led to deep regret because two days after the incident his father passed away. In Yuning’s mind, feelings of guilt haunt him a lot. He feels like a person who doesn’t know anything in return. What should be done is how to make the hearts of his parents who raised him with all the abundant affection. In AT’s mind, Yuning’s image choosing to live with her husband over her parents is something that cannot be blamed.

“Yes, Yuning is married. She looks settled with her husband. You yourself always tell Yuning that a wife must be obedient to her husband. You yourself, as well as me, often say that for a wife then the husband is anutan. So, when Yuning prefers to stay with her husband in Ciamis, even near the pigsty, she is not wrong. He has followed the teachings we have given him, has he not? ” (RIP, 2004: 61)

Indirectly, in the quote, the author wants to give a discourse that it is fitting that a wife is obedient to her husband. What Yuning did is an example. However, what Yuning’s parents wanted was also a natural thing because they only lived alone. Moreover, Yuning realized that her husband’s reluctance to live close to her in-laws was because Koswara, Yuning’s husband, had been humiliated by her parents. Thus, there is a humanitarian issue that AT also wants to address. This problem found its climax when AT presented a very complicated dialogue and put Yuning in a really difficult choice.

Linguistics Program of Language and Literature Department, UNJ

406

Language and Literature Seminar 2015

407

“Very well, my son. OK. Now instead of this chant getting prolonged then listen. Mom and Dad asked you to stay close to us for a simple reason. We are old and you are the only one we have raised. This is natural and in no way a receipt of favors. On the other hand, your husband cannot part with the pigs in Ciamis. My son Ayuningsih! Answer my question is brief; which side do you choose? Your mother’s father or your husband, answer! ” (RIP, 2004: 52)

What is experienced by Yuning is a manifestation of AT’s thinking that women’s problems do not only happen to those who are marginalized. What is experienced by Yuning is the reality that happens in life that life’s problems can happen to anyone, be it rich or poor. However, Yuning’s problems have placed a woman in a position that often defends men, not the other way around. Yuning’s sacrifice to Koswara also ran into problems because it was suspected that her husband was suspected of having an affair with a female student who was

practicing on a farm.

the pig. As in the previous four short stories, descriptions of complex problems with interesting storytelling techniques are the hallmarks of the AT author as an omniscient narrator and observer. AT can switch roles to enter the dialogues of the characters. In essence, what he expressed was his efforts to make society aware of the existence of women. In addition, AT hopes that the community will have awareness that there are still many problems in the vicinity that must be resolved. What is taught in religion should be manifested in concrete actions, such as our obligations towards orphans who are often neglected.

E. Closing Notes On the basis of the analysis that the author has done and describes, some concluding notes can be taken as follows.

