COMPUTER AID TEACHING AND LEARNING
There is no denying that the variety of delivery methods during the teaching and learning process is able to provide local motivation to students on the teaching (Moores, 1987). The use of traditional methods such as “chalk and talk” is now becoming less relevant. This issue is often used as a topic of conversation among education administrators in an effort to uphold the quality of teaching and learning in a school. The implementation of the New Primary School Curriculum (KBSR) in 1982 and followed by the implementation of the Integrated Secondary School Curriculum (KBSM) in 1988 has emphasized on the teaching and learning process that prioritizes student activities. In short the concept of teaching and learning is no longer from teacher to student, but student to teacher and student to student.
In this case the use of several teaching and learning instruments is also increasing. In this case, the role of computers is now said to dominate the teaching and learning system. Why is this? This is all due to the concept of the computer itself which can provide many choices to its users such as the use of video, audio, graphics, sound and so on.
The government’s call, especially the Ministry of Education Malaysia (MOE) in empowering the use of this computer as a teaching medium actually began to appear in January 1999, when the MOE introduced the concept of Smart Schools. The government under the Ministry of Education Malaysia has provided computer facilities in the process of creating Smart Schools. In 2005 as many as 90% of schools nationwide were provided with computer facilities. A total of 5,037 schools have and there are 5,026 server units installed in schools nationwide in computer labs, a total of 133,724 units of computers have been supplied in schools including rural schools.
Teaching Computer-assisted learning (PPBK) has become an important part of the teaching and learning process. This is because the planned use of PPBK will produce effective, active and quality learning. In schools in our country, this PPBK software is usually supplied by the Ministry of Education Malaysia through the Education Technology Division. What is meant by PBK. According to Sander (1987), PPBK is a learning situation where students interact and are guided by a computer through a planned learning process to achieve specific learning goals. While Moursund (1980) stated that this PBK is to deliver lessons to students,
In general, this PPBK contains notes, questions and reviews. Computer skills in integrating elements of video, sound, text and graphics to form this software.
This of course carries great meaning in the field of teaching and learning, especially in the field of education. In other words, PPBK refers to the use of authoring tools that combine video media, sound, text, animation and graphics for the purpose of conveying information in a quality and effective way.
In line with the development of globalization, teaching and learning techniques also need innovation. Old or traditional methods need to be replaced with more creative methods. In this regard, the use of PPBK may be among the answers. Indeed, the use of PPBK is suitable for teaching and learning techniques today due to several things as follows: –
(a) Communicating Information
To ensure that the teaching and learning process runs smoothly, the information delivery process must be structured in an orderly and structured manner. The development of PPBK software is designed to ensure that the information to be conveyed meets the curriculum. Where the means and media used to convey information are often relevant to the user. The PPBK built often relies on learning theory, learning strategies, values and critical and creative thinking skills in the information presented.
(b) User Friendly The
use of PPBK in this teaching is said to be user friendly. According to Beattie and Pearson (1990), this PPBK should be user friendly. For example, the user is able to control the software individually without the help of a facilitator. Chua (2002) on the other hand PPBK has information written in a language that is easily understood by users. At the same time, the instructions provided are clear and concise. The position of the command button is also fixed, organized and meets the standards to facilitate the user. As a result, learning will be more interesting and motivated. Features like this will certainly give users the opportunity to shape learning without technical interruptions, confusion and instructional errors.
Use Training also provides training to users. This will rock the user, especially the student measuring and testing his or her understanding and building his or her understanding. Furthermore, this exercise can be a good reinforcement tool for students. In this case, of course, the elements of motivation and thinking skills are included together.
(d) Measuring Student Achievement
In addition, student achievement can also be measured using this PPBK. This can be done through training as well as other aspects. The use of PPBK needs to be seen from the external and spiritual aspects when evaluating student achievement in PPBK.
PPBK Computer Aided Teaching and Methods is another method of teaching and learning nowadays which is becoming a popular method among educators. The use of this PPBK method is in line with the rapid progress, government demands and IT literacy among students. Nowadays, if an educator does not use computers or more clearly multimedia in his teaching and learning, it is a rather strange thing. In fact, there are several teaching methods that can be used by using this PPBK. These include tutorials, tests, games, simulations, and demonstrations. This can be shown in the figure below.
The tutorial is a type of PPBK used for the purpose of presenting new teaching materials which has several structured explanatory steps (Allesi & Trollip, 1991). In this case, the PPBK built will be a tutorial that serves as a tutor in delivering a lesson. In other words, this tutorial method is usually used to convey a fact or explanation about something to students. This method is suitable for use when conveying information and starting a teaching and learning topic. Among the examples of PPBK that can be developed are using MS Word, Power Point, Publisher and Authorware. For example, through the tutorial method, teachers can provide teaching packages such as in the form of presentations (MS Power Point) to explain basic concepts in Mathematics such as basic facts, percentages, fractions and more. Teachers can also prepare questions based on the content of the relevant lessons
Nowadays, the use of computers helps teachers in collecting information and student data. This will also make it easier for teachers to make statistics and calculate their students’ marks. The use of the manual method is still used, but if the total number of students is large, then this method is no longer very suitable. In terms of providing tests to students, the use of this PPBK is very helpful. Teachers can build PPBK using MS Word and can be conducted both online, quizzes and so on. The test using PPBK is very interesting to the students and the main thing is the teacher can quickly check the student’s marks, stage and small range of errors.