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ Language and Literature

Seminar 2015

1. Broadly speaking, the whole short stories in the collection of short stories written by AT have shown that women are often in a disadvantageous position. They are often treated unfairly, whether intentionally or not. If grouped together, what is told in RIP, NM, SMBB, and Bkg is a picture of marginalized women, while in BKST there are other issues that still show the position of women as parties who do not always benefit. From AT’s point of view, this unfair treatment actually means the opposite. They are women who are actually great and cannot be underestimated by their roles and positions. 2. AT’s short stories do not only contain social colors that are relevant to their time, but also contains a religiosity whose meaning is very worthy of contemplation. This aspect of religiosity can be understood in terms of the educational background and experience of AT, which has always been close to rural life and the pesantren environment. This social color, according to the author’s analysis, is a strong feature of AT’s authorship. 3. The technique and style of AT’s storytelling are conventional. This means that what he said was very easy to capture because what he said was not strange and the results could be put in a realist way. The characters and the selection of the names of figures, such as Rusmi, Jebris, Minem, Blokeng, and Yuning, can be imagined from what kind of social background they are present in the midst of people’s lives with all their problems. Of course, whoever they are, still have to be seen as a fiction of the author that does not need to be traced to the truth in everyday life, including the irregularities in the character of certain figures. What is clear is that these figures represent the world of the author’s ideas whose functions and duties must of course be separated from other possibilities as religious experts or observers of socio-cultural issues. 4. The problems raised by AT should be interpreted that in this life there are still many things we have to do for mutual happiness. At the very least, we should be able to find a way out of our sensitivity to the injustices around us. Moreover, God has also taught guidance to live helping each other through His Word. The real harmonization in the demands of religion should really including the peculiarities of certain figures. What is clear is that these figures represent the world of the author’s ideas whose functions and duties must of course be separated from other possibilities as religious experts or observers of socio-cultural issues. 4. The problems raised by AT should be interpreted that in this life there are still many things we have to do for mutual happiness. At the very least, we should be able to find a way out of our sensitivity to the injustices around us. Moreover, God has also taught guidance to live helping each other through His Word. The real harmonization in the demands of religion should really including the peculiarities of certain figures. What is clear is that these figures represent the world of the author’s ideas whose functions and duties must of course be separated from other possibilities as religious experts or observers of socio-cultural issues. 4. The problems raised by AT should be interpreted that in this life there are still many things we have to do for mutual happiness. At the very least, we should be able to find a way out of our sensitivity to the injustices around us. Moreover, God has also taught guidance to live helping each other through His Word. The real harmonization in the demands of religion should really these figures have represented the world of ideas of authors whose functions and duties must of course be separated from other possibilities as religious experts or observers of socio-cultural issues. 4. The problems raised by AT should be interpreted that in this life there are still many things we have to do for mutual happiness. At the very least, we should be able to find a way out of our sensitivity to the injustices around us. Moreover, God has also taught guidance to live helping each other through His Word. The real harmonization in the demands of religion should really these figures have represented the world of ideas of authors whose functions and duties must of course be separated from other possibilities as religious experts or observers of socio-cultural issues. 4. The problems raised by AT should be interpreted that in this life there are still many things we have to do for mutual happiness. At the very least, we should be able to find a way out of our sensitivity to the injustices around us. Moreover, God has also taught guidance to live helping each other through His Word. The real harmonization in the demands of religion should really The problems raised by AT should be interpreted that in this life there are still many things we have to do for mutual happiness. At the very least, we should be able to find a way out of our sensitivity to the injustices around us. Moreover, God has also taught guidance to live helping each other through His Word. The real harmonization in the demands of religion should really The problems raised by AT should be interpreted that in this life there are still many things we have to do for mutual happiness. At the very least, we should be able to find a way out of our sensitivity to the injustices around us. Moreover, God has also taught guidance to live helping each other through His Word. The real harmonization in the demands of religion should really

UKM Linguistics Program Department of Language and Literature UNJ

408

Language and Literature Seminar 2015 is

truly created in community life, including balanced treatment of women.

Abrams reference, MH 1979. The Mirror and The Lamp: Romantic Theory and The Critical Tradition. USA: Oxford University Press. Generous, Taufik. (ed). 1990. “Review of Ronggeng Dukuh Paruk Novel: A Sociological Approach” in Around Literary Problems: Some Principles and Development Models. Malang: YES 3. Endraswara, Suwardi. 2003. Literary Research Methodology: Epistemology, Models, Theory, and Applications. Yogyakarta: Widyatama Library. Kutha Ratna, Nyoman. 2004. Theory, Methods, and Techniques of Literary Research. Yogyakarta: Student Library. Indonesian media. 2004. “Ahmad Tohari: Consistently Raising Conflict of Outsiders”. Jakarta (Maestro Metro TV rubric): Media Indonesia, Sunday, July 11, 2004. Pradopo, Rachmat Djoko. 2003. Some Literary Theory, Method of Criticism, and Its Application. Yogyakarta: Student Library. ______________________. Without years. “Semiotics: Theory, Methods, and Its Application in Literary Meaning” (lecture material). Yogyakarta: Literature Studies, Graduate Program of Gadjah Mada University. Rampan, Korrie Layun. “Around Ronggeng Dukuh Paruk” in Buana News. Suara Merdeka. 2002. “In Talks: If the President Wants to Read Literature”. Semarang: Suara Merdeka, Sunday, March 17, 2002.

Tohari, Ahmad. 2004. Rusmi wants to go home (collection of short stories). Yogyakarta: Mahatari.

Yudiono KS 2003. Ahmad Tohari: Work and His World. Jakarta: Grasindo.

Yunus, Umar. 1985. Literary Reception: An Introduction. Jakarta: Pustaka Jaya.

Linguistics Program of Language and Literature Department, UNJ

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

error: Content is protected !!