Games nowadays seem to have become a “trade-mark” for students, and it is not surprising if they are willing to spend money and time to visit cyberspace. A creative and innovative teacher will take this opportunity to attract students to learn through computer games. Almost all teaching and learning software created incorporates game elements in the content of their design software. This PPBK method is very popular with students. Among the shields developed include “Hang Man” and “Tidy Up”. The Ministry of Education Malaysia (now the Ministry of Education Malaysia) has in the past spent millions of ringgit to develop interactive software in Mathematics and Science subjects that on average have game elements. Exciting games aim to raise the enthusiasm and desire of students to learn. The use of PPBK this game method raises the spirit and desire of students to learn due to its activities in the form of competitions where students will make decisions, according to instructions and rules. Elements of entertainment and fun are included together as students learn a skill in PPBK. It will be able to develop mental skills, logic, knowledge and problem solving. Students will have high motivation to be champions. Problem solving is a type of PPBK that can be combined with game methods to produce a decision to be taken by students. Pupils will definitely make appropriate and accurate choices. The use of PPBK this game method raises the spirit and desire of students to learn due to its activities in the form of competitions where students will make decisions, according to instructions and rules. Elements of entertainment and fun are included together as students learn a skill in PPBK. It will be able to develop mental skills, logic, knowledge and problem solving. Students will have high motivation to be champions. Problem solving is a type of PPBK that can be combined with game methods to produce a decision to be taken by students. Pupils will definitely make appropriate and accurate choices. The use of PPBK this game method raises the spirit and desire of students to learn due to its activities in the form of competitions where students will make decisions, according to instructions and rules. Elements of entertainment and fun are included together as students learn a skill in PPBK. It will be able to develop mental skills, logic, knowledge and problem solving. Students will have high motivation to be champions. Problem solving is a type of PPBK that can be combined with game methods to produce a decision to be taken by students. Pupils will definitely make appropriate and accurate choices.
Thomas & Miligan (2004), has defined simulation as a computer-modeled state and system that contains information on how a state or a system works. Examples are simulations of how volcanic eruptions occur, the orbit of the planets around the sun, landslides, and so on. The use of PPBK through this simulation can provide an opportunity for students to carry out activities such as testing hypotheses and at the same time will enable the student’s understanding in a particular teaching and learning. An example of software that can be used to develop PPBK simulation is Phoenix Simulation Software which is related to science and space simulation.
The demonstration is actually a PPBK method used to show students a procedure to be performed. Through this method, students are able to understand a procedure before doing it in real situations. This demonstration is very suitable to be used to understand a procedure that can not or should not be done in the classroom due to lack of equipment, too complex or that can be dangerous to students. For example, the teacher can show the students more clearly how the process of a recycling is carried out through PowerPoint slides. It is quite difficult to bring students to visit the recycling site and through this PPBK method, students can understand the procedure more clearly
PPBK implementation means how to implement the use of ICT in a planned and appropriate manner to improve process efficiency and R & D effectiveness. Use of ICT thoughtfully, planned and appropriate to the needs of learning:
• able to improve students’ understanding and mastery of lessons
• provide equal learning opportunities to all students of various abilities
• increase student motivation
• enable individualized learning (individualize learning)
• enable students to access information that is difficult to obtain
• enable students to gather the necessary information old or too
expensive to collect
• creates a fun and challenging learning environment
• allows students to try or perform experiments that are difficult, too expensive,
impossible or dangerous to perform in a normal way
• enhances students’ creativity and imagination
• provide opportunities for students to learn effectively with minimal guidance
• improve ICT skills
CONDITIONS TO USE PPBK
To benefit from the use of computers in R & D, the following things need to be considered:
• The use of PPBK should be well planned, not as a diving midwife or as a side activity that has nothing to do
with the curriculum • Teachers must use PPBK in accordance with the requirements of the curriculum or to
support an R & D approach
• There is hardware and software that can be used and appropriate learning activities
UNDERSTANDING MODE-BASED R&D CONCEPT
The mode or approach introduced to implement PPBK is an approach to facilitate teachers to apply a teaching and learning process that involves technology in a more organized manner. The concept of using PPBK can be categorized as:
c) Exploration (Exploratory)
Implementing PPBK is an important matter and requires support and hard work between school leaders, teachers, students, and all parties. Schools have no choice but to accept the changes and phenomena of ICT and teachers need to quickly master the knowledge and skills of ICT to be applied in the teaching and learning process. Therefore, the involvement of school leaders in policy building, ICT development plans, and support for staff development programs is the main thrust. External support and contributions should be seen as an opportunity to strengthen the use of ICT in the teaching and learning process.